Current Space Shuttle News and Events

Current Space Shuttle News and Events, Space Shuttle News Articles.
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Life from Earth could temporarily survive on Mars
German Aerospace Center scientists. The researchers launched these small lifeforms into Earth's stratosphere, which replicates key characteristics of the Martian environment, and found that some microorganisms, in particular spores of black mold, survived the trip. This new way of testing endurance to space travel will be invaluable for understanding the threats and opportunities of microbes in future missions to Mars. (2021-02-22)

Research highlights ways to protect astronaut cardiovascular health from space radiation
In the inky blackness of space an invisible threat is ever present - radiation. It can have a huge array of negative effects on astronaut health, including cardiovascular disease. However, if we are ever to journey to the red planet, we will need to understand and reduce this risk. A new review charts a course through what we know about the cardiovascular risks of space radiation, and the best ways to protect space travelers. (2021-02-12)

Northwestern scholar to talk about science of teams in space at AAAS
Noshir Contractor, along with Leslie DeChurch and NASA researcher Suzanne Bell, developed a computational model that predicts interpersonal conflicts between team members (such as astronauts) with 75-80% accuracy and prescribes interventions to repair their interactions and relationships. (2021-02-10)

Air-guiding in solid-core optical waveguides: A solution for on-chip trace gas spectroscopy
We demonstrate an air-suspended waveguide that exhibits exceptional field delocalization and an external field confinement of 107 %, providing a stronger interaction with the surrounding air than a free-space beam. Operating at mid-infrared wavelengths, the waveguide is an ideal building block of next-generation on-chip sensors for sensitive and specific trace gas detection by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). (2021-02-02)

How do electrons close to Earth reach almost the speed of light?
In the Van Allen radiation belts, electrons can reach almost speed of light. Hayley Allison and Yuri Shprits, German Research Centre for Geosciences, have revealed conditions for such strong accelerations. They had demonstrated in 2020: during solar storm plasma waves play a crucial role. However, it remained unclear why ultra-relativistic electron energies are not achieved in all solar storms. In Science Advances they now show: extreme depletions of the background plasma density are crucial. (2021-02-02)

High-speed holographic fluorescence microscopy system with submicron resolution
The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Tohoku University, Toin University of Yokohama, and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) have succeeded in developing a scanless high-speed holographic fluorescence microscopy system with submicron resolution for a 3D space. The system is based on digital holography. The developed microscopy system has an algorithm to acquire 3D information of fluorescent objects toward scanless 3D measurement in less than 1 millisecond. (2021-01-29)

Microbiome Search Engine 2 helps researchers explore microbiome space
To correlate the newly developed microbiomes with existing data sets, researchers from the Qingdao Institute of BioEnergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and their collaborators developed the Microbiome Search Engine 2 (MSE 2). (2021-01-22)

Compressive fluctuations heat ions in space plasma
New simulations carried out in part on the ATERUI II supercomputer in Japan have found that the reason ions exist at higher temperatures than electrons in space plasma is because they are better able to absorb energy from compressive turbulent fluctuations in the plasma. These finding have important implications for understanding observations of various astronomical objects such as the images of the accretion disk and shadow of the M87 supermassive black hole. (2020-12-18)

International study reveals the effects of COVID-19 on the experience of public transport
A team of European researchers working on a project about public transport as public space have recently completed a study on the perception and use of public transport during the first wave of COVID-19. (2020-12-16)

Fast walking in narrow corridors can increase COVID-19 transmission risk
Simulations have been used to predict droplet dispersal patterns in situations where COVID-19 might be spread and results in Physics of Fluids show the importance of the space shape in modeling how droplets move. The simulations are used to determine flow patterns behind a walking individual in spaces of different shape. The results reveal a higher transmission risk for children in some instances, such as behind quickly moving people in a long narrow hallway. (2020-12-15)

Device mimics life's first steps in outer space
A device developed by scientists at the CY Cergy Paris University and Paris Observatory promises insight into how the building blocks of life form in outer space. In Review of Scientific Instruments, the scientists detail how VENUS -- an acronym of the French phrase ''Vers de Nouvelles Syntheses,'' which means ''toward new syntheses'' -- mimics how molecules come together in the freezing darkness of interstellar space. (2020-12-15)

