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Current Transmission News and Events, Transmission News Articles.
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New model finds HIV acute phase infectivity may be lower than previously estimated
Previous calculations may have overestimated the importance of HIV transmission from recently infected individuals ('acute phase infectivity') in driving HIV epidemics, according to an article published by Steve Bellan of the University of Texas at Austin, and colleagues in this week's PLOS Medicine. (2015-03-17)

Two-year study: Despite bednets and drugs, malaria cases increasing in rural Uganda
Belying the global trend of a decline in malaria cases, the incidence of malaria in rural Uganda is high and on the increase, suggesting that more aggressive methods of controlling the disease in high-transmission areas of sub-Saharan Africa are urgently needed, according to a new two-year surveillance study published online today in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. (2015-03-16)

New technology may double radio frequency data capacity
Columbia engineers have invented a technology -- full-duplex radio integrated circuits -- that can be implemented in nanoscale CMOS to enable simultaneous transmission and reception at the same frequency in a wireless radio. Up to now, this has been thought to be impossible: transmitters and receivers either work at different times or at the same time but at different frequencies. Electrical engineering professor Harish Krishnaswamy's team is the first to demonstrate an IC that can accomplish this. (2015-03-13)

HIV transmission at each step of the care continuum in the United States
Individuals infected but undiagnosed with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and those individuals diagnosed with HIV but not yet in medical care accounted for more than 90 percent of the estimated 45,000 HIV transmissions in 2009, according to an article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine. (2015-02-23)

New insights into underlying cellular mechanisms of information processing in the brain
Synapses transmit information from one neuron to another in the form of synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters. Continuous release of neurotransmitters is essential to maintain communication between neurons. To better understand a number of neurological disorders, we need a better understanding of how synapses continuously relay information between neurons. A new study has discovered a key factor in regulating this continual communication is the proximity of synaptic vesicles next to voltage gated calcium channels within synapses. (2015-02-18)

Medtech meets cleantech: Malaria vaccine candidate produced from algae
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine used algae as a mini-factory to produce a malaria parasite protein. The algae-produced protein, paired with an immune-boosting cocktail suitable for use in humans, generated antibodies in mice that nearly eliminated mosquito infection by the malaria parasite. The method, published Feb. 17 by Infection and Immunity, is the newest attempt to develop a vaccine that prevents transmission of the malaria parasite from host to mosquito. (2015-02-18)

New technique doubles the distance of optical fiber communications
A new way to process fiber optic signals has been demonstrated by UCL researchers, which could double the distance at which data travels error-free through transatlantic sub-marine cables. The new method has the potential to reduce the costs of long-distance optical fiber communications as signals wouldn't need to be electronically boosted on their journey, which is important when the cables are buried underground or at the bottom of the ocean. (2015-02-03)

Research uncovers connection between Craigslist personals, HIV trends
Craigslist's entry into a market results in a 15.9 percent increase in reported HIV cases, according to research from the University of Minnesota published in the December issue of MIS Quarterly. (2015-01-30)

Carbon nanoballs can greatly contribute to sustainable energy supply
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have discovered that the insulation plastic used in high-voltage cables can withstand a 26 percent higher voltage if nanometer-sized carbon balls are added. This could result in enormous efficiency gains in the power grids of the future, which are needed to achieve a sustainable energy system. (2015-01-27)

Transmission of Ebola appears tied to increasing population density in forested regions
Researchers at SUNY Downstate Medical Center have found an apparent link between human population density and vegetation cover in Africa and the spread of the Ebola virus from animal hosts to humans. (2015-01-21)

Bed nets and vaccines: Some combinations may worsen malaria
Combining insecticide-treated bed nets with vaccines and other control measures may provide the best chance at eliminating malaria, which killed nearly 600,000 people worldwide in 2013, most of them African children. (2015-01-19)

Lassa fever controls need to consider human-human transmission and role of super spreaders
One in five cases of Lassa fever -- a disease that kills around 5,000 people a year in West Africa -- could be due to human-to-human transmission, with a large proportion of these cases caused by 'super-spreaders,' according to research published today in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. (2015-01-15)

New model predicts Ebola epidemic in Liberia could be ended by June 2015
The Ebola epidemic in Liberia could likely be eliminated by June 2015 if the current high rate of hospitalization and vigilance can be maintained, according to a new model developed by ecologists at the University of Georgia and Pennsylvania State University. The study will appear in the open-access journal PLOS Biology on Jan. 13. (2015-01-13)

