Current Retina News and Events | Page 25

Current Retina News and Events, Retina News Articles.
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Gene therapy restores vision to mice with retinal degeneration
Massachusetts General Hospital researchers have used gene therapy to restore useful vision to mice with degeneration of the light-sensing retinal rods and cones, a common cause of human blindness. Their report describes the effects of broadly expressing a light-sensitive protein in other neuronal cells found throughout the retina. (2008-10-16)

Duke team explains a longtime visual puzzler in new way
A team of neuroscientists at Duke University Medical Center has suggested an entirely new way to explain a puzzling visual phenomenon called the flash-lag effect. (2008-10-13)

Sunlight exposure plus low antioxidant levels may place older adults at risk for eye disease
A European study suggests that the combination of low plasma levels of antioxidants and blue light exposure from the sun is associated with certain forms of the eye disease age-related macular degeneration, according to a report in the October issue of Archives of Ophthalmology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. (2008-10-13)

A key mechanism regulating neural stem cell development is uncovered
A research team at the Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal, funded by the Foundation Fighting Blindness - Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, discovered a novel mechanism that regulates how neural stem cells of the retina generate the appropriate cell type at the right time during normal development. These findings, published today in the renowned journal Neuron, could influence the development of future cell replacement therapies for genetic eye diseases that cause blindness. (2008-10-08)

Atomic-resolution views suggest function of enzyme that regulates light-detecting signals in eye
An atomic resolution view of an enzyme found only in the eye is providing clues about how the enzyme is activated. The enzyme, PDE6, is critical to the way light entering the retina is converted into signals to the brain. (2008-10-07)

Genetic finding implicates innate immune system in major cause of blindness
Scientists have identified one of the genes implicated in age-related macular degeneration, the most common cause of blindness in developed countries. (2008-10-07)

Receptor could halt blinding diseases, stop tumor growth, preserve neurons after trauma
Researchers have discovered what promises to be the on-off switch behind several major diseases. In today's Nature Medicine, scientists from Sainte-Justine Hospital Research Center, the Université de Montréal and the Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale in France report how the GPR91 receptor contributes to activate unchecked vascular growth that causes vision loss in common blinding diseases. These findings could also have wide-ranging and positive implications for brain tissue regeneration. (2008-10-06)

Researchers create first model for retina receptors
A team of scientists at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center has created the first genetic research model for a microscopic part of the eye that when missing causes blindness. The research appears in a recent issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry. (2008-09-30)

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience
The following articles are featured in the September 24 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience: (2008-09-23)

A second career for a growth factor receptor: keeping nerve axons on target
Neurons constituting the optic nerve wire up to the brain in a highly dynamic way. Using the mouse visual system, a team of Salk Institute for Biological Studies investigators led by Dennis O'Leary, Ph.D., identified an unanticipated factor that helps keep retinal axons from going astray. (2008-09-11)

Receptor activation protects retina from diabetes destruction
Diabetes can make the beautifully stratified retina look like over-fried bacon. A drug known for it pain-relieving power and believed to stimulate memory appears to prevent this retinal damage that leads to vision loss, researchers say. (2008-09-09)

Safety study indicates gene therapy for blindness improves vision
No significant adverse effects were reported during a safety trial testing gene therapy on three patients with a type of hereditary blindness called Leber congenital amaurosis type 2. In addition, the subjects said the vision in their treated eyes was slightly improved in dim lighting conditions. The study was conducted by the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Florida with support from the National Eye Institute. (2008-09-08)

Keeping an eye on intruders
Electronic fingerprinting, iris scans, and signature recognition software are all becoming commonplace biometrics for user authentication and security. However, they all suffer from one major drawback -- they can be spoofed by a sufficiently sophisticated intruder. Writing in the International Journal of Biometrics, Japanese researchers describe a new approach based on a person's reflexes that could never be copied, forged, or spoofed. (2008-09-04)

August LabBits: A media tip sheet from the MBL in Woods Hole
Research news on a comb jelly invasion; The relationship between vision and zinc; and Regulation of the conch fishery in Massachusetts. (2008-08-12)

