Current Surface Tension News and Events

Current Surface Tension News and Events, Surface Tension News Articles.
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How reducing body temperature could help a tenth of all ICU patients
ROCKVILLE, MD - A tenth of all intensive care unit patients worldwide, and many critical patients with COVID-19, have acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). (2021-02-23)

Future ocean warming boosts tropical rainfall extremes
Climate models predict that the difference between El Niño and La Niña related tropical rainfall will increase over the next 80 years, even though the temperature difference between El Niño and La Niña may change only very little in response to global warming. A new study uncovers the reasons for this surprising fact. (2021-02-22)

Controlling deflection in construction beams
In civil engineering, flexural beams are used to control the effect of vibrations that can cause cracks to appear in surfaces (concrete slabs) and beams. This is particularly important in buildings that require high tensile strength and where the use of machinery can cause a lot of vibrations that can disturb structural integrity. (2021-02-22)

More than half of Earth's rivers strongly impacted by human activity
Few of Earth's freshwater areas remain untouched by humans. More than half of the planet's freshwater river basins have been heavily impacted by human activities, according to a new study, which presents a novel, multi-faceted approach for evaluating biodiversity change at a global scale. (2021-02-18)

Observations at a shed light on how hard coral survives without light
French researchers have studied for the first time the distribution of hard corals in the French Polynesian archipelago, from the surface to 120 metres deep. As the amount of light decreases, this coral associates with other filamentous algae, in addition to zooxanthellae, which become inserted into its skeleton. These algae, the only ones found at this depth, could therefore play an important role in the coral's adaptation to life at depth. (2021-02-16)

The water surface is a fantastic place for chemical reactions
Using an advanced technique, scientists from the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research have demonstrated that a chemical reaction powered by light takes place ten thousand times faster at the air-water interface--what we usually call the water surface--than in the bulk of the water, even when the light has equivalent energy. This finding could help our understanding of the many important chemical and biological processes that take place at the water surface. (2021-02-15)

Increasing hurricane intensity around Bermuda linked to rising ocean temperatures
New research shows that hurricane maximum wind speeds in the subtropical Atlantic around Bermuda have more than doubled on average over the last 60 years due to rising ocean temperatures in the region. (2021-02-12)

Hearing acrobatics
The sense of hearing is, quite literally, a molecular tightrope act. Turns out, it involves acrobatics as well. New research shows that a dynamic and delicate connection between two pairs of diminutive protein filaments plays a central role in in hearing.The findings present a new understanding of the molecular underpinnings of hearing, as well as the sense of balance, which arises from similar processes in the inner ear. (2021-02-08)

Scientists discover ocean 'surface slicks' are nurseries for diverse fishes
Ocean features called surface slicks are an interconnected superhighway of nursery habitat for more than 100 species of fishes from diverse ocean habitats. (2021-02-04)

How metal atoms can arrange themselves on an insulator
In order to produce tiny electronic memories or sensors in future, it is essential to be able to arrange individual metal atoms on an insulating layer. Scientists at Bielefeld University's Faculty of Chemistry have now demonstrated that this is possible at room temperature: molecules of the metal-containing compound molybdenum acetate form an ordered structure on the insulator calcite without jumping to other positions or rotating. Their findings have been presented in the Nature Communications journal. (2021-02-04)

Surface effect of electrodes revealed by operando surface science methodology
Super-dense anions together with cations intercalation into the surface region of graphite electrode has been visualized by applying operando surface science methodology over an Al/HOPG planar model device. The observed unusual electrochemical behavior in surface region can be described as the intercalation pseudocapacitor in contrast with the battery process in the bulk. Guided by this distinct surface effect, the capacity can be doubled by using surface-dominant nano-thick graphite electrode. (2021-02-04)

Why food sticks to nonstick frying pans
Foods will sometimes get stuck to a heated surface, even if oil or a nonstick frying pan is used. Scientists have investigated the fluid properties of oil on a flat surface and their work shows convection may be to blame. When the pan is heated from below, a temperature gradient is established in the oil film, as well as a surface tension gradient. This gradient sets up a type of convection known as thermocapillary convection. (2021-02-02)

Increasing snow depth prevented wintertime soils from cooling during the warming hiatus
Scientists investigated snow cover along with other direct and indirect soil temperature influences in northeastern China. The research further showed that the increasing snow depth in northeastern China may be the main reason for the continued warming trend in soil temperatures. In addition to the thermal insulation effect of snow cover, the ability for soil to record human changes and environmental influences, or ''soil memory'' is also important, especially at greater depths. (2021-01-31)

