Current Tumor News and Events | Page 24

Current Tumor News and Events, Tumor News Articles.
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For women with kidney cancer, belly fat matters
Belly fat affects the odds of women surviving kidney cancer but not men, according to a new study by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. The findings suggest that kidney cancer may develop and progress differently in women than men. (2018-04-03)

Even DNA that doesn't encode genes can drive cancer
The vast majority of genetic mutations associated with cancer occur in non-coding regions of the genome, yet it's unclear how they may influence tumor development or growth. Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center identified nearly 200 mutations in non-coding DNA that play a role in cancer. Each mutation could represent a new cancer drug target. The study is published April 2 in Nature Genetics. (2018-04-02)

Potential of manipulating gut microbiome to boost efficacy of cancer immunotherapies
The composition of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract may hold clues to help predict which cancer patients are most apt to benefit from the personalized cellular therapies that have shown unprecedented promise in the fight against hard-to-treat cancers. (2018-04-02)

Accurately diagnosing genetic disease prevents cancer, saves lives
New research testing a method of genetic screening in colon cancer patients could be the key to preventing cancer for thousands of people. (2018-03-29)

Tumor suppressor protein targets liver cancer
Salk Institute scientists, together with researchers from Switzerland's University of Basel and University Hospital Basel, discovered a protein called LHPP that acts as a molecular switch to turn off the uncontrolled growth of cells in liver cancer. (2018-03-29)

New cancer drug shows promise in pediatric patients with tumor-specific gene mutations
A new cancer drug has proven safe and effective for pediatric patients with a rare tumor gene mutation. The study tested the safety and dose of larotrectinib (LOXO-195) in pediatric patients with a mutation known as tropomyosin receptor kinases (TRK) that can occur in a variety of tumor types. (2018-03-29)

Combination breast cancer therapy targets tumor cells and the blood vessels that feed them
Between 30 and 40 percent of human breast cancers express a defective (mutant) form of p53, a protein that helps cancer cells proliferate and grow. Researchers at the University of Missouri found that combining a cancer therapy, which activates p53 and is currently under a clinical trial, with a second drug therapy that helps suppress tumor blood vessels found in cancer cells, can significantly reduce breast cancer tumors while causing cancer cell death. (2018-03-26)

Metastatic cancer cells modify bone remodeling with small RNA secretion in bone metastasis
Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes and spreads to bone, causing severe pain, fractures, and other complications. The mechanisms that allow cancer cells to modify bone remodeling are incompletely understood. Researchers at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) identified a microRNA, miR-940, that is abundant in exosomes secreted by prostate cancer cells and can trigger bone-forming lesions in mice. The findings indicate that microRNAs play a key role in bone metastatic environment and suggest potential novel therapeutic targets for bone metastasis. (2018-03-23)

Bacteria may promote pancreatic cancer by suppressing the immune system
Bacterial load was significantly higher in pancreatic tumor samples from patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma compared with pancreatic tissue from normal individuals, and in studies using mice, eliminating certain 'bad' bacteria slowed the growth of pancreatic cancer, reversed immune suppression, and upregulated the immune checkpoint protein PD1. (2018-03-22)

Attacking lymphoma at the source
The efficacy of target specific therapies in lymphoma is limited to subgroups of patients. EPFL scientists have identified a mechanism that confers resistance against a common therapy for lymphoma. They propose an alternative treatment that targets lymphoma signaling at its root, and show that it can be effective in a broader group of patients. The study is published in the journal Blood. (2018-03-22)

Novel genomics tool enables more accurate identification of rare mutations in cancer cells
A new computational method developed by researchers at the New York Genome Center (NYGC) allows scientists to identify rare gene mutations in cancer cells with greater accuracy and sensitivity than currently available approaches. The technique, reported in today's Communications Biology from Nature Research publishing, is called Lancet and represents a major advance in the identification of tumor cell mutations, a process known as somatic variant calling. (2018-03-22)

Metastatic lymph nodes can be the source of distant metastases in mouse models of cancer
A study by Massachusetts General Hospital investigators finds that, in mouse models, cancer cells from metastatic lymph nodes can escape into the circulation by invading nodal blood vessels, leading to the development of metastases in other parts of the body. (2018-03-22)

Gradual release of immunotherapy at site of tumor surgery prevents tumors from returning
A new study by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute scientists suggests it may be possible to prevent tumors from recurring and to eradicate metastatic growths by implanting a gel containing immunotherapy during surgical removal of a tumor. (2018-03-21)

Researchers discover new anti-cancer protein
An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Professor Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in Nature that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer. (2018-03-21)

