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Current Small Intestine News and Events, Small Intestine News Articles.
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Studies of gut microbiota and contractility help deal with chronic constipation
Chronic constipation (CC) remains a serious medical and social problem because the complexity of diagnosis, the lack of a single approach to treatment, and unsatisfactory treatment results. The causes of constipation are varied - from the abnormal anatomical structure of the large intestine and its location in the abdominal cavity to impaired neurohumoral regulation of its motility, endocrine pathology, psychogenic factors, poor nutrition, as well as a combination of these factors. (2020-08-20)

Major weight loss -- whether from surgery or diet -- has same metabolic benefits
A longstanding theory has suggested that gastric bypass surgery may have unique, weight loss-independent effects in treating type 2 diabetes. But new research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis indicates that weight loss after surgery, rather than the surgery itself, drives metabolic improvements, such as the remission of diabetes. (2020-08-19)

Researchers identify enzyme linked to colitis
An enzyme that usually stops bacterial growth in the large intestine stimulates inflammation in some people, resulting in ulcerative colitis - a chronic digestive disease. The gut enzyme lysozyme which normally functions to restrain bacterial growth, instead stimulates inflammation and results in the formation of ulcers and sores. (2020-08-18)

Newly identified gut cells nurture lymph capillaries
IBS research team has identified new subsets of gut connective cells, which are crucial for lymphatic growth.The findings imply a crucial link between the physiology of intestinal environment and biological interactions between cell types. (2020-08-14)

Swallowing this colonoscopy-like bacteria grabber could reveal secrets about your health
Your gut bacteria could say a lot about you, such as why you're diabetic or how you respond to certain drugs. But scientists can see only so much of the gastrointestinal tract to study the role of gut bacteria in your health. Purdue University researchers built a way to swallow a tool that acts like a colonoscopy, except that instead of looking at the colon with a camera, the technology takes samples of bacteria. (2020-08-12)

Newly discovered mutation could point to heart disease therapeutic target
New work identifies a potential therapeutic target for clogged arteries and other health risks that stem from an excess of harmful fats in the bloodstream. The study opens the door for the design of more specific MTP inhibitors that could reduce circulating triglyceride levels without the risk of unpleasant and serious side effects in the intestines and liver. (2020-08-07)

Gut microbes shape our antibodies before we are infected by pathogens
Because the microbiota is so complex, containing hundreds of different bacterial species, it is not known how the presence of microbes in the intestine shaped the antibodies that are present even before we are challenged by an infection. Researchers at the Department for BioMedical Research (DBMR) of the University of Bern and the Inselspital, University Hospital Bern, have now shown how these beneficial microbes reprogram the repertoire of white blood B cells that produce antibodies and how this helps counter infections. (2020-08-05)

Put down that cup of earl gray tea!
Cancer mutations are not necessarily bad actors, in and of themselves. In fact, in certain micro-environments like the gut, these mutations can actually help the body to fight cancer, not spread it. However, if the gut microbiome produces high levels of metabolites, like those found in certain bacteria and antioxidant rich foods like black tea and hot cocoa, then it acts as a particularly hospitable environment to mutated genes and will accelerate the growth of bowel cancers. (2020-07-29)

Viral dark matter exposed: Metagenome database detects phage-derived antibacterial enzyme
In a pioneer study published in Cell Host & Microbe - Researchers at Osaka City University and The Institute for Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, reported intestinal bacterial and viral metagenome information from the fecal samples of 101 healthy Japanese individuals. This analysis, leveraging host bacteria-phage associations, detected phage-derived antibacterial enzymes that control pathobionts. As proof-of-concept, phage-derived endolysins are shown to regulate C. difficile infection in mice. (2020-07-10)

Neonatal exposure to antigens of commensal bacteria promotes broader immune repertoire
Researchers have added fresh evidence that early exposure to vaccine-, bacterial- or microbiota-derived antigens has a dramatic effect on the diversity of antibodies an adult mammal will have to fight future infections by pathogens. This antibody diversity is called the clonal repertoire -- basically different single cells with distinct antibody potential that can multiply into a large clone of cells, all producing that distinct antibody. (2020-07-09)

New clues from fruit flies about the critical role of sex hormones in stem cell control
In one of the first studies addressing the role of sex hormones' impact on stem cells in the gut, scientists outline new insights showing how a steroidal sex hormone, ecdysone, drastically alters the way intestinal stem cells behave, ultimately affecting the overarching structure and function of this critical organ. (2020-07-08)