Family's our focus during pandemic, study finds
More fully appreciating family and engaging in more conflict are among the heightened experiences during the coronavirus pandemic, according to a new UC Riverside study. (2021-01-29)

Reconstruction shows increased global warming trends since 1850s
To better understand how temperatures have increased, an international team led by researchers at Sun Yat-Sen University in China has released a newly merged global surface temperature dataset, including reconstructed land and marine measurements from the 1850s to 2018. The study provides evidence that there was a consistent increased warming trend compared with previous estimations. (2021-01-28)

Scientists identify flank instability at a volcano with history of collapse
Landslides caused by the collapse of unstable volcanoes are one of the major dangers of volcanic eruptions. A method to detect long-term movements of these mountains using satellite images could help identify previously overlooked instability at some volcanoes, according to Penn State scientists. (2021-01-26)

Microstructured optical fibers find their 3D-printed groove
Advanced laser-printing techniques prove ideal for creating tiny optical communication devices with complex internal structures. (2021-01-25)

How cells 'eat' their own fluid components
Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process by which cells capture and degrade their own dysfunctional or superfluous components for degradation and recycling. Recent research has revealed that phase separated droplets have a range of important functions in cells. An international collaboration between German, Norwegian, and Japanese researchers has unravelled the mechanisms underpinning both how these droplets are captured through autophagy, as well as how droplets can serve as a platform from which structures facilitating cytosolic autophagy arise. (2021-01-21)

Researchers develop new graphene nanochannel water filters
Brown University researchers have shown that tiny channels between graphene sheets can be aligned in a way that makes them ideal for water filtration. (2021-01-21)

Boosted photocatalysis for hydrogen evolution: Reactant supply thru phosphonate groups
Water splitting research for solar hydrogen production has focused on physical processes inside the semiconductor, such as light absorption, charge separation, and chemical processes on the surface that are highly complex and rely on the development of new materials. The concept proposed in this study is design of the electrolyte-photocatalyst interface. The approach of immobilizing functional groups near the solid-liquid interface can be a broad-ranging methodology that is effective regardless of the materials used. (2021-01-20)

How drain flies dodge a washout
Shower spray is like water off a duck's back to bathroom flies. (2021-01-19)

Zebra stripes, leopard spots: frozen metal patterns defy conventional metallurgy
''Stripy zebra, spotty leopard...'' Pattern formation and pattern recognition entertains children and scientists alike. Alan Turing's 1950s model explaining patterns in two-substance systems is used by metallurgists to explain microscopic internal stripes and spots. A study out today explains exotic patterns, counter to Turing's theory, forming on the liquid metal gallium, which melts in the hand. The previously ignored surface-solidification phenomenon improves fundamental understanding of liquid-metal alloys, with a potential patterning tool, and advanced applications in future electronics and optics. (2021-01-18)

Intertropical Convergence Zone limits climate predictions in the tropical Atlantic
The strongest climate fluctuation on time scales of a few years is the so-called El Niño phenomenon, which originates in the Pacific. A similar circulation pattern exists in the Atlantic, which scientists under the leadership of GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel have studied in more detail. Their results, now published in the international journal Nature Communications, contribute to a better understanding of this climate fluctuation and pose a challenge for prediction models. (2021-01-15)

High-sensitivity nanophotonic sensors with passive trapping of analyte molecules in hot-spots
Optical sensing which captures fingerprint information of chemical or biological substances with light, plays a crucial role in many areas including environmental sensing, medical diagnostics and homeland security. Scientists from University at Buffalo demonstrated an optical sensor design which utilizes nano-scale trenches to passively concentrate and trap trace analytes in a solution, leading to the capability of detecting picogram level biomolecules such as glucose and amino acids. The devices also achieved effective trapping of nano-particles. (2021-01-13)

Infection biology: How one pathogen evades the immune system
A research team of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munch led by Nicolai Siegel has uncovered a mechanism that enables the parasite that causes sleeping sickness in humans to escape the attention of the immune system. The finding may also be relevant to other infectious diseases. (2021-01-13)

Nanosheet-based electronics could be one drop away
A surprisingly simple method improves 'drop casting' fabrication of tiled nanosheets that could be used in next-generation electronic devices. All you need is a pipette and a hotplate. (2021-01-12)

