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Negative social cues on tobacco packaging may help smokers quit
New research published in the Journal of Consumer Affairs suggests that tobacco packaging that reminds smokers that broad societal 'others' disapprove of the activity can trigger feelings of self-consciousness, which in turn reduces smoking intentions. (2018-11-21)

Researchers develop quick and precise method for detecting chemical warfare agents
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a stamp-sized sensor that can detect trace amounts of certain chemical warfare agents, such as sarin, within minutes. The research is published in ACS Omega. (2018-11-21)

Mom's teeth tell her history of giving birth and raising babies in Asian black bears
Scientists from four Japanese institutions including Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT) have discovered that width of surface layers coating tooth's roots correlates with reproductive histories of female Asian black bears. When a female bear raised cubs, the layers of her teeth were much narrower compared to those when she was not. Thus, measuring layer width of female bears' teeth can be a useful index for their reproductive histories. (2018-11-19)

Current climate models underestimate warming by black carbon aerosol
Researchers in the School of Engineering & Applied Science have discovered a new, natural law that sheds light on the fundamental relationship between coated black carbon and light absorption. (2018-11-19)

Researchers have created a virtual reality simulation of a supermassive black hole
The black hole at the centre of our galaxy, Sagittarius A*, has been visualised in virtual reality for the first time. The details are described in an article published in the open access journal Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology. (2018-11-18)

Study links social isolation to higher risk of death
A large American Cancer Society study links social isolation with a higher risk of death from all causes combined and heart disease for all races studied, and with increased cancer mortality in white men and women. (2018-11-16)

Which physical mechanism is responsible for magnetic properties of cuprates upon doping?
The international team of researchers has identified and proved that adding impurities with a lower concentration of electrons stabilizes the antiferromagnetic state of cuprates, high-temperature superconducting compounds based on copper. The research team, led by a senior fellow at the Department of Applied Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics, Ural Federal University, Evgeny Stepanov, published the results of a study in one of the world's leading multidisciplinary science journals ''Nature''. (2018-11-15)

Mergers drive a powerful dusty quasar
A galaxy merger provided the raw materials to form a bright and powerful dust-obscured quasar in the early Universe, according to a new imaging analysis. (2018-11-15)

Trans-galactic streamers feeding most luminous galaxy in the universe
ALMA data show the most luminous galaxy in the universe has been caught in the act of stripping away nearly half the mass from at least three of its smaller neighbors. (2018-11-15)

Gravitational waves from a merged hyper-massive neutron star
For the first time astronomers have detected gravitational waves from a merged, hyper-massive neutron star. The scientists, Maurice van Putten of Sejong University in South Korea, and Massimo della Valle of the Osservatorio Astronomico de Capodimonte in Italy, publish their results in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters. (2018-11-14)

Study finds early career publications as likely source of NIH funding racial gap
In seeking to pinpoint why black or African-American scientists are less likely than their white counterparts to receive National Institutes of Health research funding, a group of researchers has identified early career publications as a likely contributor to the gap. (2018-11-14)

Racial disparities in sudden cardiac death rates cannot be explained by known risk factors
A Penn Medicine study, published online today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, showed that even after controlling for risk factors like income, education, smoking, exercise, and bad cholesterol, among others, black patients remained at significantly higher risk for sudden cardiac death than white patients. (2018-11-12)

Astronomers find pairs of black holes at the centers of merging galaxies
For the first time, a team of astronomers has observed several pairs of galaxies in the final stages of merging together into single, larger galaxies. Peering through thick walls of gas and dust surrounding the merging galaxies' messy cores, the research team captured pairs of supermassive black holes -- each of which once occupied the center of one of the two original smaller galaxies -- drawing closer together before they coalescence into one giant black hole. (2018-11-07)

Astronomers unveil growing black holes in colliding galaxies
These images reveal the final stage of unions between pairs of galactic nuclei in the messy cores of colliding galaxies. (2018-11-07)

Astronomers get best view yet of supermassive black holes in colliding galaxies
Two galaxies, drawn together by the force of gravity, are merging into a tangled mass of dense gas and dust. Structure is giving way to chaos, but hiding behind this messy cloud of material are two supermassive black holes, nestled at the center of each of the galaxies, that are now excitingly close, giving astronomers the best view yet of the pair marching toward coalescence into one mega black hole. (2018-11-07)

