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Current Signaling Pathway News and Events, Signaling Pathway News Articles.
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How skin begins: New research could improve skin grafts, and more
University of Colorado Boulder researchers have discovered a key mechanism by which skin begins to develop in embryos. (2018-09-13)

Shedding light on 100-year-old cancer mystery
Using genetic and pharmacological means, scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) were surprised to find that blocking LDHA had only a limited impact on melanoma cells, since they were able to redirect energy production. Their results identify an alternative growth pathway driven by a molecule called ATF4, revealing new potential targets for drug development. The study was published today in EMBO Journal. (2018-09-12)

Mitochondria come together to kill cancer cells
Uncovered details of a molecular pathway in cancer cells could lead to improved treatment. (2018-09-12)

Prenatal exposure to cannabis impacts sociability of male offspring only
Taking cannabinoids during pregnancy can cause behavioural and neuronal deficits in adult male offspring, while females remain unaffected, says new research published in eLife. (2018-09-11)

Scientists identified enzyme in milk production as target for novel breast cancer drugs
VCU Massey Cancer Center researchers have identified a protein involved in milk production that stimulates the growth and spread of breast cancer and could ultimately serve as a target for novel therapies to treat breast cancer. (2018-09-11)

New study finds unexpected link between immune cells and male/ female differences
Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) have made a surprising discovery: during fetal development, a particular immune cell seems to play a key role in determining the male or female characteristics of the brain. (2018-09-11)

Binge drinking affects male and female brains differently
Repeated binge drinking activates genes in an area of the brain linked to addiction differently in males and females. Genes associated with hormone signaling and immune function are affected by repeated binge drinking in female mice, whereas genes associated with nerve signaling are affected in the males. These findings have implications for alcohol abuse treatment, emphasizing the importance of considering the sex of patients when developing effective pharmaceutical therapies. (2018-09-10)

What's all the 'excitement' about flight?
A recent study from Prof. Gaiti Hasan's lab has uncovered molecules required in the fruit flies brain that enables flight for long periods of time and helps them locate the fruit bowl in your pantry. One of the key proteins identified in this study is the FMRFa receptor (FMRFaR). The authors describe a role for this receptor in a specific class of neurons in the adult fly brain which helps the fly sustain flight for long periods of time. (2018-09-06)

How our immune system detects broken DNA
Our immune system can detect when our own cells are damaged. This DNA damage can come from a variety of sources, such as the sun's UV rays, chemical agents like cigarette smoke, or from genotoxic drugs used in chemotherapy. The study found that DNA damage can lead to an immune response similar to that observed during viral infection. (2018-09-06)

UCI-led research identifies properties of stem cells that determine cell fate
Researchers from the University of California, Irvine have identified intrinsic cell properties that influence the fate of neural stem cells, affecting what type of brain cell they will form: neurons, astrocytes, or oligodendrocytes. This discovery could give scientists a new way to predict or control the fate of stem cells, improving their use in transplantation therapies. (2018-09-06)

Ovarian cancer: Quick steps to widespread disease
Ovarian cancer cells that interact with cancer-associated fibroblasts can mobilize glycogen as an energy source, leading to proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Blocking glycogen mobilization in cancer cells might reduce tumor spread. (2018-09-06)

Novel epigenetic control found for critical brain proteins in memory strengthening
Researchers have found a mechanism that links epigenetic changes to translational control during fear memory reconsolidation. They report that several particular epigenetic changes in the hippocampus of the rat brain control downstream regulation of translation in brain neurons, acting through a gene called Pten. The downstream target affected by changes in PTEN enzyme levels is the AKT-mTOR pathway, one of the main translation control pathways involved in memory reconsolidation. (2018-09-06)

Scientists identify weak point in deadly eye melanoma
A natural plant compound exploits a newly identified Achilles' heel in a cancer of the eye, uveal melanoma. In human cancer cells growing in the lab, the compound shuts down the overactive signaling that drives uveal melanoma cell growth, according to researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. (2018-09-05)

Mechanism of biological noise cancellation revealed
Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Scientific Reports how a particular biochemical signaling pathway cancels biological noise, ensuring the proper stem cell differentiation during development. The conclusions are based on a combination of mathematical modeling and genetic experiments on fruit flies. (2018-09-04)

