Current Soil Erosion News and Events | Page 25

Current Soil Erosion News and Events, Soil Erosion News Articles.
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Continental interiors may not be as tectonically stable as geologists think
A University of Illinois-led team has identified unexpected geophysical signals underneath tectonically stable interiors of South America and Africa. The data suggest that geologic activity within stable portions of Earth's uppermost layer may have occurred more recently than previously believed. The findings, published in Nature Geoscience, challenge some of today's leading theories regarding plate tectonics. (2018-02-19)

Study sheds light on how plants get their nitrogen fix
Legumes are widely-consumed plants that use soil bacteria to obtain nitrogen through root nodulation. The process is energetically costly, and so legumes inhibit nodulation when soil nitrate is available. However, the mechanism that drives this inhibition is unknown. Researchers at the University of Tsukuba found that NRSYM1 is responsible for inhibiting nodulation in the presence of nitrate, and acts by directly regulating gene expression. The findings may aid agricultural efforts to improve the crop efficiency of legumes. (2018-02-16)

Cover crops in nitrogen's circle of life
A circle of life-and nitrogen-is playing out in farms across the United States. And researchers are trying to get the timing right. The goal is to time nutrient release from cover crops to better match the nutrient needs of specific cash crops. (2018-02-14)

Improved prediction of pesticide residues
The use of pesticides can lead to a build-up of toxic and ecologically harmful residues in the soil. Until recently, it was not possible to ascertain in detail to which pesticides this applies and to what extent. Now, researchers from the UFZ and the Technical University of Denmark, have developed a model which allows the formation of potentially toxic residues to be more accurately predicted. (2018-02-13)

World's biggest city database shines light on our increasingly urbanized planet
The world's largest data platform on cities, launched by the Joint Research Centre, the European Commission's science and knowledge service, reveals the planet is even more urbanized than we thought. (2018-02-13)

Organic food provides significant environmental benefits to plant-rich diets
A study of the diets of 34,000 people confirms that a diet high in fruit and vegetables is better for the planet than one high in animal products. The study also finds that organic food provides significant, additional climate benefits for plant-based diets, but not for diets with only moderate contribution from plant products. This is the first-ever study to look at the environmental impacts of both food choices and farm production systems. (2018-02-09)

Small gold mines in Senegal create high mercury contamination
A Duke-led study has found high levels of mercury and methylmercury in soils, sediments and rivers near artisanal gold mines in Senegal. Nearly every sample collected from four mining villages contained mercury levels at least ten times higher than World Health Organization and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. (2018-02-09)

Termites' unique gut 'factory' key to global domination
Termites have achieved ecological dominance and now some ingredients for their success have been determined to lie in their unique gut microbiome 'factories' -- which enable the creatures to eat wood and other material relatively free of competition. New research shows the majority of termite gut microorganisms is not found in any other animals and that they are not only inherited from parents but are also shared across colonies and among distantly related termite species. (2018-02-08)

An underestimated threat: Land-based pollution with microplastics
Tiny plastic particles also present a threat to creatures on land and may have damaging effects similar or even more problematic than in our oceans. Researchers from the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) and their Berlin colleagues warn: the impact of microplastics in soils, sediments and the freshwaters could have a long-term negative effect on terrestrial ecosystems throughout the world. (2018-02-05)

UTIA research examines long-term economic impact of cover crops
A team of researchers from the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture examined data from the past 29 years to determine whether it is profitable to include cover crops in an erosion management strategy. They found that while cover crops can cut into profitability over the short term, there are a number of benefits over long-term adoption. (2018-02-05)

New insight into the molecular weapons of the plant microbiome
In a study published in the Feb. 2 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry, researchers at McMaster University in Canada pinpointed the identity of a toxin used by a soil-dwelling bacterium that protects plants from disease. (2018-02-05)

Soil characteristics may be related to chronic wasting disease persistence, study finds
Deer infected with chronic wasting disease are doomed to a slow and certain death, eventually wasting away as they lose the ability to eat and drink. There is no cure and no vaccine, and the number of infected deer continues to rise every year. But University of Illinois scientists recently published a new study that could help explain the movement of the disease across the landscape. (2018-02-05)