Galaxy-scale fountain seen in full glory
ALMA observations of Abell 2597 show the first clear and compelling evidence for the simultaneous infalling and outflow of gas driven by a supermassive black hole. (2018-11-06)

Cosmic fountain offers clues to how galaxies evolve
Galaxy evolution can be chaotic and messy, but it seems that streams of cold gas spraying out from the region around supermassive black holes may act to calm the storm. (2018-11-06)

ALMA and MUSE detect galactic fountain
Observations by ALMA and data from the MUSE spectrograph on ESO's VLT have revealed a colossal fountain of molecular gas powered by a black hole in the brightest galaxy of the Abell 2597 cluster -- the full galactic cycle of inflow and outflow powering this vast cosmic fountain has never before been observed in one system. (2018-11-06)

Laboratory experiments probe the formation of stars and planets
The cosmos is a void dotted with stars and an ever-increasing number of newly-observed planets beyond our solar system. Yet, how these stars and planets formed out of clouds of interstellar dust and gas remains mysterious. The study of black holes provides clues that could help solve this mystery. (2018-11-05)

Johns Hopkins scientist finds elusive star with origins close to Big Bang
Astronomers have found what could be one of the universe's oldest stars, made almost entirely of materials spewed from the Big Bang. (2018-11-05)

Astrophysics: First detailed observations of material orbiting close to a black hole
ESO's GRAVITY instrument confirms black hole status of the Milky Way center. Scientists from the University of Cologne contributed the decisive instruments. (2018-11-02)

Study examines racial disparities in patient characteristics, survival after heart attack
This study analyzed data for about 6,400 patients who had heart attacks to compare black and white patients across a range of characteristics (demographic, socioeconomic status, social factors, lifestyle factors, medical history, clinical presentation, health status and depression). Researchers looked at how these patient characteristics differed by race, how they were associated with survival after heart attack, and whether the association differed for black and white patients who had similar characteristics. (2018-11-02)

Researchers explore division of public opinion on Black Lives Matter
Researchers at The University of Texas at Dallas examined public opinions about Black Lives Matter, an activist movement founded in 2013 that has gained national attention in subsequent years. (2018-11-02)

Ozone hole modest despite optimum conditions for ozone depletion
The ozone hole that forms in the upper atmosphere over Antarctica each September was slightly above average size in 2018, NOAA and NASA scientists reported today. (2018-11-02)

Artificial intelligence bot trained to recognize galaxies
Researchers have taught an artificial intelligence program used to recognize faces on Facebook to identify galaxies in deep space. The result is an AI bot named ClaRAN that scans images taken by radio telescopes. Its job is to spot radio galaxies -- galaxies that emit powerful radio jets from supermassive black holes at their centres. (2018-10-31)

Most detailed observations of material orbiting close to a black hole
ESO's exquisitely sensitive GRAVITY instrument has added further evidence to the long-standing assumption that a supermassive black hole lurks in the center of the Milky Way. New observations show clumps of gas swirling around at about 30 percent of the speed of light on a circular orbit just outside its event horizon -- the first time material has been observed orbiting close to the point of no return, and the most detailed observations yet of material orbiting this close to a black hole. (2018-10-31)

More black South Africans are donating blood
Before 2005, blood donations from black South Africans were used selectively and often discarded, due to the higher recorded rates of HIV infection in the black population. In October 2005, SANBS became the first blood service in the world to implement individual donation nucleic acid testing nationawide. An analysis of ten years of data shows a substantial increase in the number and proportion of donations from black South Africans after the implementation of NAT. (2018-10-31)

Study identifies factors that predict opposition to the Black Lives Matter Movement
A new study looked at a nationally representative sample of Americans to identify factors related to individuals (e.g., political affiliation, gender) and states (e.g., voting patterns) that predict opposition to Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement. (2018-10-25)