New lentivirus-based tool assesses effect of Wnt/ß-Catenin signaling on bone regeneration
Researchers have developed a novel tool for determining the sensitivity of bone healing to inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway and have validated its use in a study of bone regeneration in mice. (2018-09-04)

Body's own 'bomb squad' can help protect against brain tumors
Researchers have discovered how a molecule can help prevent certain types of brain tumors by recognizing and 'disarming' harmful proteins that cause them. (2018-09-04)

Researchers outline game-theory approach to better understand genetics
Principles of game theory offer new ways of understanding genetic behavior, a pair of researchers has concluded in a new analysis. (2018-09-04)

Mutations, drugs drive cancer by blurring growth signals
Genetic mutations in a form of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may drive tumor formation by blurring cells' perception of key growth signals, according to a new laboratory study published Aug. 31, 2018, in Science. The research, led by UC San Francisco researchers, could have important implications for understanding and ultimately targeting the defective mechanisms underlying many human cancers. (2018-08-31)

Dopamine receptor study offers hope for improved treatments with fewer side effects
New work from researchers at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons sheds light on how dopamine receptors signal within cells, opening the door for more targeted -- and more tolerable -- therapeutics to treat an array of neuropsychiatric disorders. (2018-08-31)

Mayo Clinic researchers identify a potential new approach to treat HER2 positive breast cancer
Researchers at Mayo Clinic have identified an important new pathway by which HER2 positive breast cancers grow and have discovered that a dietary supplement called cyclocreatine may block the growth of HER2 positive breast cancer. Their findings were published today in Cell Metabolism. (2018-08-30)

Insulin gives an extra boost to the immune system
The role of insulin as a boost to the immune system to improve its ability to fight infection has been detailed for the first time by Toronto General Hospital Research Institute scientists. (2018-08-30)

UA Cancer Biology graduate student travels ROCKy™ road toward a cure
The Limesand Lab at the University of Arizona is devoted to improving quality of life for head-and-neck cancer survivors, who often suffer from irreversible dry mouth. (2018-08-30)

Inhibiting NF-κB improves heart function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
In an August 24, 2018 article in Nature Communications, investigators at the Medical University of South Carolina and Ohio State University report that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) down-regulates calcium genes, contributing to cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Murine data show cardiomyocyte ablation of NF-κB rescues cardiac function. NF-κB promotes global chromatin landscape changes that repress calcium mobilization in DMD. This mechanism also contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction. (2018-08-30)

New way to break cancer's vicious cycle
This study reveals how some tumors fuel their own growth and how stopping this vicious cycle could lead to new treatments. (2018-08-29)

Dectin-1-mediated pain is critical for the resolution of fungal inflammation
Candidiasis is a painful infection that affects a large number of individuals, occasionally causing severe pain that is solely controlled by resolution of infection. Here, Dectin-1 inhibition was found to block pain during fungal infection. Osaka University researchers found that clodronate, a drug that is currently used for osteoporosis treatment, could suppress severe pain in fungal infection, and that the Dectin-1 pathway could be an important new target for treatment of pain. (2018-08-29)

Treating inflammatory bowel disorder by delivering microRNAs
Osaka University researchers efficiently delivered miRNAs to immune response cells in inflamed intestinal tracts using a super carbonate apatite (sCA), which had been shown to be highly effective in the delivery of nucleic acids to solid tumors, demonstrating the efficacy of sCA in the prevention and treatment of colitis in mice. (2018-08-28)

Protein modifications pointing to cancer
Researchers from the University of Zurich can, for the first time, precisely characterize the protein modification ADP-ribosylation for all proteins in a tissue sample. The changes, which are a typical reaction to stress, provide information about the condition of a cell. Together with the University Hospital Zurich, they are now testing the new method to diagnose and treat cancer. (2018-08-28)

Immune system prioritizes distinct immune responses in infants with flu
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists detail how the immune system strives to protect the lungs of the youngest flu patients. Researchers reported evidence that unconventional T cells play a pivotal role in protecting infants from serious, possibly fatal, flu complications. Rather than fueling inflammation, the unconventional T cells triggered a biochemical cascade that increased levels of a growth hormone essential for repair of lung cells damaged by the infection. (2018-08-28)

