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Current Signaling Pathway News and Events, Signaling Pathway News Articles.
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Getting high on worms
Like mammals, parasitic worms have an endocannabinoid system that may help the worm and the hosts it infects survive by reducing pain and inflammation in the host, according to a discovery by an interdisciplinary research team at the University of California, Riverside. The research, done on a mouse model, identifies cell signaling pathways associated with the endocannabinoid system that could be targeted to develop therapeutic treatments aimed at eliminating worm infection or improving infection outcomes. (2018-08-22)

Glycans at the 'I' of the storm in humoral immunity and melanoma progression
Two new studies have unveiled how a peculiar molecule impacts how antibody-producing cells develop and function as well as how normal melanocytes progress to melanoma malignancy. (2018-08-22)

CasPER -- a new method for diversification of enzymes
Scientists have invented a new method that allows for flexible engineering of essential and nonessential enzymes without additional engineering. (2018-08-21)

First in-depth profile of CAR T-cell signals suggests how to improve immunotherapy
CAR T-cell therapy, which reprograms immune cells to fight cancer, has shown great promise in people with some blood cancers who have not responded to other treatments. But the underlying biological pathways enabling anti-cancer responses have not been thoroughly examined. Researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center compared T-cell signaling patterns in two common CAR designs used in the clinic and found differences in speed and intensity of signals. (2018-08-21)

Irony is the new black
New research from the University of Arizona finds that consuming brands ironically is a way to secretly signal our identity or beliefs to people who know us. (2018-08-21)

Thrombospondin-1 as a potential therapeutic target for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms
Researchers centered at the University of Tsukuba and Kansai Medical University in Japan reveal matricellular protein Thrombospondin-1 (Thbs1) contributes to the development of aortic aneurysm in mice and humans.This study reveals that Thbs1 is not only a critical component of mechanotransduction, but also a modulator of elastic fiber organization and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. Thbs1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for treating TAAs. (2018-08-19)

Researchers find pathways that uncover insight into development of lung cancer
Lung cancer results from effects of smoking along with multiple genetic components. A new study conducted at Dartmouth identifies two main pathways for the role of chromosome 15q25.1--a leader in increasing susceptibility to lung cancer--in modifying disease risk. One pathway is implicated in nicotine dependence. The other plays a part in biological processes such as nutrient transfer and immune system function. The findings increase our understanding of lung cancer cause and development. (2018-08-17)

How do plants rest photosynthetic activity at night?
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have identified two proteins that allow plants to respond to changes in surrounding light conditions and thereby make photosynthesis more efficient. (2018-08-16)

NUS study: RUNX proteins act as regulators in DNA repair
A study by researchers from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore (CSI Singapore) at the National University of Singapore has revealed that RUNX proteins are regulators in efficient DNA repair via the Fanconi Anemia (FA) pathway. (2018-08-15)

A molecular switch may serve as new target point for cancer and diabetes therapies
If certain signaling cascades are misregulated, diseases like cancer, obesity and diabetes may occur. A mechanism recently discovered by scientists at the Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) in Berlin and at the University of Geneva has a crucial influence on such signaling cascades and may be an important key for the future development of therapies against these diseases. The results of the study have just been published in the prestigious scientific journal Molecular Cell. (2018-08-15)

Researchers artificially generate immune cells integral to creating cancer vaccines
For the first time, Mount Sinai researchers have identified a way to make large numbers of immune cells that can help prevent cancer reoccurrence, according to a study published in August in Cell Reports. (2018-08-14)

Inching closer to a soft spot in isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis
Researchers comparing clonal strains of the mycobacteria that cause TB, before and after they developed resistance to a first-line drug, found that a single genetic change may not always have identical effects on bacterial fitness. (2018-08-14)

SMURF1 provides targeted approach to preventing cocaine addiction relapse
A class of proteins that has generated significant interest for its potential to treat diseases, has for the first time, been shown to be effective in reducing relapse, or drug-seeking behaviors, in a preclinical study. (2018-08-14)

'Undruggable' cancers slowed by targeting growth signals
As many as 50 percent of human cancer cases -- across a wide variety of tissues -- involve defects in a common cellular growth signaling pathway. These defects have so far defied most attempts to develop targeted therapies. Now researchers at UCSF and Redwood City-based Revolution Medicines Inc. have identified a new strategy for potentially treating intractable cancers by decoupling the entire RAS/MAP Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway from external growth signals. (2018-08-13)