Ecuador: Deforestation destroys more dry forest than climate change
Tropical forests worldwide are at risk. Two of the main threats are the deforestation for arable land and climate change. Scientists from Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Thünen-Institute compared the losses due to deforestation with those that would result in extreme climate change scenarios in Ecuador. Although global warming is likely to change the distribution of species, deforestation will result in the loss of more dry forests than predicted by climate change damage. (2018-02-02)

Agroforestry systems may play vital role in mitigating climate change
Agroforestry could play an important role in mitigating climate change because it sequesters more atmospheric carbon in plant parts and soil than conventional farming, according to Penn State researchers. (2018-02-01)

Changing landscape means some Arctic ponds may potentially be a significant source of carbon emissio
A new Canadian study has found that carbon released by some ponds in the High Arctic could potentially be a hidden source of greenhouse gas emissions. (2018-02-01)

Two-stage gas sensor reports on soil dynamics
A robust two-stage microbial sensor developed at Rice University will help researchers observe gene expression and the bioavailability of nutrients in environments like soil and sediments without disturbing them. (2018-02-01)

New UTSA study examines the causes and consequences of the 2015 Wimberley floods
A new study by Chad Furl, postdoctoral research associate, and Hatim Sharif, professor of civil and environmental engineering at The University of Texas at San Antonio, delves into the 2015 Wimberley, Texas floods that destroyed 350 homes and claimed 13 lives. Furl and Sharif researched the factors that led to the catastrophic flooding and shed light on new ways people in flood-prone areas can protect against future tragedies. (2018-01-29)

Polio labs equipped to study rare tropical diseases
In 1988, the World Health Organization set out to eradicate polio and established a network of 145 labs around the world that are designed to process polio tests. Now, those labs are well-equipped to help tackle neglected tropical diseases, researchers report in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. (2018-01-25)

Drought defence
Just as the microorganisms in our gut are increasingly recognized as important players in human health and behavior, new research from the University of Toronto Mississauga demonstrates that microorganisms are equally critical to the growth and health of plants. For example, plants that are able to recruit particular bacteria to their root microbiomes are much more drought resistant than their fellows, says UTM PhD candidate Connor Fitzpatrick. (2018-01-23)

Scientists find mechanisms to avoid telomere instability found in cancer and aging cells
Researchers from Instituto de Medicina Molecular (iMM) João Lobo Antunes have found that a functional component of telomeres called TERRA has to constantly be kept in check to prevent telomeric and chromosomal instability, one of the underlying anomalies associated with cancer. (2018-01-22)

Swansea University research helps break ground to clean up land
Researchers at Swansea University's Complex Flow Lab have been exploring the intricate shapes that emerge when air is injected into soil. Published in Physical Review Applied, these findings could one day be used to speed up the decontamination of industrial brownfield sites?which the United Kingdom currently has over 400,000 hectares of. (2018-01-22)

Researchers reveal how microbes cope in phosphorus-deficient tropical soil
A team led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has uncovered how certain soil microbes cope in a phosphorus-poor environment to survive in a tropical ecosystem. Their novel approach could be applied in other ecosystems to study various nutrient limitations and inform agriculture and terrestrial biosphere modeling. (2018-01-22)

Root discovery may lead to crops that need less fertilizer
Bean plants that suppress secondary root growth in favor of boosting primary root growth forage greater soil volume to acquire phosphorus, according to Penn State researchers, who say their recent findings have implications for plant breeders and improving crop productivity in nutrient-poor soils. (2018-01-18)

Launch of 'DeWorm3' collection
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is happy to announce the publication of a new collection, 'DeWorm3' on Jan. 18, 2018. (2018-01-18)

Researchers create first global atlas of the bacteria living in your dirt
What lives in your dirt? University of Colorado Boulder researchers are one step closer to finding out after compiling the first global atlas of soil bacterial communities and identifying a group of around 500 key species that are both common and abundant worldwide. (2018-01-18)

A handful of bacteria dominate the Earth's soil globally
An assessment of soils across six continents reveals that very few bacterial taxa are consistently found in soils globally. The work represents the first global atlas of soil bacteria - comparable to atlases of plants and animals that have been available for decades. (2018-01-18)

Bacteria under your feet
In cooperation with Universidad Rey Juan Carlos - URJC An international team of researchers, including ERC grantee Fernando T. Maestre from Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (URJC), pieced together a global atlas of soil bacteria. The study, published today in Science, identifies some five hundred species of dominant bacteria living in soils worldwide. The findings, based on EU-funded research, could open new paths to improve soil fertility and increase agricultural production. (2018-01-18)

