Current Spectroscopy News and Events

Current Spectroscopy News and Events, Spectroscopy News Articles.
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Terahertz imaging of graphene paves the way to industrialisation
X-ray scans revolutionised medical treatments by allowing us to see inside humans without surgery. Similarly, terahertz spectroscopy penetrates graphene films allowing scientists to make detailed maps of their electrical quality, without damaging or contaminating the material. The Graphene Flagship brought together researchers from academia and industry to develop and mature this analytical technique, and now a novel measurement tool for graphene characterisation is ready. (2021-02-23)

Fibre-integrated, high-repetition-rate water window soft X-ray source
The generation and characterization of light in the soft X-ray domain of the spectrum play an ever-growing role in advancing fundamental research, life science and industrial applications. To meet the continuous demand for powerful, application-oriented optical tools, scientists from Germany have developed a new laser-driven soft X-ray source with a fibre-integrated setup. The approach establishes a new route toward simple and powerful soft X-ray sources, which will enhance and expand applications of short-wavelength light. (2021-02-22)

Investigating the wave properties of matter with vibrating molecules
The working group led by Prof. Stephan Schiller, Ph.D. from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) has used a novel, high-precision laser spectroscopic experiment to measure the internal vibration of the simplest molecule. This allowed the researchers to investigate the wave character of the motion of atomic nuclei with unprecedented accuracy. They present their findings in the current edition of Nature Physics. (2021-02-18)

Ultrafast electron dynamics in space and time
Often depicted as colourful balloons or clouds, electron orbitals provide information on the whereabouts of electrons in molecules, a bit like fuzzy snapshots. In order to understand the exchange of electrons in chemical reactions, it is not only important to know their spatial distribution but also their motion in time. Scientists from Julich, Marburg, and Graz have now made huge progress in this direction: They successfully recorded orbital images with an extremely high temporal resolution. (2021-02-18)

HKU planetary scientists discover evidence for a reduced atmosphere on ancient Mars
The transition from a reduced planet to an oxidized planet is referred to as the Great Oxidation Event or GOE. This transition was a central part of our planet's evolution, and fundamentally linked to the evolution of life here -- specifically to the prevalence of photosynthesis that produced oxygen. Planetary geologists at HKU have discovered that Mars underwent a great oxygenation event of its own -- billions of years ago, the red planet was not so red. (2021-02-16)

New insight into protein structures that could treat Huntington's disease
In Huntington's disease, a faulty protein aggregates in brain cells and eventually kills them. Such protein aggregates could, in principle, be prevented with a heat shock protein. However, it is not well known how these proteins interact with the Huntington's disease protein. New research by Patrick van der Wel (University of Groningen) and colleagues at the University of Texas has partially resolved the structure of heat shock proteins that bind to such aggregating proteins. (2021-02-12)

Surface effect of electrodes revealed by operando surface science methodology
Super-dense anions together with cations intercalation into the surface region of graphite electrode has been visualized by applying operando surface science methodology over an Al/HOPG planar model device. The observed unusual electrochemical behavior in surface region can be described as the intercalation pseudocapacitor in contrast with the battery process in the bulk. Guided by this distinct surface effect, the capacity can be doubled by using surface-dominant nano-thick graphite electrode. (2021-02-04)

Charge radii of exotic potassium isotopes challenge nuclear structure theory
In nuclear physics so-called magic number are such nuclear proton and/or neutron numbers, for which the nucleus is more stable compared to neighboring isotopes on the nuclear chart. An international research team studied the nuclear charge radii of potassium isotopes. Isotopes were studied by using the collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy technique. The results indicated that the potassium isotope with a neutron number of 32 does not conform with criteria of magic neutron number. The results were published in Nature Physics journal. (2021-02-04)

An innovative and non-destructive strategy to analyse material from Mars
The UPV/EHU's IBeA research group, which includes experts in Raman spectroscopy, is currently analysing meteorites with the aim of developing non-destructive analytical strategies for upcoming explorations of Mars materials by the Perseverance rover, shortly due to arrive at the red planet. The strategies will also be used to examine materials collected by the Rosalind Franklin rover and returned to Earth following the Mars Sample Return mission, scheduled to commence in 2026. (2021-02-03)

Breakthrough for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
Researchers under the leadership of Heping Zeng at East China Normal University in Shanghai recently demonstrated a novel technique: plasma-grating-induced breakdown spectroscopy (GIBS). (2021-01-28)

First direct band gap measurements of wide-gap hydrogen using inelastic X-ray scattering
Utilizing a newly developed state-of-the-art synchrotron technique, a group of scientists led by Dr. Ho-kwang Mao, Director of HPSTAR, conducted the first-ever high-pressure study of the electronic band and gap information of solid hydrogen up to 90 GPa. (2021-01-26)