Tissue stiffness likely drives immune responses in many chronic diseases
Stiffness in our tissues causes tension in our cells. Research shows that stiffness impacts the innate immune system by upping its metabolism. Buck Institute findings suggest the cellular tension likely sets off an inflammatory loop that contributes to the development of chronic diseases of aging. Researchers present an emerging way of looking at how the immune system functions, possibilities for new immunotherapeutics, and a call for scientists to reconsider the way they do experiments. (2021-01-12)

Wives bore the brunt of child care during the shutdown
Traditional gendered patterns of child care persisted during the COVID-19 shutdown, with more than a third of couples relying on women to provide most or all of it. (2021-01-12)

Ferrofluid surface simulations go more than skin deep
Computer models efficiently and accurately simulate the magnetic responses of ferrofluids by considering only the fluid's surface. (2021-01-10)

Nanocrystals that eradicate bacteria biofilm
POSTECH-UNIST joint research team finds ways to control the surface texture of nanostructures. (2021-01-08)

Imminent sudden stratospheric warming to occur, bringing increased risk of snow over coming weeks
A new study led by researchers at the Universities of Bristol, Exeter, and Bath helps to shed light on the winter weather we may soon have in store following a dramatic meteorological event currently unfolding high above the North Pole. Weather forecasting models are predicting with increasing confidence that a sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event will take place today, 5 January 2021. (2021-01-05)

Nanoparticles could improve oil production
A team of scientists from Siberian Federal University together with their colleagues from Novosibirsk studied the effect of nanoparticles on oil production efficiency. When added to the water that displaces oil from a reservoir, nanoparticles improve the separation of oil drops from mine rock and their washing to the surface. The work received a grant from the Russian Science Foundation, and an article about it was published in the Journal of Molecular Liquids. (2020-12-22)

The mechanics of the immune system
Not only chemistry plays a role in the docking of antigens to the T-cell; micromechanical effects are important too. Submicrometer structures on the cell surface act like microscopic tension springs. Tiny forces that occur as a result are likely to be of great importance for the recognition of antigens. At TU Wien, it has now been possible to observe these forces directly using highly developed microscopy methods. (2020-12-21)

Scientists develop new land surface model including multiple processes and human activities
Researchers from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics developed a land surface model CAS-LSM that has improved the descriptions of biogeochemical process and urban modules, compared with the earlier version of this model. (2020-12-18)

Sound waves spin droplets to concentrate, separate nanoparticles
Mechanical engineers at Duke University have devised a method for spinning individual droplets of liquid to concentrate and separate nanoparticles for biomedical purposes. The technique is much more efficient than traditional centrifuge approaches, working its magic in under a minute instead of taking hours or days, and requires only a tiny fraction of the typical sample size. The invention could underline new approaches to applications ranging from precision bioassays to cancer diagnosis. (2020-12-18)

New topological properties found in "old" material of Cobalt disulfide
Researchers working with the Schoop Lab discovered the presence of Weyl nodes in bulk CoS2 that allow them to make predictions about its surface properties. The material hosts Weyl-fermions and Fermi-arc surface states within its band structure, which may enable it to serve as a platform for exotic phenomena. (2020-12-18)

Researchers use origami to solve space travel challenge
WSU researchers have used the ancient Japanese art of paper folding to possibly solve a key challenge for outer space travel - how to store and move fuel to rocket engines. The researchers have developed an origami-inspired, folded plastic fuel bladder that doesn't crack at super cold temperatures and could someday be used to store and pump fuel. (2020-12-15)

Scientists precisely predict intricate evolutions of multiple-period patterns in bilayers
Surface instability of compliant film/substrate bilayers has raised considerable interests due to its broad applications, yet it is still a challenge to precisely predict and continuously trace secondary bifurcation transitions in the nonlinear post-buckling region. Now researchers at Fudan University develop lattice models to precisely capture the nonlinear morphology evolution with multiple mode transitions that occur in film/substrate systems. (2020-12-15)

Tiny bubbles on electrodes key to speeding up chemical processes
New Curtin University-led research has shown the formation of bubbles on electrodes, usually thought to be a hindrance, can be beneficial, with deliberately added bubbles, or oil droplets, able to accelerate processes such as the removal of pollutants such as hydrocarbons from contaminated water and the production of chlorine. (2020-12-10)

Researchers identify the physical mechanism that can kill bacteria with gold nanoparticles
A multidisciplinary team of researchers have discovered that the mechanical deformation of bacteria is a toxic mechanism that can kill bacteria with gold nanoparticles. The results of this research are a breakthrough in researchers' understanding the antibacterial effects of nanoparticles and their efforts to find new materials with bactericide properties. (2020-12-10)

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