Crop failure in the Andes
As co-author of a study published in Global Change Biology, Kenneth Feeley, along with fellow biologist, Richard Tito, a native Quechua Indian from the region and the study's first author, discovered that tough times lie ahead for rural farmers growing the Andes' staple crops -- corn and potatoes. (2018-01-18)

Hazardous contamination found around lead battery recycling plants in 7 African countries
We collected 118 soil samples from seven African countries and analyzed them for lead. Contamination levels ranged up to 14% lead. As the lead battery industry continues to expand, it is expected that the number and size of lead battery recycling plants will increase. There is an immediate need to address ongoing exposures, restrict emissions, and to regulate site closure financing procedures to ensure that we do not leave behind a legacy of lead contamination. (2018-01-17)

Clean and green: A moss that removes lead (Pb) from water
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science (CSRS) in Japan have demonstrated that that moss can be a green alternative for decontaminating polluted water and soil. Published in PLOS One, the study shows that in particular, the moss Funaria hygrometrica tolerates and absorbs an impressive amount of lead (Pb) from water. (2018-01-17)

Are amoebae safe harbors for plague?
Amoebae, single-celled organisms common in soil, water and grade-school science classrooms, may play a key role in the survival and spread of deadly plague bacteria. New Colorado State University research shows that plague bacteria, Yersinia pestis, not only survive, but thrive and replicate once ingested by an amoeba. The discovery could help scientists understand why plague outbreaks can smolder, stay dormant for years, and re-emerge with a vengeance. (2018-01-16)

Scientist's work may provide answer to martian mountain mystery
By seeing which way the wind blows, a University of Texas at Dallas fluid dynamics expert has helped propose a solution to a Martian mountain mystery. Dr. William Anderson, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering, co-authored a paper published in the journal Physical Review E that explains the common Martian phenomenon of a mountain positioned downwind from the center of an ancient meteorite impact zone. (2018-01-11)

Multiple sites rich in water ice found on Mars
Erosion on Mars is exposing deposits of water ice, starting at depths as shallow as one to two meters below the surface and extending 100 meters or more. (2018-01-11)

NASA calculated heavy rainfall leading to California mudslides
Winter rains falling on recently burned ground triggered deadly mudslides in Santa Barbara County, California on Jan. 9. NASA calculated the amount of rain fall between Jan. 8 and 10, 2018 and calculated the potential for landslides. (2018-01-11)

Robotic weeders: to a farm near you?
The future of weeding is here, and it comes in the form of a robot. Specialty crops such as lettuce, broccoli, tomatoes, and onions may be the first to benefit. (2018-01-10)

Changing how we view chlorine in soil
Researchers at Linköping University have studied how combinations of different environmental factors affect the chlorination of organic matter in soils. The results show that the supply of fresh organic compounds, which promote the growth of the microorganisms, increases chlorination. The discovery could mean that chlorine in ecosystems has a different significance than previously believed. (2018-01-10)

Soil freeze-thaw stimulates nitrous oxide emissions from alpine meadows
Soil freeze-thaw is a common natural phenomenon in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, which can not only change the water and heat conditions, and the physical and chemical properties of soil, but also influence greatly the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of greenhouse gases. (2018-01-09)

Dead trees are alive with fungi
So far, little research has been conducted on fungi that live on dead trees, although they are vital to the forest ecology by breaking down dead wood and completing the element cycle between plants and soil. Soil biologists from the UFZ have now discovered that the number of fungus species inhabiting dead trees is 12 times higher than previously thought. Once trees die they are also colonized by different fungal communities depending on their species. (2018-01-09)

In Antarctic dry valleys, early signs of climate change-induced shifts in soil
In a study spanning two decades, a team of researchers found declining numbers of soil fauna, nematodes and other animal species in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, one of the world's driest and coldest deserts. (2018-01-05)

Science for a resilient EU power grid
The Joint Research Centre, the European Commission's science and knowledge service, have analysed 16 earthquakes, 15 space weather events and 20 floods, presenting recommendations on how to improve the resilience of the power grid against these natural hazards. (2018-01-04)

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