White turns into (extreme-)ultraviolet
Researchers from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) have developed a new method to modify the spectral width of extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light. By employing a novel phase-matching scheme in four-wave mixing, they could compress the spectral width of the initial broadband light by more than hundred times. The detailed experimental and theoretical results have been published in Nature Photonics. (2021-01-25)

Researchers develop a new approach to detect pancreatic cancer
A protein found commonly in human blood might help with the detection of hard-to-diagnose pancreatic tumours. Researchers at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU), the Alfried Krupp Hospital in Essen and the University of Witten/Herdecke have developed approach using the protein's structure and its function as a proxy for this. In a first study in ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science, the team shows how its method can also be used to differentiate between benign and malignant tumours. (2021-01-20)

Scientists' discovery is paving the way for novel ultrafast quantum computers
Scientists at the Institute of Physics of the University of Tartu have found a way to develop optical quantum computers of a new type. Central to the discovery are rare earth ions that have certain characteristics and can act as quantum bits. These would give quantum computers ultrafast computation speed and better reliability compared to earlier solutions. The University of Tartu researchers Vladimir Hizhnyakov, Vadim Boltrushko, Helle Kaasik and Yurii Orlovskii published the results of their research in the scientific journal Optics Communications. (2021-01-15)

Researchers resolve controversy over energy gap of Van der Waals material
Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements revealed that the energy gap of chromium tribromide is around 0.3 electron volt (eV), which is much smaller than optical measurements, which ranged from 1.68 to 2.1 eV. (2021-01-15)

Spilling the beans on coffee's true identity
People worldwide want their coffee to be both satisfying and reasonably priced. To meet these standards, roasters typically use a blend of two types of beans, arabica and robusta. But, some use more of the cheaper robusta than they acknowledge, as the bean composition is difficult to determine after roasting. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry have developed a new way to assess exactly what's in that cup of joe. (2021-01-13)

Raman spectroscopy shows promise for diagnosing oral cancer
In a new study, researchers show that a light-based analytical technique known as Raman spectroscopy could aid in early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). (2021-01-13)

Mapping out a transient atom
A new experiment provides better understanding of fundamental photo-induced processes with special importance for photocatalysis, photosynthesis and radiation damage (2020-12-22)

Device refines analysis of materials for fuel cells and batteries
Developed at an Engineering Research Center supported by FAPESP, the novel spectroelectrochemical cell can be used to study the behavior of electrolytes and catalysts by means of X-rays and infrared or even visible light. (2020-12-21)

Research brief: Researchers discover new way to deliver DNA-based therapies for diseases
University of Minnesota Twin Cities researchers in the Department of Chemistry have created a new polymer to deliver DNA and RNA-based therapies for diseases. For the first time in the industry, the researchers were able to see exactly how polymers interact with human cells when delivering medicines into the body. This discovery opens the door for more widespread use of polymers in applications like gene therapy and vaccine development. (2020-12-18)

Three-dimensional view of catalysts in action
For understanding the structure and function of catalysts in action, researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), in cooperation with colleagues from the Swiss Light Source SLS of Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, have developed a new diagnostic tool. Operando X-ray spec-troscopy visualizes the structure and gradients of complex technical catalysts in three dimensions, thus allowing us to look into functioning chemical reactors. (2020-12-17)

2D material controls light twice stronger
POSTECH research team identifies second-harmonics generation interference in 2D heterobilayers. (2020-12-17)

How water helps the substrate into the enzyme
Researchers from Bochum and Berkeley have investigated why cages can increase the catalytic activity of enclosed molecules. Using terahertz spectroscopy and complex computer simulations, they showed that water encapsulated in a tiny cage has special properties - that are structurally and dynamically distinct from any known phase of water. The water forms a droplet inside the cage that facilitates the encapsulation of a host molecule, i.e. to access the catalytic centre. (2020-12-15)

High-brightness source of coherent light spanning from the UV to THz
An international team of scientists reports in Nature Photonics on a novel technique for a high-brightness coherent and few-cycle duration source spanning 7 optical octaves from the UV to the THz. (2020-12-14)

Princeton Chem reports role of quantum vibrations in electron transfer
Princeton Chemistry's Scholes Group is reporting evidence that quantum vibrations participate in electron transfer, establishing with ultrafast laser spectroscopy that the vibrations provide channels through which the reaction takes place. Seeking to establish an experimental proof for a highly contested topic - the role of vibrations in processes fundamental to solar energy conversion - Princeton researchers set out to map the progress of a photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reaction. (2020-12-10)

