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In flies, consuming high-sugar diet reduces sensitivity to sweetness
In fruit flies fed a high-sugar diet for one week, a complex that regulates taste-related sensory neurons reprogrammed the neurons to make the flies less sensitive to sweet taste. Half of these changes were not reversed even after the flies returned to a control diet, the study shows, suggesting flies' perception of sweet taste was permanently altered. Anoumid Vaziri and (2020-11-11)

Sweet taste reduces appetite?
To date, very little is known about how sweetness perception contributes to satiety. This study, conducted by an Austrian-German team led by chemists Veronika Somoza and Barbara Lieder, provides new insights into the relationship between the sweet taste of sugar, energy intake and the regulatory process of hunger and satiety. The study was published in the journal 'Nutrients'. (2020-11-10)

Trehalose 6-phosphate promotes seed filling by activating auxin biosynthesis
Plants undergo several developmental transitions during their life cycle. The differentiation of the young embryo from a meristem like structure into a highly specialized storage organ, is believed to be controlled by local connections between sugars and hormonal response systems. By modulating the trehalose 6?phosphate (T6P) content in growing embryos of pea (Pisum sativum), an international research team led by the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) investigated the role of this signaling sugar during the seed?filling process. (2020-11-05)

NIH researchers identify gene in mice that controls food cravings, desire to exercise
National Institutes of Health researchers have discovered a gene in mice that controls the craving for fatty and sugary foods and the desire to exercise. The gene, Prkar2a, is highly expressed in the habenula, a tiny brain region involved in responses to pain, stress, anxiety, sleep and reward. The findings could inform future research to prevent obesity and its accompanying risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. (2020-11-05)

Sugar-coated viral proteins hijack and hitch a ride out of cells
Many viruses - including coronaviruses ¬- have protective outer layer made of proteins, fats and sugars. New research shows targeting sugar production has potential for broad-spectrum antiviral drugs (2020-11-05)

Western diet impairs odor-related learning and olfactory memory in mice
Problems with the sense of smell appear to be an early indicator of cognitive decline in people with type 2 diabetes. However, it's unknown whether factors such as diet and obesity play a role in who develops these symptoms. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Chemical Neuroscience found that mice fed a moderate-fat, high-sugar chow (simulating a Western diet) showed a faster decline in their ability to learn and remember new odors. (2020-11-04)

Brain region tracking food preferences could steer our food choices
Researchers discovered that a specific brain region monitors food preferences as they change across thirsty and quenched states. By targeting neurons in that part of the brain, they were able to shift food choice preferences from a more desired reward (think: chocolate cake) to a less tasty one (think: stale bread). (2020-11-04)

Fungal species naturally suppresses cyst nematodes responsible for major sugar beet losses
In the current study, the authors showed that similar fungi inhabited sugar beet fields in California, suggesting that a group of naturally occurring fungi, given the right conditions, might be able to dramatically reduce nematode populations in one season. (2020-10-29)

High-sugar diet can damage the gut, intensifying risk for colitis
DALLAS - Oct. 28, 2020 - Mice fed diets high in sugar developed worse colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and researchers examining their large intestines found more of the bacteria that can damage the gut's protective mucus layer. (2020-10-28)

People with type 2 diabetes need not avoid eating potatoes based on glycemic index
People with type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are frequently told to avoid eating potatoes, and other high Glycemic Index (GI) foods, because of the longstanding perception that these foods make it difficult to control blood sugar levels. However, for the first time, a rigorously controlled clinical trial, including 24 adults with T2D, demonstrates that GI is not an accurate surrogate for an individual's glycemic response (GR) to a food consumed as part of an evening meal. (2020-10-26)

Wrinkled 'super pea' could be added to foods to reduce diabetes risk
A type of wrinkled 'super pea' may help control blood sugar levels and could reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, suggests a new study. (2020-10-26)

Tel Aviv University researchers discover molecular link between diet and risk of cancer
An international team of researchers has identified a direct molecular link between meat and dairy diets and the development of antibodies in the blood that increase the chances of developing cancer. This connection may explain the high incidence of cancer among those who consume large amounts of dairy products and red meat, similar to the link between high cholesterol and an increased risk of heart disease. (2020-10-22)

