Current Small Intestine News and Events

Current Small Intestine News and Events, Small Intestine News Articles.
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Organoids grown from bile duct cells repair human livers; may aid liver transplant processes
Organoids grown from bile duct epithelial cells can be used to repair damaged bile ducts in transplanted human livers, researchers report. (2021-02-18)

New potential therapy for Crohn's disease in children
Scientists from the Stanley Manne Children's Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago demonstrated that a nanotherapy reduces intestinal inflammation and shrinks lesions in a rodent model of severe Crohn's disease. (2021-02-17)

Secret to how cholera adapts to temperature revealed
Scientists have discovered an essential protein in cholera-causing bacteria that allows them to adapt to changes in temperature, according to a study published today in eLife. (2021-02-16)

Phages can anticipate bacteria's location and destroy them before they cause an infection
A novel strategy has the potential of becoming a game changer in the fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria that live in hard-to-reach places. (2021-02-09)

Scientists switch on tissue repair in inflammatory bowel disease
Researchers have developed a method that instructs immune system cells to help repair damaged tissue in the intestine. The finding opens the way for more effective treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. (2021-02-08)

Nehandertals' gut microbiota and the bacteria helping our health
Through the study of ancient DNA from 50,000-year-old Neanderthal faecal sediments, an international research group isolated a group of micro-organisms whose characteristics are similar to those of modern Sapiens: such findings can be instrumental to the protection of our gut microbiota (2021-02-05)

Today's stem cell special: Small intestine on a plate!
A team of scientists from Japan have found success in growing small intestinal cells, akin to those found in the human body, from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. The scientists used a procedure they previously developed on embryonic stem cells for this discovery. They claim that the grown cells can be used for laboratory studies focusing on human small intestinal drug transport and metabolism. (2021-02-05)

Study identifies 'Achilles heel' of bacteria linked to Crohn's disease
The discovery of an ''Achilles heel'' in a type of gut bacteria that causes intestinal inflammation in patients with Crohn's disease may lead to more targeted therapies for the difficult to treat disease, according to Weill Cornell Medicine and NewYork-Presbyterian investigators. (2021-02-05)

Stopping intestinal bacteria in their tracks
POSTECH Professor Seung-Woo Lee's research team identifies the mechanism behind the differentiation of intestinal epithelial lymphocytes. (2021-02-03)

Gut microbiota reveals whether drug therapies work in inflammatory bowel diseases
A study recently completed at the University of Helsinki indicates that the gut microbiota of patients suffering from inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders can be used to predict whether they will benefit from expensive therapies. The study also confirms the key role of therapies that have a beneficial effect on the gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases. (2021-01-26)

For some, GI tract may be vulnerable to COVID-19 infection
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that patients with Barrett's esophagus may be vulnerable to coronavirus infection from what they swallow. (2021-01-20)

Scientists reveal mechanism that causes irritable bowel syndrome
KU Leuven researchers have identified the biological mechanism that explains why some people experience abdominal pain when they eat certain foods. The finding paves the way for more efficient treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and other food intolerances. The study, carried out in mice and humans, was published in Nature. (2021-01-13)

UC researcher urges caution using remdesivir to treat COVID-19
Research at the University of Cincinnati, however, contends that this antiviral drug is being used too indiscriminately when treating patients hospitalized with the virus. The study is published in the journal Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology. (2020-12-29)

Protecting against atherosclerosis at the molecular level
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba identified a novel mechanism by which CREB3L3 protects against atherosclerosis. By studying the absence or overexpression of the protein in mice prone to develop atherosclerosis, the researchers demonstrated that the absence of CREB3L3 exacerbates the formation of atherosclerosis, whereby the overexpression protects against atherosclerosis. At the molecular level, CREB3L3 exhibited its protective effects by inhibiting SREBP. This study could help develop a novel molecular target against atherosclerosis. (2020-12-20)

New salmonella proteins discovered
Only one small protein needs to be missing and salmonellae are no longer infectious. This was discovered in a study in which the pathogens were re-analysed using bioinformatics. (2020-12-16)

Patients don't receive recommended follow-up care after weight loss surgery
New research shows that patients don't receive the recommended follow-up care from their GPs after weight loss surgery - potentially leading to serious health consequences. (2020-12-16)

Toxin provides clues to long-term effects of diarrhea caused by E. coli
A study from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has found that a toxin produced by E. coli changes intestinal cells to benefit itself, an ability that could provide a clue to why the bacteria have been linked to nutritional problems such as malnutrition and stunted growth. (2020-12-09)

New fundamental knowledge of the 'abdominal brain'
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have succeeded in mapping the neuron types comprising the enteric nervous system in the intestine of mice. The study, which is published today in the scientific journal Nature Neuroscience, also describes how the different neurons form during fetal development, a process that follows different principles to brain neurons. (2020-12-07)

Vitamin D regulates calcium in intestine differently than previously thought
A Rutgers study has discovered that vitamin D regulates calcium in a section of the intestine that previously was thought not to have played a key role. The findings have important implications on how bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, may disrupt calcium regulation. (2020-12-01)

Black bear gut biome surprisingly simple, scientists say
In recent decades, researchers have found that most mammals' guts are surprisingly complex environments - home to a variety of microbial ecosystems that can profoundly affect an animal's well-being. Scientists have now learned that the bear appears to be an exception, with its gut playing host to a microbial population that varies little across the intestinal tract. (2020-11-30)

Gut-brain axis influences multiple sclerosis
A Basel-led international research team has discovered a connection between the intestinal flora and sites of inflammation in the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. A specific class of immune cell plays a central role in this newly identified gut-brain axis. The discovery could pave the way for new treatments for MS that target the intestinal flora. (2020-11-20)