Trigger for brain plasticity identified
Researchers have long sought a factor that can trigger the brain's ability to learn -- recapturing the (2008-08-07)

Hyperactive immune resistance brings blindness in old age
Opthalmologists at the University Clinic in Bonn, working in cooperation with researchers from Göttingen, Regensburg and Great Britain, have now, for the first time, demonstrated that in cases of senile blindness the patient's immune resistance is hyperactive throughout his entire body. (2008-07-24)

Protein transports nutrients believed to protect against eye disease
Scientists have identified the protein responsible for transporting nutrients to the eye that are believed to protect against the development of age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of vision loss in elderly Americans. The research sought to illuminate the process by which compounds called lutein and zeaxanthin move from the bloodstream to the eye. (2008-07-16)

Retina transplants show promise in patients with retinal degeneration
Preliminary research shows encouraging results with transplantation of retinal cells in patients with blindness caused by retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, according to a report in the August issue of American Journal of Ophthalmology. (2008-07-10)

Severe retinal hemorrhaging is linked to severe motor vehicle crashes
The severity of retinal hemorrhaging for young children in motor vehicle crashes is closely correlated to the severity of the crash, according to a new study by researchers at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Retinal hemorrhages occur when the blood vessels lining the retina rupture, resulting in bleeding onto the surface of the retina. (2008-06-23)

Perfect vision but blind to light
Mammals have two types of light-sensitive detectors in the retina. Known as rod and cone cells, they are both necessary to picture their environment. However, researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have found that eliminating a third sensor -- cells expressing a photopigment called melanopsin that measures the intensity of incoming light -- makes the circadian clock blind to light, yet leaves normal vision intact. (2008-06-10)

Eating fish and foods with omega-3 fatty acids linked to lower risk of age-related eye disease
Eating fish and other foods high in omega-3 fatty acids is associated with reduced risk of the eye disease age-related macular degeneration, according to a meta-analysis of nine previously published studies in the June issue of Archives of Ophthalmology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. However, the accumulated evidence includes few clinical trials and is insufficient to support the routine consumption of such foods for AMD prevention, the authors note. (2008-06-09)

Circadian math: 1 plus 1 doesn't always equal 2
Like a wristwatch that needs to be wound daily for accurate time-telling, the human circadian system -- the biological cycles that repeat approximately every 24 hours -- requires daily light exposure to the eye's retina to remain synchronized with the solar day. In a new study published in the June issue of Neuroscience Letters, researchers have demonstrated that when it comes to the circadian system, not all light exposure is created equal. (2008-06-06)

Wireless vision implant
About 30 million people around the world have grown legally blind due to retinal diseases. The EPI-RET project has sought for a technical solution for the past twelve years to help these patients. This work has resulted in a unique system -- a fully implantable visual prosthesis. (2008-05-29)

Anti-HIV drugs reduce the cause of some forms of vision loss
A potential new therapeutic use for anti-HIV drugs known as protease inhibitors in limiting the vision loss that often follows retinal detachment has been suggested by researchers studying the effects of the drugs in a mouse model of the condition. (2008-05-22)

Look to the future: New drug reduces one cause of vision loss
In the industrialized world, most diseases that cause vision loss do so by altering the permeability of the blood vessels in the retina of the eye. One recently developed treatment for many of these diseases requires the repeated injection of the drug into the eye. But a new study in mice and rabbits indicates that there might be a more painless and simple approach to reduce blood vessel permeability in the eye. (2008-05-15)

Human vision inadequate for research on bird vision
The most attractive male birds attract more females and as a result are most successful in terms of reproduction. This is the starting point of many studies looking for factors that influence sexual selection in birds. However, is it reasonable to assume that birds see what we see? In a study published in the latest issue of American Naturalist, Uppsala researchers show that our human vision is not an adequate instrument. (2008-05-12)

MicroRNAs appear essential for retinal health
Retinas in newborn mice appear perfectly fine without any help from tiny bits of genetic material called microRNAs except for one thing -- the retinas do not work. (2008-05-07)

