Current Signaling Pathway News and Events

Current Signaling Pathway News and Events, Signaling Pathway News Articles.
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The unveiling of a novel mechanism of resistance to immunotherapy targeting HER2
VHIO investigators report how HER2 breast cancer cells adopt a strategy to resist clearance by redirected lymphocytes. Findings evidence that the disruption of interferon-gamma signaling confers resistance to these immunotherapies and promotes disease progression. Reported in Nature Communications, these results could help to potentiate future immune-based strategies and more precisely identify those patients who would be most likely to benefit from them. (2021-02-23)

New insights on how inflammatory molecule contributes to skin and pancreatic cancers
An immune molecule called interleukin-33 can act within a cell's nucleus to stimulate abnormal growth and division, ultimately resulting in cancer. Targeting interleukin-33 in the nucleus may help prevent certain cancers. (2021-02-22)

Hormone helps prevent muscle loss in mice on high fat diets, USC study finds
A new study suggests that a hormone known to prevent weight gain and normalize metabolism can also help maintain healthy muscles in mice. The findings present new possibilities for treating muscle-wasting conditions associated with age, obesity or cancer, according to scientists from the University of Southern California Leonard Davis School of Gerontology. (2021-02-22)

Targeting MAPK4 emerges as a promising therapy for prostate cancer
New research opens the possibility that targeting the enzyme MAPK4 in human prostate cancer might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for this disease that is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. (2021-02-19)

Study reveals a new potential mechanism underlying loss of muscle mass during menopause
A new study conducted in collaboration between the universities of Minnesota (USA) and Jyväskylä (Finland) reveals that estrogen deficiency alters the microRNA signalling in skeletal muscle, which may activate signalling cascades leading to loss of muscle mass. (2021-02-18)

UCLA study finds combination therapy suppresses pancreatic tumor growth in mice
UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers have uncovered a potential new way to target pancreatic tumors that express high intratumoral interferon signaling (IFN). (2021-02-18)

UCI researchers eavesdrop on cellular conversations
An interdisciplinary team of biologists and mathematicians at the University of California, Irvine has developed a new tool to help decipher the language cells use to communicate with one another. In a paper published today in Nature Communications, the researchers introduce CellChat, a computational platform that enables the decoding of signaling molecules that transmit information and commands between the cells that come together to form biological tissues and even entire organs. (2021-02-18)

Genotoxic E. coli 'caught in the act'
Max Planck researchers and their collaborators reveal transformation of colon organoids in vitro. (2021-02-17)

Proton therapy induces biologic response to attack treatment-resistant cancers
Mayo Clinic researchers have developed a novel proton therapy technique to more specifically target cancer cells that resist other forms of treatment. The technique is called LEAP, an acronym for 'biologically enhanced particle therapy.' The findings are published today in Cancer Research, the journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. (2021-02-17)

TB study reveals potential targets to treat and control infection
Researchers at the Southwest National Primate Research Center (SNPRC) at Texas Biomedical Research Institute (Texas Biomed) may have found a new pathway to treat and control tuberculosis (TB), the disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq), a next-generation sequencing technology, scientists were able to further define the mechanisms that lead to TB infection and latency. (2021-02-16)

Cancer research: Targeted elimination of leukemic stem cells
Cancer research in Bern has discovered a further mechanism to combat leukemia: a research team at Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and the University of Bern has succeeded in identifying an important signaling pathway for regulating leukemic stem cells. With this discovery, the researchers are expanding the arsenal of potentially highly effective drugs against leukemia. (2021-02-16)

Fixer-upper: Understanding the DNA repair toolkit to chart cancer evolution
DNA repair pathways exist to correct molecular damage caused by internal and external factors. However, any damage to these pathways can result in the creation of tumors and specific types of cancers. A group of scientists from China have conducted an extensive investigation into the relationship of DNA repair pathways with cancer evolution. Their review, been published in Cancer Biology & Medicine, also shed light on the potential treatment applications of these mechanisms. (2021-02-16)

Researchers find parallels in spread of brain cancer in mammals, zebrafish
Virginia Tech scientists have identified a new zebrafish model that could help advance glioblastoma multiforme research. Glioblastoma is an aggressive form of primary brain tumor - fewer than one in 20 patients survive five years after diagnosis. (2021-02-11)

Cell biology - Overseers of cell death
A new study shows that proteins called IAPs, which can trigger programmed cell death, are inhibited by a specific chemical modification, and reveals that they play a wider role in protein quality control than previously assumed. (2021-02-10)

