Current Thermodynamics News and Events

Current Thermodynamics News and Events, Thermodynamics News Articles.
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Placing cosmological constraints on quantum gravity phenomenology
Through new research published in EPJ C, researchers have used well-established cosmological observations to place tighter constraints on the quadratic model of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, while discrediting the linear model. (2021-02-10)

Quantum effects help minimise communication flaws
Noise limits the performance of modern quantum technologies. However, particles traveling in a superposition of paths can bypass noise in communication. A collaboration between the Universities of Hong-Kong, Grenoble and Vienna, as well as the Austrian Academy of Sciences, under the lead of Philip Walther, reveals novel techniques to reduce noise in quantum communication. The results, published in the latest issue of Physical Review Research, demonstrate that quantum particles traveling in a superposition of paths enable noise reduction in communications. (2021-02-10)

Stanford research could lead to injectable gels that release medicines over time
The researchers dissolved polymers and nanoparticles in water, and comingled them at room temperature to solidify a Jello-like substance that - unlike its kitchen counterpart -- did not liquify at higher heat, such as in the body. The technique kept in balance two thermodynamic concepts- enthalpy, which measures energy added to or subtracted from a material, and entropy, which describes how energy changes make a material more or less orderly at the molecular level. (2021-02-03)

Researchers reveal in-situ manipulation of active Au-TiO2 interface
An international joint research team from the Shanghai Advanced Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, along with Zhejiang University and the Technical University of Denmark, reported an in-situ strategy to manipulate interfacial structure with atomic precision during catalytic reactions. (2021-01-28)

The physics behind tumor growth
Researchers at Duke University have developed a predictive theory for tumor growth that approaches the subject from a new point of view. Rather than focusing on the biological mechanisms of cellular growth, the researchers instead use thermodynamics and the physical space the tumor is expanding into to predict its evolution from a single cell to a complex cancerous mass. (2021-01-20)

A safer, less expensive and fast charging aqueous battery
Researchers have developed a new battery anode that overcomes the limitations of lithium-ion batteries and offers a stable, high-performance battery using seawater as the electrolyte. (2021-01-11)

New-found phenomenon that may improve hurricane forecasts
2020 Was a Year Like No Other - and That Goes for the Hurricane Season, Too! NSU Researchers Headed up a Team Working to Better Forecast Storms, Which Can Really Help During a Pandemic (2020-12-09)

Minimal waste production is a fundamental law for animal locomotion
Is there a unifying principle underpinning animal locomotion in its rich diversity? The thermodynamic analysis shows why and how waste minimization prevails on efficiency or power maximization when it comes to free locomotion irrespective of the available mode and gaits. (2020-11-25)

Researchers minimize quantum backaction in thermodynamic systems via entangled measurement
Researchers from University of Science and Technology of China theoretically proved that the backaction can be suppressed to zero in a two qubit system, and conducted the first experiment using entangled collective measurement for minimizing quantum measurement backaction based on photonic system. (2020-11-23)

Remote control of heat nanosources motion and thermal-induced fluid flows by using light forces
The application of light for simultaneous heating and controlled motion of nano-objects is a great challenge in nanotechnology and science. Scientists from Spain have demonstrated the transport of hot nanoparticles remotely controlled on demand via engineered optical propulsion forces provided by freestyle laser traps. Moreover, they have discovered that the associated thermal-induced fluid flows can be also controlled by this way. This achievement paves a way for further development of micro-robotic optofluidic tools. (2020-11-22)

Genetic code evolution and Darwin's evolution theory should consider DNA an 'energy code'
Darwin's theory of evolution should be expanded to include consideration of a DNA stability ''energy code'' - so-called ''molecular Darwinism'' - to further account for the long-term survival of species' characteristics on Earth, according to Rutgers scientists. (2020-11-16)

New research explores the thermodynamics of off-equilibrium systems
Arguably, almost all truly intriguing systems are ones that are far away from equilibrium -- such as stars, planetary atmospheres, and even digital circuits. But, until now, systems far from thermal equilibrium couldn't be analyzed with conventional thermodynamics and statistical physics. In a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, physicist David Wolpert of the Santa Fe Institute presents a new hybrid formalism to overcome these limitations. (2020-11-11)