Shining a light on what's really happening in perovskite solar cells
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba used electron spin resonance spectroscopy to follow the internal deterioration mechanism of perovskite solar cells while they were in operation. They showed correlation between changes in the spin states and the performance of the solar cells. It is hoped that the findings will provide a useful starting point for the continued development of perovskite solar cells and ultimately contribute to viable green energy solutions. (2020-12-09)

Within a hair's breadth--forensic identification of single dyed hair strand now possible
A single strand of hair in a crime scene contains many clues that can help identify a perpetrator. In a recent study, scientists at Tokyo University of Science, Japan, have combined two modern techniques, called surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence, to distinguish between different colors in individual hair strands. Both these techniques are almost non-destructive and can be conducted with portable devices, making this a promising way to get supportive evidence in forensic investigations. (2020-12-09)

Magnesium contact ions stabilize the macromolecular structure of transfer RNA
In cells transfer RNA (tRNA) translates genetic information from the encoding messenger RNA (mRNA) for protein synthesis. New results from ultrafast spectroscopy and in-depth theoretical calculations demonstrate that the complex folded structure of tRNA is stabilized by magnesium ions in direct contact with phosphate groups at the RNA surface. (2020-12-09)

Dark excitons hit the spotlight
Heralding the end of a decade-long quest, in a promising new class of extremely thin, two-dimensional semiconductors, scientists in Japan have for the first time directly visualized and measured elusive particles, called dark excitons, that cannot be seen by light. The powerful technique, described in Science, could revolutionize research into two-dimensional semiconductors and excitons, with profound implications for future technological devices, from solar cells and LEDs to smartphones and lasers. (2020-12-03)

Raman holography
Scientists from ICFO and University Rovira i Virgili report on a novel Raman holographic technique capable of tracking individual particles in 3D volumes from one single image. (2020-11-30)

New discovery by SMART allows early detection of shade avoidance syndrome in plants
Researchers from Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) have developed a tool that allows early detection of shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) in plants using Raman spectroscopy in significantly less time compared to conventional methods. The discovery can help farmers better monitor plant health and lead to improved crop yield. (2020-11-25)

Researchers find conformational disorder tuning charge carrier mobility in 2D perovskites
Researchers from the University of Science and Technology of China synthesized a series of 2D organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites films with large organic spacer cations, and found that mobility and broadband emission showed strong dependence on the molecular conformational order of organic cations. (2020-11-23)

Vibrational encounters - phonon polaritons meet molecules
Researchers from CIC nanoGUNE BRTA (San Sebastian, Spain), in collaboration with the Donostia International Physics Center (San Sebastián, Spain) and the University of Oviedo (Spain) employed a spectroscopic nanoimaging technique to study how infrared nanolight - in form of phonon polaritons - and molecular vibrations interact with each other. (2020-11-23)

Looking inside the glass
Scientists at The University of Tokyo used electron spectroscopy to probe the coordination structures formed by the silicon atoms in aluminosilicate glass. This work may lead to innovations in the touchscreen and solar panel sectors. (2020-11-16)

New optical method paves way to breath test for cancer biomarker
Researchers have developed an extremely sensitive, yet simple optical method for detecting formaldehyde in a person's breath. Because formaldehyde is being studied as a potential biomarker for lung and breast cancer, the new method could one day lead to an inexpensive and fast way to screen for cancer. (2020-11-16)

Boosted signal
First introduced into wide use in the middle of the 20th century, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has since become an indispensable technique for examining materials down to their atoms, revealing molecular structure and other details without interfering with the material itself. (2020-11-16)

New technique may revolutionize accuracy and detection of biomechanical alterations of cells
Scientists have developed an optical elastography technique that could revolutionise the accuracy and ease to which health professionals can detect biomechanical alterations of cells and tissues. (2020-11-10)

Perspectives of infrared spectroscopy in quantitative estimation of proteins
The present review describes the basic principle and the instrumentation of IR spectroscopy along with its advancements. Beyond this, various applications of this technique in determination of protein structure and quantification in different materials such as foods stuffs, biotechnological products and biological fluids have also been summarized. (2020-11-06)

Shining a light on the issue of wine fraud
University of Adelaide wine researchers are developing a fast and simple method of authenticating wine - a potential solution against the estimated billions of dollars' worth of wine fraud globally, but also offering a possible means of building regional branding. (2020-11-05)

New remote sensing technique could bring key planetary mineral into focus
The mineral olivine, thought to be a major component inside all planetary bodies, holds secrets about the early formation of the solar system, and a team of Brown University researchers has a new way to study it remotely. (2020-11-02)

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