The science of siestas: New research reveals the genetic basis for daytime napping
Researchers identified 123 regions in the human genome that are associated with daytime napping and three distinct mechanisms that promote napping. Many napping-related genes also regulate other aspects of sleep. (2021-02-10)

Oncotarget: Combination of copanlisib with cetuximab improves tumor response
''These data support further investigation of PI3K inhibition in HNSCC and suggests gene expression patterns associated with PI3K signaling'' (2021-02-10)

A novel approach to determine how carcinogenic bacteria find their targets
The gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonize the stomachs of the majority of the world's population. Although most people may never experience major complications due to the pathogen, H. pylori infections increase the risk of certain types of gastric cancer, as well as other illnesses such as peptic ulcers and gastritis. (2021-02-10)

New "molecular" tool helps shed light on individual synapses in brain cells
Optogenetics, or genetically engineering neurons to respond to light, is an important technique for studying how neurons work. However, manipulating individual synapses (gaps between neurons), where signaling transmission occurs, has been challenging until now. Researchers at National Institute of Physiological Sciences, Japan, have now generated a light-activated signaling protein that can help study signaling-related physiological changes in single neurons--a breakthrough that will be valuable for neuroscience. (2021-02-09)

Identification of three genes that determine the stemness of gastric tissue stem cells
Tissue stem cells can self-renew and differentiate, supplying cells necessary for tissues at various developmental stages. However, detailed analysis in vivo is difficult, so the molecular mechanisms underlying the stemness of gastric tissue stem cells have remained a mystery. Here, by using organoids that mimic tissue structure and function in vivo and GeCKO screening to inactivate arbitrary genes, Alk, Bclaf3 and Prkra have been identified as genes regulating stemness. (2021-02-08)

Meet the Smurfs: A bone metabolism family
Researchers from Osaka University and Ehime University have found that protein Smurf2 can regulate a cellular pathway that affects bone metabolism. Smurf2 can mark certain messenger proteins--specifically those that are part of the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway--for destruction to prevent the signals from going out of control. The BMP-induced bone in mice without Smurf2 had higher mass and formation rates. These findings improve our understanding of various bone defects. (2021-02-08)

Ophiura from Russky Island might make photodynamic therapy more affordable
An unusual biologically active porphyrin compound was isolated from seabed dweller Ophiura sarsii. The substance might be used as an affordable light-sensitive drug for innovative photodynamic therapy and for targeted treatment of triple-negative breast cancer and some other cancers. Researchers from the School of Biomedicine of Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) and the University of Geneva reported the findings in Marine Drugs. (2021-02-08)

Technion researchers discover new pathway for attacking cancer cells
The folate cycle is a process essential to DNA and RNA production. As a result, it is highly important to both cancer cells and healthy cells. Because DNA production is a critical stage in cell division, and thus in tumor growth, the folate cycle is a common target for chemotherapy. However, for the very same reason, there are significant side effects to attacking it. (2021-02-05)

Aging-US: Sulforaphane promotes C. elegans longevity and healthspan
'The results in this Aging-US research output, indicate that sulforaphane prolongs the lifespan and healthspan of C. elegans through insulin/IGF-1 signaling.' (2021-02-03)

Moffitt researchers discover mechanism that regulates anti-tumor activity of immune cells
In a new article published in Nature, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers demonstrate why some ovarian cancer patients evolve better than others and suggest possible approaches to improve patient outcomes. (2021-02-03)

Stopping intestinal bacteria in their tracks
POSTECH Professor Seung-Woo Lee's research team identifies the mechanism behind the differentiation of intestinal epithelial lymphocytes. (2021-02-03)

Unraveling the mystery of Gao, a protein implicated in movement disorders
Scientists at Scripps Research have clarified the workings of a mysterious protein called Gao, which is one of the most abundant proteins in the brain and, when mutated, causes severe movement disorders. (2021-02-02)

Oncotarget: The pro-apoptotic actions of 2-methoxyestradiol against ovarian cancer
The objective of this Oncotarget study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of actions of 2MeOE2, a known microtubule disrupting agent, in inducing apoptosis in ovarian tumors (2021-02-01)

Study finds potential therapeutic targets to inhibit colorectal cancer progression
Nagoya University researchers and colleagues have revealed that colorectal cancer tissues contain at least two types of fibroblasts, namely, cancer-promoting fibroblasts and cancer-restraining fibroblasts, and that the balance between them is largely involved in the progression of colorectal cancer. Their findings suggest that artificially altering the balance between the two types of cells could curb the spread of colorectal cancer tumors, which may become an effective strategy for preventing cancer progression. (2021-01-30)