Salt-based mosquito-control products are ineffective, study shows
A new study by a bevy of expert mosquito researchers offers an important warning to consumers: Products claiming to reduce mosquito populations with salt-water solutions are ineffective. In a series of lab tests using nine mosquito species, researchers found no evidence that adult mosquitoes are killed by salt ingested at concentrations used in several popular mosquito-control products. The findings are reported in the Journal of Medical Entomology. (2020-10-20)

National laboratories point to sugars as a key factor in ideal feedstock for biofuels
Popular wisdom holds that tall, fast-growing trees are best for biomass, but new research by two US Department of Energy National Laboratories reveals the size of trees is only part of the equation. Of equal economic importance, according to scientists from the US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is the amount of sugars that can be produced from the ligno-cellulosic biomass that can be converted into fuels. (2020-10-20)

Repairing the photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry decipher the molecular mechanism of Rubisco Activase (2020-10-20)

High fructose intake may drive aggressive behaviors, ADHD, bipolar
New research suggests that conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome (ADHD), bipolar disorder, and even aggressive behaviors may be linked with sugar intake, and that it may have an evolutionary basis. (2020-10-16)

Prenatal cannabis exposure linked to cognitive deficits, altered behavior
Regular cannabis exposure in rats during pregnancy may cause their offspring to have long-term cognitive deficiencies, asocial behavior, and anxiety later in adulthood. (2020-10-14)

Scientists discover mosquitoes' unique blood-taste detectors
Scientists aren't sure how mosquitoes sense taste of blood, or how they know that this, of all things, is something to gorge on. Nothing else, not even sweet nectar, makes them pump as ferociously as when they're draining our veins. New research identifies a unique group of neurons that don't care about simple tastes like sweet or salty. Rather, they activate only when sugar, salt, and other components of blood are all present at once. (2020-10-12)

Perforated bone tissue from too little sugar
Bone marrow cancer is currently an incurable disease that affects about 400 people in Norway every year. One Norwegian researcher has now found an important reason for bone destruction in people with this disease. (2020-10-09)

Ants adapt tool use to avoid drowning
Researchers have observed black imported fire ants using sand to draw liquid food out of containers, when faced with the risk of drowning. This is the first time this sophisticated tool use has been reported in animals. These findings are published in the British Ecological Society journal Functional Ecology. (2020-10-08)

Study shows similar antibody response to key SARS-CoV-2 'spike' protein in COVID-19
New research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) shows that antibody responses to related to the key 'spike' protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus are similar in COVID-19 patients with and without diabetes, boosting hopes that vaccines involving this same protein will have a high chance of being as effective in vulnerable patients with diabetes as they will be in the general population. (2020-10-08)

The Lancet Planetary Health: Restricting supermarket promotions of high-sugar food and drinks reduces sales without reducing store profits
Restricting the promotion and merchandising of unhealthy foods and beverages leads to a reduction in their sales, presenting an opportunity to improve people's diets, according to a randomised controlled trial of 20 stores in remote regions of Australia published in The Lancet Planetary Health journal. (2020-10-07)

Targeting our second brain to fight diabetes
Patrice Cani (UCLouvain) and Claude Knauf (INSERM) have discovered a 'jammer' that blocks communication between the gut and the brain, thus preventing proper regulation of sugar and causing insulin resistance in people with diabetes. They also discovered that a lipid produced by our body helps prevent this dysfunction and regulate sugar level, thus mitigating diabetes and intestinal inflammation. These discoveries, published in the scientific journal GUT, are major, because today one in two Europeans is overweight and one in ten has diabetes. (2020-10-06)

Sugary beverages consumed while breastfeeding affects cognitive development in children
New research shows that a high sugar diet during the breastfeeding period can impact developmental outcomes during infancy. (2020-10-06)

Remote control of blood sugar: Electromagnetic fields treat diabetes in animal models
Researchers at the University of Iowa may have discovered a safe new way to manage blood sugar non-invasively. Exposing diabetic mice to a combination of static electric and magnetic fields for a few hours per day normalizes blood sugar and insulin resistance. The unexpected and surprising discovery raises the possibility of using electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as a remote control to manage type 2 diabetes. (2020-10-06)

Enhancing blood sugar control boosts brain health for people with type 2 diabetes
Controlling blood sugar levels improved the ability to clearly think, learn and remember among people with type 2 diabetes who were overweight, a new study shows. But losing weight, especially for people who were obese, and increasing physical activity produced mixed results. (2020-10-02)

Drink coffee after breakfast, not before, for better metabolic control
The new study looked at the combined effects of disrupted sleep and caffeine on our metabolism - with surprising results. (2020-09-30)