Location, location, location -- Even gut immune response is site-specific
Researchers at Würzburg University are using mini-organs to model the digestive tract in the laboratory. These so-called organoids provide insights into the inflammatory processes that play a role in diseases such Crohn's and ulcerative colitis. (2020-07-03)

Norovirus has two alternative capsid structures which change before infection
Researchers from the National Institute for Physiological Sciences have discovered that mouse noroviruses have two alternative capsid structures and change from one to the other before infection. The two capsid structures were also identified in human norovirus VLP. The result will accelerate the development of therapeutic drugs and vaccines. (2020-07-03)

Bouillon fortified with a new iron compound could help reduce iron deficiency
Iron fortification of food is a cost-effective method of preventing iron deficiency. But finding iron compounds that are easily absorbed by the intestine without compromising food quality is a major challenge. Now, studies from Chalmers University of Technology, ETH Zurich and Nestlé show that a brand-new iron compound, containing the iron uptake inhibitor phytate and the iron uptake enhancing corn protein hydrolysate, meets the criteria. (2020-06-17)

Vitamin D could help mitigate chemotherapy side effects
New findings by University of South Australia researchers reveal that Vitamin D could potentially mitigate chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis and provide relief to cancer patients. (2020-06-17)

Researchers uncover drivers of healthy gut maintenance
Researchers at the Francis Crick Institute have found two genes that regulate the differentiation of stem cells in the small intestine, offering valuable insight into how the body develops and maintains a healthy gut. (2020-06-15)

COVID-19 may trigger new diabetes, experts warn
Emerging evidence suggests that COVID-19 may actually trigger the onset of diabetes in healthy people and also cause severe complications of pre-existing diabetes. (2020-06-12)

Deadly bacterial infection in pigs deciphered
New-born piglets often die painfully from infection with an intestinal bacterium. A team of researchers from 3 faculties at the University of Bern has now discovered how the bacterium causes fatal intestinal bleeding. They have thus made a breakthrough in veterinary research. Promising prospects for vaccinations and medications for use in humans too have now opened up. (2020-06-04)

New clues on how lipid emulsions prevent liver disease in preterm babies
New evidence links the microbiome and gut bile acids to lipid emulsion prevention of liver disease in preterm babies. (2020-06-04)

Gut research delves deeper into obesity problems
Serotonin in the gut is considered a regulator of normal gut function and is an important driver of metabolism and metabolic diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Flinders University researchers have found that individual cells producing serotonin in the intestines change under high-fat diet conditions. (2020-06-04)

'Excretion of sugar into stool'? New action of anti-diabetic drug discovered
A research team led by Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine's Professor OGAWA Wataru and Project Associate Professor NOGAMI Munenobu has discovered that metformin, the most widely prescribed anti-diabetic drug, causes sugar to be excreted in the stool. Taking advantage of the new bio-imaging apparatus PET-MRI, they revealed that metformin promotes the excretion of blood sugar from the large intestine into the stool. This is a completely new discovery that was not previously anticipated. (2020-06-03)

New gut-brain link: How gut mucus could help treat brain disorders
Gut bacterial imbalance is linked with many neurological disorders. Now researchers have identified a common thread: changes in gut mucus. It's a new gut-brain connection that opens fresh paths for scientists searching for ways to treat brain disorders by targeting our 'second brain' - the gut. (2020-05-29)

Russian scientists improved the way of treatment of phenylketonuria
A person affected by this disease has to follow a low-protein diet all his life. Otherwise, phenylalanine will accumulate in the body and can lead to severe damage to the central nervous system. (2020-05-21)

Study reveals disparity between fibroblasts of different pancreatic diseases
Fibroblasts present in different pancreatic diseases are genetically distinct and their functions are 'programmed' by the unique environment of each disease, according to new research from the University of Liverpool (UK). (2020-05-18)

Imaging reveals bowel abnormalities in patients with COVID-19
Patients with COVID-19 can have bowel abnormalities, including ischemia, according to a new study published today in the journal Radiology. (2020-05-11)

A drug proves effective in the treatment of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in animals
The medicine, tested on rabbits, reduces complications from the treatment for the disease, a common veterinarian emergency among dogs and horses that stops blood circulation in the intestine. (2020-05-05)

Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infects cells of the intestine
Researchers from the Hubrecht Institute in Utrecht, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, and Maastricht University have found that the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, can infect the cells of the intestine and multiply there. Using state-of-the-art cell culture models of the human intestine, the researchers have successfully propagated the virus in vitro, and monitored the response of the cells to the virus, providing a new cell culture model for the study of COVID-19. (2020-05-01)