Mechanism of fibrosis development discovered
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an incurable lung disease of unknown origin with limited treatment options. Research suggests that the signaling molecule WNT5A plays a key role in the pathogenic process. Now a group of scientists from Helmholtz Zentrum München working with colleagues from the University of Denver have taken a further step towards uncovering the mechanisms responsible for the development of fibrosis. (2018-08-10)

Findings from Marshall University researcher reveal insights into brain circuitry
New research from a team led by Marshall University scientist W. Christopher Risher, Ph.D., reveals novel molecular insights into how multiple cell types drive the formation and maturation of brain circuits. (2018-08-10)

An ion channel differentiates newborn and mature neurons in the adult brain
Newborn granule cells show high excitability that disappears as the cells mature. Little has been known about the mechanisms that create low excitability in mature cells or how excitability of the newborn granule cells changes over time. Now University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers have described key roles for G protein-mediated signaling and the late maturation of an ion channel during the differentiation of granule cells. Their study is published in The Journal of Neuroscience. (2018-08-10)

Discovery presents treatment hope for Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases
There is new hope for the treatment of Alzheimer's and other neurological diseases following a ground-breaking discovery made by an Australian-Chinese research collaboration. (2018-08-09)

Ketogenic diets may lead to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes
New research published in the Journal of Physiology indicates that ketogenic diets, which are low carbohydrate high fat eating plans that are known to lead to weight loss, may cause an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the early stage of the diet. (2018-08-08)

Enzyme helps build motor that drives neuron death
The process, discovered in the axons of neurons, is implicated in Alzheimer's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and other diseases or injuries to the nervous system. (2018-08-06)

Epigenetic markers of ovarian cancer
Insilico Medicine and its collaborators from Johns Hopkins and Insilico Medicine, used an integrated approach by coupling identification of genome-wide expression patterns in multiple cohorts of primary ovarian cancer samples and normal ovarian surface epithelium with innovative computational analysis of gene expression data, leading to the discovery of novel cancer-specific epigenetically silenced genes. The study reveals 43 genes abnormally methylated in ovarian cancer and identifies methylation of an engulfment gene, GULP1, as a potential biomarker of ovarian cancer. (2018-08-06)

Research shows how hungry bacteria sense nutrients in their environment
University of Leicester research sheds light on how bacteria regulates metabolism which could help to combat infectious diseases including tuberculosis (2018-08-03)

Estrogen therapy may still hold the key to fight specific ER resistant breast cancers
Estrogen treatment promotes apoptotic death in cancer cells through balanced upregulation of liganded and non-liganded pathways of estrogen receptor activation. (2018-08-01)

How chronic infections can outsmart the immune system
Second leading cause of death by parasitic infection, visceral leishmaniasis takes advantage of a mechanism to sustain the infection. Professor Simona Stäger and her team at INRS have shown that damage from chronic inflammation induces the death of white blood cells essential to eliminating the parasite. The findings published in Cell Reports have the potential to lead to treatment and bring to light a phenomenon that may be shared by other chronic infections. (2018-07-31)

DNA repair after CRISPR cutting not at all what people thought
UC Berkeley scientists discovered that a well-known DNA repair pathway, the Fanconi anemia pathway, surprisingly plays a key role in repairing double-strand DNA breaks created by CRISPR-Cas9. It acts as a traffic cop to steer repair to simple end-joining or to patching the cut with new, single-strand DNA. Scientists could potentially tweak proteins involved in the pathway to preferentially steer the outcome toward replacement with DNA, which is important for gene therapy for hereditary diseases. (2018-07-30)

Can scientists leverage mysterious mossy cells for brain disease treatments?
The scientists, who published their work in Neuron, showed that 'mossy cells' in the hippocampus regulate local stem cells to control their production of new neurons, which is important for normal learning and memory, stress response, and mood regulation. Such neurogenesis in the adult brain is disrupted in many common conditions including Alzheimer's disease, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, traumatic brain injury, and some forms of epilepsy. (2018-07-26)