Novel cathode design significantly improves performance of next-generation battery
A research team at HKUST has proposed a novel cathode design concept for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery that substantially improves the performance of this kind of promising next-generation battery. (2020-12-11)

Spiders in space: without gravity, light becomes key to orientation
Humans have taken spiders into space more than once to study the importance of gravity to their web-building. What originally began as a somewhat unsuccessful PR experiment for high school students has yielded the surprising insight that light plays a larger role in arachnid orientation than previously thought. (2020-12-09)

Study confirms dark coating can reduce satellite reflectivity
Observations conducted by the Murikabushi Telescope of Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory confirmed that dark coating can reduce satellite reflectivity by half. There are concerns that numerous artificial satellites in orbit could impair astronomical observations, but these findings may help alleviate such conditions. (2020-12-08)

RUDN University professor suggested how to clean up space debris
A specialist in spacecraft movement control analyzed the process of placing vehicle stages, boosters, and other space debris into the so-called disposal orbit and suggested cleaning lower orbits up with a spacecraft that has modules with engine units on board. These modules will attach to space debris objects and move them away. As for the geostationary orbit, a preferable way to clean it up would be a towing spacecraft that transports space debris objects into the disposal orbit. (2020-12-02)

Laboratory experiments unravelling the mystery of the Mars moon Phobos
There is no weather in space - but there is weathering: Celestial bodies are bombarded by high energy particles. On the Mars moon Phobos, the situation is complicated: It is hit by particles from the sun, but it is partly shielded by Mars. New experiments explain what is going on, in 2024 a space mission will reach Phobos and check the results. (2020-11-30)

Defects in mitochondria may explain many health problems observed during space travel
Using data collected from a number of different resources, a multidisciplinary team is reporting discovery of a common thread that drives this damage: mitochondrial dysfunction. The researchers used a systems approach to look at widespread alterations affecting biological function. The findings are reported November 25 in the journal Cell. (2020-11-25)

Space worms experiment reveals gravity affects genes
Living at low gravity affects cells at the genetic level, according to a study of worms in space. (2020-11-25)

Space travel can adversely impact energy production in a cell
Studies of both mice and humans who have traveled into space reveal that critical parts of a cell's energy production machinery, the mitochondria, can be made dysfunctional due to changes in gravity, radiation exposure and other factors. These findings are part of an extensive research effort across many scientific disciplines to look at the health effects of travel into space. (2020-11-25)

NSF's National Solar observatory predicts a large sunspot for Thanksgiving
On November 18 scientists from the US National Science Foundation's National Solar Observatory predicted the arrival of a large sunspot just in time for Thanksgiving. Using a special technique called helioseismology, the team has been ''listening'' to changing sound waves from the Sun's interior which beckon the arrival of a large sunspot. (2020-11-24)

Insights in the search for new antibiotics
A collaborative research team from the University of Oklahoma, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Merck & Co. published an opinion article in the journal, Nature Chemical Biology, that addresses the gap in the discovery of new antibiotics. (2020-11-19)

Heat and dust help launch Martian water into space, scientists find
Scientists using an instrument aboard NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN, or MAVEN, spacecraft have discovered that water vapor near the surface of the Red Planet is lofted higher into the atmosphere than anyone expected was possible. (2020-11-13)

Escape from Mars: how water fled the red planet
Mars once had oceans but is now bone-dry, leaving many to wonder how the water was lost. University of Arizona researchers have discovered a surprisingly large amount of water in the upper atmosphere of Mars, where it is rapidly destroyed, explaining part of this Martian mystery. (2020-11-12)

Mining rocks in orbit could aid deep space exploration
The first mining experiments conducted in space could pave the way for new technologies to help humans explore and establish settlements on distant worlds, a study suggests. (2020-11-10)

Russian scientists created a chemical space mapping method and cracked the mystery of Mendeleev number
Scientists from Skoltech puzzled out the physical meaning of the mysterious Mendeleev Numbers and suggested calculating them based on the fundamental properties of atoms. They showed that both MNs and the chemical space built around them were more effective than empirical solutions proposed until then. (2020-11-10)

Seeing dark matter in a new light
A small team of astronomers have found a new way to 'see' the elusive dark matter haloes that surround galaxies, with a new technique 10 times more precise than the previous-best method. The work is published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. (2020-11-06)