Surplus sugar helps whiteflies detoxify plant defenses
When attacking crucifers, the sap-sucking whitefly Bemisia tabaci can activate the chemical defenses of these plants. In a new study, an international team of researchers demonstrated that the pest is able to render a large proportion of the plant toxins harmless by binding surplus sugar to them. The whitefly thus deploys a completely new and until now undescribed detoxification mechanism to defuse the plants' defenses, which could explain the success of this major agricultural pest. (2020-09-28)

Study provides additional support for use of new class of diabetes drugs
A new study led by a cardiologist from Brigham and Women's Hospital has assessed the cardiovascular and renal outcomes for ertugliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor prescribed for patients with type 2 diabetes to help them control blood sugar levels. (2020-09-24)

Your neighborhood may raise your risk of chronic kidney disease
A neighborhood's overall socioeconomic status, including income and education-level, may influence its residents' risk of chronic kidney disease, according to a study recently published in SSM Population Health by researchers from Drexel University's Dornsife School of Public Health. (2020-09-23)

High-intensity interval training combining rowing and cycling improves insulin sensitivity, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in obesity and type 2 diabetes
New research presented at this year's annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) shows that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) combining cycling and rowing markedly improves insulin sensitivity, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in cases of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) (2020-09-23)

COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes: do shared pathways have therapeutic implications?
During a special COVID-19 session at this year's online Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), Prof. Daniel J. Drucker (Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mt. Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada) will present a new review of the latest clinical findings linking diabetes to risk of infection and differential outcomes in people with COVID-19 infection. (2020-09-22)

Study shows that control of blood sugar levels improved among people with type 1 diabetes who stopped working during lockdown
New research presented at this year's annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) shows that among people with type 1 diabetes who stopped working in the COVID-19 lockdown, blood sugar levels improved during the first week of lockdown despite having reduced opportunities for exercise and heightened psychological stress. (2020-09-22)

'Front of package' nutrition labels improved nutrition quality
A new study analyzing 16 years of data on tens of thousands of products finds that the adoption of nutrition data on ''front of package'' labels is associated with improved nutritional content of those foods and their competitors. (2020-09-21)

Making sense of diabetes
Throughout her 38-year nursing career, Laurel Despins has progressed from a bedside nurse to a clinical nurse specialist and has worked in medical, surgical and cardiac intensive care units. She noticed diabetes is rarely referred to as a primary cause of death in itself, yet the disease is a leading contributor to deaths involving heart disease, stroke and cancer. (2020-09-21)

The hormone glucagon may be a warning light for diabetes
Researchers from the University of Copenhagen are introducing a new biological concept in the fight against diabetes: glucagon resistance. Glucagon resistance or decreased sensitivity to the hormone glucagon increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. New research shows that glucagon resistance is particularly pronounced in people with fatty liver, and this may be the key to understanding the link between fatty liver and diabetes. (2020-09-17)

Metformin for type 2 diabetes patients or not? Researchers now have the answer
Metformin is the first-line drug that can lower blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes patients. One third of patients do not respond to metformin treatment and 5 per cent experience serious side effects, which is the reason many choose to stop medicating. Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have now identified biomarkers that can show in advance how the patient will respond to metformin treatment via a simple blood test. (2020-09-17)

Sugar promotes sperm longevity in pig reproductive tract
For many livestock species, artificial insemination (AI) is standard. But it can be tricky to achieve success the first time, thanks to variability in ovulation timing across the herd. A new University of Illinois study identifies a naturally occurring sugar that slows the maturation of sperm in pigs, opening up the possibility of extending sperm storage time within the female reproductive tract and increasing the chances of successful fertilization through AI. (2020-09-17)

Fructose and glucose in high fructose corn syrup deliver a one-two punch to health
Consuming high fructose corn syrup appears to be as bad for your health as consuming sugar in the form of fructose alone, according to a new study from researchers at the University of California, Davis. The study reports health risks related to the type of sugar consumed, but also reveals novel risks when sugars are combined, which has important implications for dietary guidelines. (2020-09-17)

Researchers develop rapid test for ovarian cancer detection
Researchers at the University of Turku, Finland, have developed a test for ovarian cancer detection with a sensitivity 4.5 times higher than that of the conventional laboratory test. The simple lateral flow test is based on rapid detection of abnormal sugar structures directly from the blood sample. (2020-09-11)

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