Study reveals racial and ethnic disparities in pediatric kidney transplantation outcomes
From 1995 to 2014, patient survival after kidney transplantation improved overall for pediatric recipients in the United States; however, racial/ethnic disparities in long-term survival worsened over time. Results from the study will be presented at ASN Kidney Week 2018 Oct. 23-28 at the San Diego Convention Center. (2018-10-25)

Climate change: US desert areas to become even drier
Geologists from the University of Innsbruck study rainfall patterns in the distant past to better understand how deserts in the southwest United States will be impacted by future climate change. (2018-10-24)

Black men have higher rates of recidivism despite lower risk factors
A new study that estimated the effects of risk factors for black and white men and women found that black men were reincarcerated more often and more quickly than all others, despite having lower risk scores on nearly all of the variables on a standardized tool that assesses risk. (2018-10-23)

SPIE journal publishes first known English translation of 1918 Schottky paper
SPIE Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS (JM3) today publishes an open-access English translation of Walter H. Schottky's key 1918 Annalen der Physik article 'Über spontane Stromschwankungen in verschiedenen Elektrizitätsleitern.' The English text, 'On spontaneous current fluctuations in various electrical conductors,' was translated from the original German by Martin Burkhardt, a JM3 editorial board member, with additional editing by SPIE Fellow Anthony Yen. (2018-10-23)

Astronomers spot signs of supermassive black hole mergers
New research, published today in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, has found evidence for a large number of double supermassive black holes, likely precursors of gigantic black hole merging events. This confirms the current understanding of cosmological evolution -- that galaxies and their associated black holes merge over time, forming bigger and bigger galaxies and black holes. (2018-10-23)

Gravitational waves could shed light on dark matter
Black holes colliding, gravitational waves riding through space-time - and a huge instrument that allows scientists to investigate the fabric of the universe. This could soon become reality when the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) takes up operations. Researchers from the University of Zurich have now found that LISA could also shed light on the elusive dark matter particle. (2018-10-22)

Mystery of how black widow spiders create steel-strength silk webs further unravelled
Northwestern University and San Diego State University researchers have better unraveled the complex process of how black widow spiders transform proteins into steel-strength fibers. This knowledge promises to aid scientists in creating equally strong synthetic materials. Utilizing state-of-the-art techniques, the research team was able to more closely see inside the protein gland where the silk fibers originate, revealing a more complex, hierarchical protein assembly. The researchers' 'modified micelles theory' concludes that spider silk proteins start out as complex, compound micelles. (2018-10-22)

Study finds racial disparities in student debt increase after young people leave college
Racial disparities in student debt between blacks and whites may perpetuate the racial wealth gap according to a study in the online first edition of Sociology of Race and Ethnicity. The study is the first to evaluate how racial disparities in student debt change over one's life course -- from when young people first graduate or leave college in their early 20s to over the next 10 years, as they enter the job market, start families and transition into adulthood. (2018-10-18)

Genetic behavior reveals cause of death in poplars essential to ecosystems, industry
Scientists studying a valuable, but vulnerable, species of poplar have identified the genetic mechanism responsible for the species' inability to resist a pervasive and deadly disease. Their finding, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could lead to more successful hybrid poplar varieties for increased biofuels and forestry production and protect native trees against infection. (2018-10-18)

Supermassive black holes and supercomputers
The universe's deep past is beyond the reach of even the mighty Hubble Space Telescope. But a new review published in Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences explains how creation of the first stars and galaxies is nevertheless being mapped in detail, with the aid of computer simulations and theoretical models -- and how a new generation of supercomputers and software is being built that will fill in the gaps. (2018-10-17)

African-American men's health disparities: Research, practice, and policy implications
The burden of risk factors for chronic disease is substantially higher in black men compared with their white counterparts, including a higher prevalence of obesity and hypertension. The Center for Healthy African American Men through Partnerships (CHAAMPS) presents results from several studies that pinpoint some of the issues and propose strategies to solve these in a special supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. (2018-10-17)

Electrical enhancement: Engineers speed up electrons in semiconductors
Researchers from Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering at Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT) have sped up the movement of electrons in organic semiconductor films by two to three orders of magnitude. The speedier electronics could lead to improved solar power and transistor use across the world, according to the scientists. (2018-10-17)

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