Researchers discover a uniquely quantum effect in erasing information
Researchers from Trinity College Dublin have discovered a uniquely quantum effect in erasing information that may have significant implications for the design of quantum computing chips. Their surprising discovery brings back to life the paradoxical ''Maxwell's demon'', which has tormented physicists for over 150 years, (2020-10-16)

Temperature evolution of impurities in a quantum gas
A new, Monash-led theoretical study advances our understanding of the role of thermodynamics in the 'quantum impurity' problem, which studies the behaviour of deliberately introduced atoms (ie, 'impurities') that behave as particularly 'clean' quasiparticles within a background atomic gas, allowing a controllable 'perfect test bed' study of quantum correlations. (2020-10-13)

Physicists build circuit that generates clean, limitless power from graphene
Physicists at the University of Arkansas have successfully generated an electrical current from the atomic motion of graphene, discovering a new source of clean, limitless power. (2020-10-02)

New model examines how societal influences affect US political opinions
Northwestern University researchers have developed the first quantitative model that captures how politicized environments affect U.S. political opinion formation and evolution. (2020-10-02)

Theater improvisation techniques show promising results for science classroom engagement
A researcher at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) has developed a unique method to improve class participation in a graduate-level thermodynamics course by incorporating theater improvisation activities in the classroom. (2020-09-25)

New approach to exotic quantum matter
A team of international researchers reports on new advances in the understanding of fractional angular momentum and anyon statistics of impurities in Laughlin liquids. (2020-09-22)

Having a ball: Crystallization in a sphere
Researchers at The University of Tokyo and Fudan University furthered our understanding of the crystallization process in confined spaces by visualizing the ordering of colloidal particles in a droplet. The team conducted real-time microscopic observations of the assembly of colloidal particles in droplets to clarify the crystallization process. They found that the kinetically controlled interactions between particles affected the order of the final crystal. Their results take us closer to realizing controlled crystal formation. (2020-09-21)

Defying a 150-year-old rule for phase behavior
Today, researchers from Eindhoven University of Technology and University Paris-Saclay are defying a classical theory from American physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs, with proof of a five-phase equilibrium, something that many scholars considered impossible. (2020-09-18)

Extracting order from a quantum measurement finally shown experimentally
In physics, it is essential to be able to show a theoretical assumption in actual, physical experiments. For more than a hundred years, physicists have been aware of the link between the concepts of disorder in a system, and information obtained by measurement. However, a clean experimental assessment of this link in common monitored systems, that is systems which are continuously measured over time, was missing so far. (2020-09-07)

Thermodynamics of computation: A quest to find the cost of running a Turing machine
Turing machines are widely believed to be universal, in the sense that any computation done by any system can also be done by a Turing machine. In a new paper, researchers present their work exploring the energetic costs of computation within the context of Turing machines. (2020-08-26)

Computers excel in chemistry class
Machine learning models can rapidly and accurately estimate key chemical parameters related to molecular reactivity. (2020-08-25)

Larger variability in sea level expected as Earth warms
A team of researchers from the University of Hawai'i (UH) at Mānoa School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) identified a global tendency for future sea levels to become more variable as oceans warm this century due to increasing greenhouse gas emissions. (2020-08-20)

Molecular additives enhance mechanical properties of organic solar cell material
Ganesh Balasubramanian, P.C. Rossin assistant professor of Mechanical Engineering & Mechanics at Lehigh University, and his graduate student Joydeep Munshi demonstrated that adding small molecules to a semiconducting polymer blend enhances the performance and stability of material used in organic solar cells. The study is described in an article, 'Elasto-morphology of P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction organic solar cells' featured on the back cover of Soft Matter. (2020-08-12)

Digital content on track to equal half Earth's mass by 2245
As we use resources to power massive computer farms and process digital information, our technological progress is redistributing Earth's matter from physical atoms to digital information. Eventually, we will reach a point of full saturation, a period in our evolution in which digital bits will outnumber atoms on Earth, a world ''mostly computer simulated and dominated by digital bits and computer code,'' according to an article published in AIP Advances. (2020-08-11)

Fine-tuning excited state of Ru(II)-photosensitizers for boosting CO2-to-CO conversion
How to substantially improve sensitizing ability of photosensitisers (PSs) through balancing its excited state lifetime and redox driving force represents a key role in promoting electron transfer efficiency and further enhancing photoconversion efficiency, however remains a great challenge. In this work, for the first time, researchers report a facile strategy to improve sensitizing ability via finely tuning the excited state of Ru(II)-PSs (Ru-1-Ru-4) for boosting CO2 photoreduction. (2020-07-09)