A non-canonical strategy may improve cancer radiotherapy
Interactions between radiation therapy and the immune system can improve cancer treatment. The cellular carnage caused by radiation attracts scavengers, such as dendritic cells, that present cancer cell fragments to T cells. This study suggests novel ways to improve treatment by using radiation to boost immunotherapy. (2018-08-28)

Additional inhibitor can help anti-VEGF therapy overcome resistance in deadly brain cancer
Adding another inhibitor to therapies that cut off a tumor's access to blood vessels could be the key to helping those therapies overcome resistance in glioblastoma, a deadly form of brain cancer. (2018-08-27)

How do fruit flies grow legs? Solving a molecular mystery
What do cancer and the growing legs of a fruit fly have in common? They can both be influenced by a single molecule, a protein that tends to call the shots. Present in virtually every creature on the planet, this protein goes by the name Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor protein, or EGFR. Now a team of neuroscientists has figured out how to tease apart the many roles EGFR plays in the body -- challenging conventional wisdom in the process. (2018-08-27)

Metabolic engineering of E. coli for the secretory production of free haem
Researchers of KAIST have defined a novel strategy for the secretory production of free haem using engineered Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains. They utilized the C5 pathway, the optimized downstream pathways, and the haem exporter to construct a recombinant micro-organism producing extracellular haem using fed-batch fermentation. This is the first report to extracellularly produce haem using engineered E. coli. (2018-08-27)

A molecular pit crew responsible for refuelling in signaling cells
Raghu Padinjat's group from the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), Bangalore, has identified a molecular pit crew that helps to refuel signaling cells efficiently. Researchers from the group have shown that three proteins--the enzyme PI4KIIIα (phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα), and two other proteins, Efr3 and TTC7-- are crucial for maintaining levels of the lipid molecule PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate), on the surface membranes of cells, where it is vital for producing molecular messengers during cellular signaling. (2018-08-24)

Prospect of a new treatment for rheumatoid arthritis
An international research group led by Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin has completed testing a new drug to treat rheumatoid arthritis. The drug is effective in patients with moderate to severe forms of the disease who have shown an inadequate response to conventional disease modifying drugs. Results from this research have been published in The Lancet. (2018-08-23)

Integrated analysis finds vulnerabilities to target in a high-risk pediatric tumor
Research from the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital--Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project has revealed new vulnerabilities and leads for treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma (2018-08-23)

Blood vessels instruct brain development
The group of Amparo Acker-Palmer (Buchmann Institute of Molecular Life Sciences and the Institute of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Goethe University) reported in a Research Article in the last issue of the journal Science a novel function of blood vessels in orchestrating the proper development of neuronal cellular networks in the brain. (2018-08-23)

Advanced microscope technology reveals novel side to cell signaling complex
In a study published today in Science, UT Southwestern and Rockefeller University researchers used advanced microscopes to determine at atomic resolution the structure of a molecular complex implicated in birth defects and several cancers. (2018-08-23)

Signaling cascade that repairs damaged nerve cells characterized
Through a study of roundworm nerve cells with severed axons, researchers at Nagoya University showed that a signaling cascade that normally functions in promoting the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells also acts in inducing axon regeneration. The findings shed light on a fundamental feature of nerve repair, which is limited in the central nervous system in humans, and thus could pave the way towards treatments for brain and spinal cord injuries. (2018-08-23)

Found: A destructive mechanism that blocks the brain from knowing when to stop eating
Researchers have uncovered a destructive mechanism at the molecular level that causes a well-known phenomenon associated with obesity: leptin resistance. They found that mice fed a high-fat diet produce an enzyme named MMP-2 that clips receptors for the hormone leptin from the surface of neuronal cells in the hypothalamus. This blocks leptin from binding to its receptors. This in turn keeps the neurons from signaling that your stomach is full and you should stop eating. (2018-08-22)

Fragments of a support structure drive airway abnormalities in asthma
Dhiren Patel and colleagues have found that leftover fragments of the body's support structure for cells can promote inflammation and harmful changes in the airways in a mouse model of asthma. (2018-08-22)

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