Scientists studied the growth rate effect of gut bacteria on degradation of dietary fibers
It is known that approximately 80% of human immune system functions in the gastrointestinal tract. Gut bacteria and their metabolites play a fundamental role in the interaction between gut and other organs. Since the organic acids produced by colon bacteria (acetate, lactate, propionate, succinate and butyrate) activate a number of immune and hormonal processes, the microbiota composed of hundreds of different bacterial species is of vital importance for the normal functioning and health of the human body. (2020-04-28)

New model of the GI tract could speed drug development
MIT engineers have devised a way to speed new drug development by rapidly testing how well they are absorbed in the small intestine. This approach could also help find ways to improve the absorption of existing drugs so they can be taken orally. (2020-04-27)

Cholera studies reveal mechanisms of biofilm formation and hyperinfectivity
Free-swimming cholera bacteria are much less infectious than bacteria in biofilms, aggregates of bacterial cells that form on surfaces. This accounts for the surprising effectiveness of filtering water through cloth, such as a folded sari, which can reduce infections dramatically in places where the disease is endemic, despite the fact that individual cholera bacteria easily pass through such a filter. A new study goes a long way toward explaining the hyperinfectivity of cholera biofilms. (2020-04-20)

A more plant-based diet without stomach troubles: getting rid of FODMAPs with enzymes
A plant-based diet is a good choice for both climate and health. However, many plant-based products, especially legumes, contain FODMAP compounds that are poorly digestible and cause unpleasant intestinal symptoms. A study by VTT and Finnish companies succeeded in breaking down FODMAPs with enzymes and producing new, stomach-friendly plant-based food products. (2020-04-15)

Alzheimer's patients may need dosing changes in medicines prescribed for other conditions
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often prescribed drugs for other conditions -- including diabetes or high blood pressure -- at the same doses as those without dementia. That practice might need to be reexamined in the wake of new mouse studies reported in ACS' Molecular Pharmaceutics. The findings suggest that AD could alter absorption of medications from the digestive tract, so dosages might need to be adjusted for these patients. (2020-04-15)

Crohn's disease: Preserving inflammation-free phases
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that, in most cases, relapses episodically. As of now, there is no cure for this disease. A research group led by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has discovered a marker at a microscopic level, which can be used to identify patients that show a high probability of suffering from an inflammation recurrence in the immediate future. With this insight, therapeutic counter-measures may be employed at an earlier stage. (2020-04-15)

Ludwig MSK study reveals bile metabolite of gut microbes boosts immune cells
A Ludwig Cancer Research study has discovered a novel means by which bacterial colonies in the small intestine support the generation of regulatory T cells--immune cells that suppress autoimmune reactions and inflammation. (2020-04-15)

Study points to evidence of stray dogs as possible origin of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic
University of Ottawa biology professor Xuhua Xia, tracing coronavirus signatures across different species, has proposed that stray dogs -- specifically dog intestines -- may have been the origin of the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. (2020-04-14)

Gut communicates with the entire brain through cross-talking neurons
You know that feeling in your gut? We think of it as an innate intuition that sparks deep in the belly and helps guide our actions, if we let it. It's also a metaphor for what scientists call the 'gut-brain axis,' a biological reality in which the gut and its microbial inhabitants send signals to the brain, and vice versa. (2020-04-02)

Fatty acid in triglycerides proves an effective platform for biological drug delivery
Houston Methodist nanomedicine researchers are studying a new drug delivery system that transports oral medication via triglycerides that could eliminate the need for injections or IV treatments of some biologic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. They're doing this with a diabetes drug that resulted in approximately 25% absorption in mice models, considered very high for an oral drug. The research will appear in Science Advances April 1. (2020-04-01)

Novel bacterial acid tolerance system sheds light on development of antimicrobials
A research team led by Professors XIAN Mo and ZHAO Guang from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) discovered a novel bacterial acid tolerance system, which confers the growth capability to E. coli at pH of 4.2. (2020-03-20)

Loss of protein disturbs intestinal homeostasis and can drive cancer
An international team of researchers from the University of Zurich, the University Hospital Zurich, Heidelberg and Glasgow has identified a novel function for the cell death regulating protein MCL1: It is essential in protecting the intestine against cancer development -- independent of bacterial-driven inflammation. These findings have implications for the use of MCL1 inhibitors, currently being tested for cancer treatment. (2020-03-18)

Solving the riddle of superbug toxin damage to gut
A powerful Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI) collaboration has revealed that a bacterial superbug can prevent stem cells in the gut from carrying out their vital role of regenerating the inner lining of the intestine. (2020-03-16)

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