Scientists spotted RPS-12 protein as a potential target for anti-cancer therapy
Using the developing eye of the fruit fly as a test platform, researchers found that RPS-12 protein overproduction appears to trigger triple-negative breast cancer and possibly some other malignancies. The protein indirectly switches on an important inracellular signaling pathway active while the embryo develops and shut down in healthy cells of adults. Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), the University of Geneva, and the Institute of Protein Research (Russia) scientists addressed the problem in Scientific Reports. (2021-01-29)

Study reveals cause of common Zika virus birth defect
CLEVELAND - Cleveland Clinic researchers have described for the first time how Zika virus (ZIKV) causes one of the most common birth defects associated with prenatal infection, called brain calcification, according to new study findings published in Nature Microbiology. The findings may reveal novel strategies to prevent prenatal ZIKV brain calcification and offer important insights into how calcifications form in other congenital infections. (2021-01-28)

Scientists find key function of molecule in cells crucial for regulating immunity
UNC School of Medicine scientists led by Jenny Ting, PhD, the William Kenan Distinguished Professor of Genetics, and Yisong Wan, PhD, professor of microbiology and immunology, discovered that AIM2 is important for the proper function of regulatory T cells, or Treg cells, and plays a key role in mitigating autoimmune disease. Treg cells are a seminal population of adaptive immune cells that prevents an overzealous immune response, such as those that occurs in autoimmune diseases. (2021-01-28)

Mechanism for how pancreatic cancer evades immunotherapy elucidated
Pancreatic cancer, one of the most lethal of all cancers, is capable of evading attacks by immune cells by changing its microenvironment so that the immune cells suppress, rather than support, an attack on the tumor. The scientists also found that that some of the mediators of this suppressive response, including a protein called STAT1, represent potential therapeutic targets that could be used to reverse this evasion and point to possible treatment opportunities. (2021-01-28)

Toho university scientists find new mechanism to keep cell death pathway suppressed
A research group led by Prof. Hiroyasu Nakano at the Department of Biochemistry, Toho University Faculty of Medicine, identified Mind bomb-2 (MIB2) as an enzyme that ubiquitinates and modifies the protein cFLIP, which plays a central role in suppressing cell death. This finding indicates that ubiquitination of cFLIP by MIB2 plays an essential role in suppressing caspase 8-mediated cell death, suggesting that ubiquitination of cFLIP may be a promising target for development of therapies to control cell death. (2021-01-27)

Scientists discover a new promising target for diabetes treatment
Researchers have discovered a novel and druggable insulin inhibitory receptor, named inceptor. The blocking of inceptor function leads to an increased sensitisation of the insulin signaling pathway in pancreatic beta cells. This might allow protection and regeneration of beta cells for diabetes remission. (2021-01-27)

Metoclopramide inhibits proliferation of leukemia stem cells
A research team at Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and the University of Bern has identified and tested the use of an agent that can effectively inhibit the proliferation of leukemia stem cells. Metoclopramide (MPR), used as an anti-emetic medication, interrupts the unique CD93 signaling pathway that only leukemia stem cells use to proliferate. This opens up a therapeutic approach using MPR to selectively eliminate leukemia stem cells. (2021-01-26)

Ludwig Cancer Research study reveals how certain gut bacteria compromise radiotherapy
A study led by Ludwig Chicago Co-director Ralph Weichselbaum and Yang-Xin Fu of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center has shown how bacteria in the gut can dull the efficacy of radiotherapy, a treatment received by about half of all cancer patients. (2021-01-26)

Aging-US: PAM (PIK3/AKT/mTOR) signaling in glia: potential contributions to brain tumors
'The consideration of aberrant PIK3/AKT/mTOR signaling in glia during aging elucidates several therapeutic opportunities for brain tumors'. (2021-01-25)

Newly discovered subset of brain cells fight inflammation with instructions from the gut
A team led by researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital, has shown that a specific astrocyte sub-population can do the opposite, instead serving a protective, anti-inflammatory function within the brain based on signals regulated by the bacteria that reside in the gut. (2021-01-25)

Exercising muscle combats chronic inflammation on its own
Biomedical engineers at Duke University have demonstrated that human muscle has an innate ability to ward off damaging effects of chronic inflammation when exercised. The discovery was made possible through the use of lab-grown, engineered human muscle, demonstrating the potential power of the first-of-its-kind platform in such research endeavors. (2021-01-22)

Regulating the ribosomal RNA production line
The enzyme that makes RNA from a DNA template is altered to slow the production of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), the most abundant type of RNA within cells, when resources are scarce and the bacteria Escherichia coli needs to slow its growth. (2021-01-22)

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