The smallest motor in the world
A research team from Empa and EPFL has developed a molecular motor which consists of only 16 atoms and rotates reliably in one direction. It could allow energy harvesting at the atomic level. The special feature of the motor is that it moves exactly at the boundary between classical motion and quantum tunneling -- and has revealed puzzling phenomena to researchers in the quantum realm. (2020-06-16)

RIT scientists develop method to help epidemiologists map spread of COVID-19
Rochester Institute of Technology scientists have developed a method they believe will help epidemiologists more efficiently predict the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Their new study, published in Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, outlines a solution to the SIR epidemic model, which is commonly used to predict how many people are susceptible to, infected by, and recovered from viral epidemics. (2020-05-29)

Researchers pave the way to designing omnidirectional invisible materials
Researchers at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), belonging to the Nanophotonics Technology Center, have taken a new step in designing omnidirectional invisible materials. At their laboratories, they have discovered a new fundamental symmetry in the laws of electromagnetism, acoustics and elasticity: A temporal supersymmetry. This finding has been published in the Nature Communications journal. (2020-05-07)

To make an atom-sized machine, you need a quantum mechanic
Here's a new chapter in the story of the miniaturisation of machines: researchers in a laboratory in Singapore have shown that a single atom can function as either an engine or a fridge. Such a device could be engineered into future computers and fuel cells to control energy flows. (2020-05-04)

NREL six-junction solar cell sets two world records for efficiency
Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have fabricated a solar cell with an efficiency of nearly 50%. The six-junction solar cell now holds the world record for the highest solar conversion efficiency at 47.1%, which was measured under concentrated illumination. A variation of the same cell also set the efficiency record under one-sun illumination at 39.2%. (2020-04-14)

Holographic cosmological model and thermodynamics on the horizon of the universe
A holographic cosmological model with a power-law term has been proposed by a Kanazawa University researcher to study thermodynamic properties on the horizon of the Universe. This model was found to satisfy the second law of thermodynamics. In addition, a relaxation-like process of the Universe was examined systematically to study maximization of the entropy on the horizon. (2020-03-26)

APS tip sheet: Ultimate strength of metals
A new model is able to accurately determine the peak strength of polycrystalline metals. (2020-03-25)

USTC realizes the first quantum-entangling-measurements-enhanced quantum orienteering
Researchers enhanced the performance of quantum orienteering with entangling measurements via photonic quantum walks. (2020-02-25)

Electric solid propellant -- can it take the heat?
Electric solid propellants are being explored as a safer option for pyrotechnics, mining, and in-space propulsion because they only ignite with an electric current. But because all of these applications require high heat, it's important to understand how the high temperatures change the propellants' chemistry. Researchers from the University of Illinois, Missouri University of Science and Technology, and NASA simulated the thermochemical properties to predict the thermochemistry of a new high-performance electric solid propellant. (2020-02-13)

How sensitive can a quantum detector be?
Measuring the energy of quantum states requires detecting energy changes so exceptionally small they are hard to pick out from background fluctuations, like using only a thermometer to try and work out if someone has blown out a candle in the room you're in. New research in Nature Communications from a team in Finland presents sensitive quantum thermometry hitting the bounds that nature allows. (2020-01-17)

A new model of metabolism draws from thermodynamics and 'omics'
Scientists at EPFL have developed an algorithm that can model biochemical reactions from metabolism down to RNA synthesis with unprecedented accuracy. (2020-01-13)

Samara Polytech scientists has developed a new concept of mathematical modeling
Scientists at the Samara Polytech are developing a new area of mathematical modeling of locally nonequilibrium transfer processes and methods for their study. (2019-12-30)

Gazing into crystal balls to advance understanding of crystal formation
Researchers at The University of Tokyo Institute of Industrial Science conducted simulations considering and neglecting hydrodynamic interactions to determine whether or not these interactions cause the large discrepancy observed between experimental and calculated nucleation rates for hard-sphere colloidal systems, which are used to model crystallization. The team obtained similar nucleation rates from both simulations, clarifying that hydrodynamic interactions cannot explain the mismatch observed between actual and simulated nucleation rates for hard-sphere systems. (2019-12-21)

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