Gut check: Teff grain boosts stomach microbiome health
Cornell University food scientists confirm that the grain teff helps the stomach and enhances the nutritional value of iron and zinc, according to a new modeling method. (2020-11-13)

Why protecting the brain against infection takes guts
The brain is uniquely protected against invading bacteria and viruses, but its defence mechanism has long remained a mystery. Now, a study in mice, confirmed in human samples, has shown that the brain has a surprising ally in its protection: the gut. (2020-11-04)

Johns Hopkins Researchers engineer tiny machines that deliver medicine efficiently
Inspired by a parasitic worm that digs its sharp teeth into its host's intestines, Johns Hopkins researchers have designed tiny, star-shaped microdevices that can latch onto intestinal mucosa and release drugs into the body. (2020-11-03)

New evidence shows microbe strain can orally treat systemic inflammation in psoriasis
New data published today shows the first clinical evidence of modulating systemic inflammation by oral delivery of a non-living single strain commensal microbe. (2020-10-29)

Severe form of Inflammatory Bowel Disease linked to a strain of mouth bacteria
Bacteria from the mouth could hold clues to understanding - and potentially treating - severe ulcerative colitis, a painful bowel disease. (2020-10-28)

Multi-mucus barrier segregates colon microbiota from host tissue
Whole-colon imaging in mice has revealed a continuous colonic mucus system, which forms a protective barrier between potentially harmful gut microbiota and host tissue by encapsulating fecal pellets as they form and as they are eliminated from the colon. (2020-10-22)

Gut bacteria could be responsible for side effect of Parkinson's drug
Bacteria in the small intestine can deaminate levodopa, the main drug that is used to treat Parkinson's disease. Bacterial processing of the unabsorbed fractions of the drug results in a metabolite that reduces gut motility. These findings were described in the journal BMC Biology on 20 October by scientists from the University of Groningen. Since the disease is already associated with constipation, processing of the drug by gut bacteria may worsen gastrointestinal complications. (2020-10-19)

Targeting our second brain to fight diabetes
Patrice Cani (UCLouvain) and Claude Knauf (INSERM) have discovered a 'jammer' that blocks communication between the gut and the brain, thus preventing proper regulation of sugar and causing insulin resistance in people with diabetes. They also discovered that a lipid produced by our body helps prevent this dysfunction and regulate sugar level, thus mitigating diabetes and intestinal inflammation. These discoveries, published in the scientific journal GUT, are major, because today one in two Europeans is overweight and one in ten has diabetes. (2020-10-06)

Medical mystery: 'Creeping fat' in Crohn's patients linked to bacteria
Cedars-Sinai researchers might have solved a mystery surrounding Crohn's disease: Why does fat appear to migrate into patients' small intestines? (2020-09-30)

Genetic testing cost effective for newly diagnosed GIST
UC San Diego School of Medicine researchers reported that genetic testing is cost-effective and beneficial for newly diagnosed patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), a rare type of cancer. (2020-09-28)

New insights into colorectal cancer: Growth factor R-spondin suppresses tumor growth
R-spondin, which enhances the growth of healthy cells in the gut, suppresses the growth of intestinal adenoma cells, thus reducing the formation of intestinal tumors. (2020-09-23)

Cincinnati Children's scientists identify hormone that might help treat malabsorption
Scientists at Cincinnati Children's used human intestinal organoids grown from stem cells to discover how our bodies control the absorption of nutrients from the food we eat. They further found that one hormone might be able to reverse a congenital disorder in babies who cannot adequately absorb nutrients and need intravenous feeding to survive. (2020-09-22)

Ribeye-eating pigs demonstrate protein quality for humans
Nearly a decade ago, the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) developed a new index to assess protein quality in foods. The goal, writ large, was to address food security for the world's most vulnerable populations, creating more accurate tools for food assistance programs seeking to provide balanced nutrition. Hans H. Stein at the University of Illinois knew he could help. (2020-09-21)

Princeton researchers discover how worms pass down knowledge through the generations
Princeton researchers Rachel Kaletsky, Rebecca Moore, Coleen Murphy and colleagues have discovered that the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans recognizes a small RNA made by a pathogenic bacterium, and uses that RNA to convey learned avoidance of the bacterium to offspring. Their work appears in the Sept. 9, 2020 issue of Nature. (2020-09-17)

Sampling the gut microbiome with an ingestible pill
Gut microbes affect human health, but there is still much to learn, in part because they're not easy to collect. But researchers now report in ACS Nano that they have developed an ingestible capsule that in rat studies captured bacteria and other biological samples while passing through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (2020-09-09)

Mini-organs could offer treatment hope for children with intestinal failure
Pioneering scientists at the Francis Crick Institute, Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) and UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health (ICH) have grown human intestinal grafts using stem cells from patient tissue that could one day lead to personalised transplants for children with intestinal failure, according to a study published in Nature Medicine. (2020-09-07)

Tag team gut bacteria worsen symptoms of multiple sclerosis
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS) have discovered that a particular combination of microorganisms in the gut can worsen symptoms in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. The study published in the scientific journal Nature shows that two specific gut bacteria enhance the activity of immune cells that attack the body's own brain and spinal cord. (2020-08-26)

Synthetic coating for the GI tract could deliver drugs or aid in digestion
MIT engineers have devised a way to apply a temporary synthetic coating to the lining of the small intestine. This coating could be adapted to deliver drugs, aid in digestion, or prevent nutrients such as glucose from being absorbed. (2020-08-26)

Gastrointestinal innovation holds potential for treating variety of conditions
Proof-of-concept studies in models of lactose intolerance, diabetes and infectious disease demonstrate potential applications. (2020-08-26)

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