Dr. Jekyll, Mr. Hyde: Study reveals healing mesenchymal cells morph and destroy muscles in models of spinal cord injury, ALS and spinal muscular atrophy
Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP), in collaboration with the Fondazione Santa Lucia IRCCS in Rome, have discovered a new disease-specific role in FAP cells in the development of muscle tissue wasting, indicating a potential new avenue for treating motor neuron diseases including spinal cord injury, ALS and spinal muscular atrophy. (2018-07-26)

Bile acids from the gut could help to treat cocaine abuse
Bile acids that aid fat digestion are also found to reduce the rewarding properties of cocaine use, according to a study publishing on July 26 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by India Reddy, Nicholas Smith, and Robb Flynn of Vanderbilt University, Aurelio Galli of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and colleagues. (2018-07-26)

One gene to rule them all: Regulating eusociality in ants
A single gene associated with insulin signaling likely drove the evolutionary rise of an ant queen's reproductive royalty, researchers suggest. (2018-07-26)

Study show PD-1 role in maintaining stem cell function
At the 96th General Session of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), held in conjunction with the IADR Pan European Regional (PER) Congress, Yao Liu, China Medical University, Taiwan, Province of China gave an oral presentation titled 'PD-1 is Required to Dental Pulp Stem Cell Properties.' (2018-07-25)

Regulation of cell orientation and shape for tissue morphogenesis
A collaborative research group led by Kumamoto University has developed a new control system for regulating the morphology and orientation of cells that constitute animal tissues. (2018-07-24)

'Hijacked' cell response to stress reveals promising drug targets for blood cancer
A signaling pathway that helps promote normal cell growth worsens a form of leukemia by taking control of another pathway better known for protecting cells from biological stress, a new study shows. (2018-07-23)

New findings on intercellular communication
This is a nice example of a rather unexpected discovery: by studying the development of the blood vessels of the brain, researchers at Université libre de Bruxelles have just shed light on a question that was pending for 10 years! They provide a molecular mechanism conferring ligand specificity to Wnt signaling, an ancestral communication pathway present in all vertebrates. Their research is published in Science. (2018-07-20)

Breath tests may allow for earlier detection of pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic cancer carries a very poor prognosis as most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Now a new BJS (British Journal of Surgery) study indicates that breath analyses may help detect pancreatic cancer earlier, when curative treatments may be possible. (2018-07-18)

Convergence of synaptic signals is mediated by a protein critical for learning and memory
Researchers at the Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience demonstrate that PKC is a highly versatile molecule, capable of assimilating many disparate sources of information. Because of this adaptability, the protein is well poised as a mediator of the processes underlying synaptic plasticity and learning. This work represents a substantial advancement in the field, providing integral tools that will enable the disentanglement of complex signaling related to learning and memory. (2018-07-16)

Key social reward circuit in the brain impaired in kids with autism, Stanford study shows
Children with autism have structural and functional abnormalities in the brain circuit that normally makes social interaction feel rewarding, according to a new study from the Stanford University School of Medicine. (2018-07-16)

Study describes enzyme's key role in immune response to Chagas disease parasite
A study shows that the expression of PI3Kγ protein increases during infection by T. cruzi, an essential response in avoiding excessive inflammation and controlling parasitemia. Heart tissue analyses involving human patients who developed cardiopathy in the disease's chronic stage also provided results. The next challenge is to devise treatment for Chagas using molecules capable of modulating the cellular signaling pathway mediated by PI3Kγ. (2018-07-13)

Researchers discover natural product that could lead to new class of commercial herbicide
A team of UCLA engineers and scientists discovered a new and potentially highly effective type of weed killer. This finding could lead to the first new class of commercial herbicides in more than 30 years, an important outcome as weeds continue to develop resistance to current herbicide regimens. (2018-07-13)

Chemicals associated with oxidative stress may be essential to development
Some level of molecules linked to oxidative stress may be essential to health and development, according to new animal studies. (2018-07-12)

International collaboration finds land plant genes in ancient aquatic alga
An international team, which included three University of Maryland researchers, sequenced and analyzed the genome of Chara braunii, a freshwater green alga closely related to land plants. By comparing Chara's genome to multiple land plant genomes, the team was able to identify many important genes that originated in a common ancestor shared by Chara and land plants. (2018-07-12)

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