The challenges of providing obstetric care during an Ebola epidemic
Obstetric interventions during an Ebola epidemic are deeply challenging say two new commentaries published today in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. (2015-01-13)

Optogenetics captures neuronal transmission in live mammalian brain
EPFL scientists have used a cutting-edge method to stimulate neurons with light. They have successfully recorded synaptic transmission between neurons in a live animal for the first time. (2014-12-24)

Genetic study sheds light on how mosquitoes transmit malaria
An international research team, including researchers from Simon Fraser University, has determined the genetic sequencing of 16 mosquitoes (Anopheles genus) -- the sole carriers of human malaria -- providing new insight into how they adapt to humans as primary hosts of the disease. (2014-12-23)

Cell-associated HIV mucosal transmission: The neglected pathway
Dr. Deborah Anderson from Boston University School of Medicine and her colleagues are challenging dogma about the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Most research has focused on infection by free viral particles, while this group proposes that HIV is also transmitted by infected cells. (2014-12-18)

Yale researchers reveal Ebola virus spreads in social clusters
An analysis of the ongoing Ebola outbreak reveals that transmission of the virus occurs in social clusters, a finding that has ramifications for case reporting and the public health. (2014-12-16)

Genome sequencing traces MRSA spread in high transmission setting
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of hospital-acquired infections, with the largest burden of infections occurring in under-resourced hospitals. While genome sequencing has previously been applied in well-resourced clinical settings to track the spread of MRSA, transmission dynamics in settings with limited infection control is unknown. In a study published online today in Genome Research, researchers used genome sequencing to understand the spread of MRSA in a resource-limited hospital with high transmission rates. (2014-12-09)

Using genome sequencing to track MRSA in under-resourced hospitals
Whole genome sequencing of MRSA from a hospital in Asia has demonstrated patterns of transmission in a resource-limited setting, where formal screening procedures are not feasible. (2014-12-09)

Combining insecticide sprays and bed nets 'no more effective' in cutting malaria
There is no need to spray insecticide on walls for malaria control when people sleep under treated bed nets, according to new research by Durham University and the Medical Research Council's Unit in The Gambia. (2014-12-08)

Friendly bacteria are protective against malaria
In a breakthrough study to be published on the Dec. 4 issue of the prestigious scientific journal Cell, a research team led by Miguel Soares at the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia discovered that specific bacterial components in the human gut microbiota can trigger a natural defense mechanism that is highly protective against malaria transmission. (2014-12-04)

Study of deadly bat disease finds surprising seasonal pattern of infections
The deadly fungal disease known as white-nose syndrome has spread to bat colonies throughout eastern North America over the past seven years, causing bat populations to crash, with several species now at risk of extinction. The devastating impact of this disease is due in part to the seasonal dynamics of infection and transmission, according to a new study led by scientists at UC Santa Cruz. (2014-12-02)

Lapses in infection control associated with spread of severe respiratory virus MERS, according to study
Little is known about the often fatal virus known as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, but researchers have identified gaps in infection control as a major culprit in all 11 published cases involving healthcare-associated transmission of the virus. The full findings of the review can be found in the December issue of the American Journal of Infection Control, the official publication of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology. (2014-12-01)

Mosquitoes and malaria: Scientists pinpoint how biting cousins have grown apart
Sixteen mosquito species have varying capabilities for transmitting malaria and adapting to new environments. Researchers sequenced their genomes to better understand the evolutionary science behind the differences. The results, published in Science, may advance understanding about the biological differences between mosquitoes that transmit malaria, and ultimately, how species might be more precisely controlled to stop transmission. (2014-11-27)

One-two punch of drugs better than either alone against colorectal cancer
Experimental anti-cancer agents PF-04691502 and PD-0325901 excel in lab tests against colorectal cancer models and enter phase 1 trial. (2014-11-25)

Study supports free 'super Wi-Fi'
The need for the wireless transfer of data will increase significantly in the coming years. Scientists at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology therefore propose to turn some of the TV frequencies that will become free into common property and to use it to extend existing wireless networks instead of using the frequencies for mobile communications. Their study, published in the international journal Telecommunications Policy, recommends that the additional frequencies not be marketed but made available to the population and companies at no cost. (2014-11-25)