NYU researchers ID new class of photoreceptors, pointing to new ways sights and smells are regulated
The identification of a new class of photoreceptors in the retina of fruit flies sheds light on the regulation of the pigments of the eye that confer color vision, researchers at New York University's Center for Developmental Genetics report in a new study. The findings, they write, may also have implications for the regulating of olfactory receptors, which are responsible for the detection of smells, because both types of receptors belong to the same protein family. (2008-04-21)

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience
The following articles are featured in the April 2 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience: Targeting of calcium channels to active zones; Could botulinum toxin be bad foryYou?; The mystery of REM atonia; and Somatostatin receptors that regulate epileptiform activity. (2008-04-01)

Scientists learn what's 'up' with a class of retinal cells in mice
Harvard University researchers have discovered a new type of retinal cell that plays an exclusive and unusual role in mice: detecting upward motion. The cells reflect their function in the physical arrangement of their dendrites, branch-like structures on neuronal cells that form a communicative network with other dendrites and neurons in the brain. (2008-03-27)

Growth hormone found to have new role in development of brain's smell center
Insulin-like growth factor has to date been shown to stimulate the growth and proliferation of cells, and recently was found to affect the shape and growth rate of nerve axons. Now, UC Berkeley neuroscientist John Ngai and colleagues have shown that IGF also controls the direction of axon growth as axons stretch from the nose's odor detectors to the brain's olfactory bulb. Axon guidance represents a new role for IGF in development. (2008-03-26)

Infant formula must contain DHA omega-3 and AA omega-6, say international experts
New recommendations published by international experts in the Journal of Perinatal Medicine state that infant formula should include DHA omega-3 and AA omega-6 to guarantee a correct eye and brain development. (2008-03-26)

NYU scientists set stage for understanding how color vision is processed
New York University biologists have mapped the medulla circuitry in fruit flies, setting the stage for subsequent research on how color vision is processed. The work, which appeared in the journal Current Biology, will allow future scholarship to explore how color vision is processed in the optic lobe of the fruit fly Drosophila, providing a paradigm for more complex systems in vertebrates. (2008-03-25)

Scientists successfully awaken sleeping stem cells
Scientists at Schepens Eye Research Institute have discovered what chemical in the eye triggers the dormant capacity of certain non-neuronal cells to transform into progenitor cells, a stem-like cell that can generate new retinal cells. The discovery, published in the March issue of Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, offers new hope to victims of diseases that harm the retina, such as macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. (2008-03-18)

Role for microRNAs in limb regeneration
In the March 15 issue of G&D, Dr. Kenneth Poss and colleagues reveal that microRNA depletion is a necessary step in tissue regeneration -- a discovery with interesting implications for their use in regenerative medicine. (2008-03-14)

The danger of blindness after ophthalmic surgery
The injection of gas into the eye, as is performed in various ophthalmic surgical procedures, can cause blindness by expanding the eye. This rare but serious problem is described by a team of anesthesiologists and ophthalmologists from the Essen (Germany) University Clinic in the current issue of Deutsches Ärzteblatt International (Dtsch Arztebl Int 2008; 105(6): 108-12). (2008-02-25)

AMD discovery: New hope for treatment of vision loss
Scientists have won a major battle in the fight against age-related macular degeneration, or AMD, a blinding eye disease that affects millions of people. (2008-02-20)

USC and second sight announce European clinical trial for Argus II retinal implant
Artificial retinal implant takes next step by expanding clinical trial. (2008-02-15)

VEGF-B helps nerve cells cheat death without unwanted side effects
The prototypical member of the VEGF family of proteins, VEGF, protects cells in the nervous system from death and degeneration. However, its clinical utility in this regard is limited, because it also induces blood vessel growth, a process known as angiogenesis. However, a new study has revealed that another VEGF family member, VEGF-B, does not have such limitations as it acts as a potent inhibitor of murine retinal cell death while exerting minimal angiogenic effects. (2008-02-07)

Researchers query FDA about updating requirements for drug approval
Scientists and the Food and Drug Administration are discussing how new technologies in ophthalmology, which make it possible to collect better data about experimental treatments, might affect FDA clinical trials requirements. (2008-01-31)

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