RUDN University physicist developed software solution to measure the black holes stability
Even if a black hole can be described with a mathematical model, it doesn't mean it exists in reality. Some theoretical models are unstable: though they can be used to run mathematical calculations, from the point of view of physics they make no sense. A physicist from RUDN University developed an approach to finding such instability regions. (2020-11-05)

Microbial space travel on a molecular scale
Galactic cosmic and solar UV radiation, extreme vacuum, temperature fluctuations: how can microbes exposed to these challenges in space survive? A team around Space Biochemistry group at the University of Vienna investigated how the space-surviving microbes could physically survive the transfer from one celestial body to another. The results are published in the high-impact journal Microbiome. (2020-11-04)

"Fireball" meteorite contains pristine extraterrestrial organic compounds
A fireball meteorite fell onto a frozen lake in Michigan, and since it was quickly collected before getting exposed to liquid water, it gives scientists a glimpse of what space rocks are like when they're still in space. Researchers found that it contains pristine organic compounds that could tell us about the origins of life on Earth. (2020-10-27)

Hidden-symmetry-enforced nexus points of nodal lines in layer-stacked dielectric photonic crystals
The paper reveals that Maxwell's equations can have hidden symmetries induced by the fractional periodicity of the material tensor components and paves the way to finding novel topological degeneracies unique in photonics. The idea is exemplified by an AB-layer-stacked dielectric photonic crystal, where the unique photonic band connectivity leads to a new kind of symmetry-enforced triply degenerate points with exotic spin-1 conical diffractions at the nexuses of two nodal rings and a Kramers-like nodal line (2020-10-20)

Projecting favorable perceptions of space
For anthropologists and other social scientists, the space race in the 1950s served as a period of cultural and technological transformation as well as an opportunity to advance the public good. (2020-10-19)

A controllable membrane to pull carbon dioxide out of exhaust streams
A system developed by chemical engineers at MIT could provide a way of continuously removing carbon dioxide from a stream of waste gases, or even from the air. The key component is an electrochemically assisted membrane whose permeability to gas can be switched on and off at will, using no moving parts and relatively little energy. (2020-10-16)

Australian research shows NASA's James Webb telescopes will reveal hidden galaxies
Simulations show it's possible to distinguish host galaxy from quasars, although still challenging due to the galaxy's small size on the sky. (2020-10-15)

Scientists author papers in Nature Astronomy chronicling legacy of Spitzer space telescope
NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, decommissioned earlier this year, made important discoveries about comets, stars, exoplanets and distant galaxies, leaving a lasting legacy of solar system science. A team of more than a dozen scientists from the US and Europe collaborated on two review papers published in the journal Nature Astronomy inventorying the major discoveries made possible by Spitzer. (2020-10-12)

Sustainable space management at risk under US-centric policies
''Other nations need to speak up, now,'' argue Aaron Boley and Michael Byers in this Policy Forum, in response to U.S. policymakers' attempts to dominate commercial space mining based on a strategic interpretation of international space law. (2020-10-08)

On the trail of causes of radiation events during space flight
Scientists have made significant progress in understanding the sources of radiation events that could impact human space-flight operations. Relativistic Electron Precipitation (REP) events are instances when high energy electrons move through areas of space at significant fractions of the speed of light. These REP events may pose challenges to human spaceflight, specifically during extravehicular activity (EVA). (2020-10-05)

Hubble watches exploding star fade into oblivion
When a star unleashes as much energy in a matter of days as our Sun does in several billion years, you know it's not going to remain visible for long. Like intergalactic paparazzi, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured the quick, fading celebrity status of a supernova, the self-detonation of a star. (2020-10-01)

NASA-NOAA satellite finds wind shear affecting Tropical Storm Lowell
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Eastern North Pacific Ocean and captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Lowell that revealed the storm was dealing with wind shear. (2020-09-24)

Post-Tropical Storm Teddy in NASA Newfoundland nighttime view
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided an infrared image of Post-tropical cyclone Teddy over the province of Newfoundland, Canada in the early morning hours of Sept. 24, 2020. (2020-09-24)

NASA finds Dolphin swimming against wind shear
NASA's Terra satellite provided a visible image of a slightly elongated Tropical Storm Dolphin as it battled wind shear upon its approach to east central Japan. (2020-09-23)

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