Masking HIV target cells prevents viral transmission in animal model
Cloaking immune cells with antibodies that block T cell trafficking to the gut can substantially reduce the risk of viral transmission in a non-human primate model of HIV infection, scientists report. (2014-11-24)

NIH-sponsored study identifies superior drug regimen for preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission
For HIV-infected women in good immune health, taking a three-drug regimen during pregnancy prevents mother-to-child HIV transmission more effectively than taking one drug during pregnancy, another during labor and two more after giving birth, an international clinical trial has found. (2014-11-17)

Penn study shows bed bugs can transmit parasite that causes Chagas disease
A new study from Penn Medicine researchers in the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics demonstrated that bed bugs, like the triatomines, can transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, one of the most prevalent and deadly diseases in the Americas. (2014-11-17)

New book from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: Tuberculosis
Written and edited by experts in the field, 'Tuberculosis' from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press examines all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, transmission, and infection, as well as ongoing strategies to treat and control it. Contributors explore the biological characteristics of M. tuberculosis, its complex interactions with the human immune system, and factors that influence the progression from latent to active TB disease: e.g., coinfection with HIV/AIDS. The clinical manifestations of TB, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, are fully described and illustrated. (2014-11-12)

Administration of Tdap vaccine during pregnancy not linked with preterm delivery
Among approximately 26,000 women, receipt of the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy was not associated with increased risk of preterm delivery or small-for-gestational-age birth or with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, although a small increased risk of being diagnosed with chorioamnionitis -- an inflammation of the membranes that surround the fetus -- was observed, according to a study in the Nov. 12 issue of JAMA. (2014-11-11)

Can HIV be transmitted via manicure instruments?
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lists numerous potential alternative sources of HIV transmission in addition to the known classical modes for acquiring the AIDS virus. Although manicure instruments is not on this list of alternative sources, a case of HIV transmission that may be linked to sharing of manicure instruments is presented in AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. (2014-11-10)

What role do insects play in Ebola virus transmission?
What role, if any, do insects play in the transmission of Ebola? This question and others will be discussed during a special session at Entomology 2014 -- the 62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America -- in Portland, Oregon at 5:30 PM on Monday, Nov. 17, 2014. (2014-11-05)

Hygienic funerals, better protection for health workers offer best chance to stop Ebola
Hygienic funeral practices, case isolation, contact tracing with quarantines, and better protection for health care workers are the keys to stopping the Ebola epidemic that continues to expand in West Africa, researchers said today in a new report in the journal Science. They said broad implementation of aggressive measures they recommend could lead to its control in Liberia, the focal point, by mid-March. (2014-10-30)

Disney Research develops hybrid fluid transmission enabling light and swift robotic arms
Engineers routinely face tradeoffs as they design robotic limbs -- weight vs. speed, ease of control vs. fluidity. A new hybrid fluid transmission developed at Disney Research Pittsburgh promises to eliminate some of those tradeoffs, making possible robot arms that are light enough to move swiftly and gracefully, yet with precise control. (2014-10-30)

Can parents make their kids smarter?
Florida State University criminology professor Kevin Beaver examined a nationally representative sample of youth alongside a sample of adopted children from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and found evidence to support the argument that IQ is not the result of parental socialization. (2014-10-30)

Study: Prompt isolation of symptomatic patients is key to eliminating Ebola
Below is information about an article being published in Annals of Internal Medicine. The information is not intended to substitute for the full article as a source of information. Annals of Internal Medicine attribution is required for all coverage. (2014-10-27)

Maintenance therapy for injection-drug users associated with lower incidenceof hepatitis C
In a group of young users of injection drugs, recent maintenance opioid agonist therapy with methadone or buprenorphine for opioid use disorders, such as heroin addiction, was associated with a lower incidence of hepatitis C virus infection and may be an effective strategy to reduce injection-drug use and the resulting spread of HCV, according to a study published online by JAMA Internal Medicine. (2014-10-27)

Maintenance opioid therapy for injection-drug users associated with lower incidence of hepatitis c
In a group of young users of injection drugs, recent maintenance opioid agonist therapy with methadone or buprenorphine for opioid use disorders, such as heroin addiction, was associated with a lower incidence of hepatitis C virus infection and may be an effective strategy to reduce injection-drug use and the resulting spread of HCV, according to a study published online by JAMA Internal Medicine. (2014-10-27)

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