ENDO 18: New model, new drugs, and a 'remarkable' response in adrenal cancer
Two University of Colorado Cancer Center studies presented at ENDO 2018 use new models to identify genetic targets and test promising treatments in adrenal cancer. One patient was treated with the immunotherapy pembrolizumab and now more than a year after starting treatment remains on the drug with 77 percent tumor reduction and no new metastases. (2018-03-19)

Cancer comes back all jacked up on stem cells
Three tumor samples collected over time from a single patient shows how cancer evolves in response to treatment: A higher percentage of cancer stem cells in the final sample make a more aggressive disease. (2018-03-19)

New biomarkers for neuroblastoma, a type of cancer in children
Two new biomarkers for a type of cancer in children called neuroblastoma have been identified in a study published in the journal Cancer Cell. The findings are expected to have immediate significance for disease prognosis, and eventually also for treatment. (2018-03-19)

Transcription factor helps tumors grow in low oxygen, resist anticancer therapies
An international team of researchers led by Keiji Tanimoto found how cancer cells respond to DNA damage signaling when in low oxygen, or hypoxia. Through comprehensive gene expression analyses, the team determined how one family of genes controls DNA damage response, as well as how they weaken the effectiveness of anticancer therapies. (2018-03-19)

Improved capture of cancer cells could aid in disease tracking
In the journal Clinical Cancer Research, researchers reported that by forcing cancer cells to slow down and developing stronger molecular traps for them, they could identify large numbers of the cells in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. (2018-03-15)

Treatment for male anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis patients
Treatments for the anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis usually include steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange, plasmapheresis, rituximab, cyclophosphamide and tumor resection. The researchers aimed to compare the efficacy of the treatments including intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange, plasmapheresis, rituximab or cyclophosphamide for male anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis patients without tumor and to discuss potential biomarkers for this disease. (2018-03-14)

Moffitt researchers use single-cell imaging & math models to find effect drug properties
Drug therapies that target a specific molecule have changed the way patients are treated for cancer and greatly improved survival rates. However, some patients do not respond to these therapies because the drug is not reaching the tumor cells effectively. In a new study published in Scientific Reports, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers combined single-cell imaging of cancer cells in mice with mathematical modeling to determine which drug characteristics are the most important for efficient drug uptake. (2018-03-13)

Preclinical characterization of therapeutic antibodies
These findings led them to hypothesize that antibodies generated against the C-terminus Shh epitope can bind and neutralize full-length Shh found exclusively on the CSC population, while leaving the cleaved N-terminus Shh, important for physiologic Shh signaling, unperturbed. (2018-03-12)

Polymer nanoparticle shows ability to locate and treat breast tumors
One major problem in treating cancer is identifying the location of small tumors and treating them before they metastasize. (2018-03-12)

Imaging agent helps predict success of lung cancer therapy
Doctors contemplating the best therapy for lung cancer patients may soon be able to predict the efficacy of a widely used lung cancer drug based on an imaging agent and a simple scan, according to the findings of a new clinical trial co-led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine. (2018-03-07)

Insights into how brain cancer evades the immune system
A new study by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital finds that some types of glioblastoma tumors may be able to shed extracellular vesicles (EVs) -- small packages of biomaterial -- that can help to suppress the body's ability to mount an immune response against the tumor. (2018-03-07)

Study suggests molecular imaging strategy for determining molecular classifications of NSCLC
Recent findings suggest a novel positron emission tomography (PET) imaging approach determining epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status for improved lung cancer patient management. The findings are published in the March 7 issue of Science Translational Medicine. (2018-03-07)

UNC Lineberger researchers identify genetic 'seeds' of metastatic breast cancer
University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers have identified genetic clues that explain how breast cancer spreads, or metastasizes - findings that may lead to better treatments or approaches to prevent its spread at the onset. (2018-03-05)

Deeper look at biopsy exposes mutation ready to ambush drug combination
A powerful resistance mutation that appeared to emerge in melanoma after a patient received a targeted therapy combination, instead was lurking in the tumor all along, primed to thwart treatment before it began, researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center report online at Cancer Discovery. (2018-03-02)

Johns Hopkins researchers invent new technology for cancer immunotherapy
Johns Hopkins researchers have invented a new class of cancer immunotherapy drugs that are more effective at harnessing the power of the immune system to fight cancer. This new approach, which was reported in Nature Communications, results in a significant decrease of tumor growth, even against cancers that do not respond to existing immunotherapy. (2018-03-01)

Researchers find new target on lethal brain tumor that can be hunted by immune cells
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers and collaborators report they modified immune cells to hunt brain tumors displaying a new molecular target, which they determined is highly prevalent on brain cancer cells. They believe their approach holds promise for a new immunotherapy treatment for glioblastoma, which is the most lethal primary brain tumor. (2018-02-28)

Microfluidic device captures, allows analysis of tumor-specific extracellular vesicles
A new microfluidic device developed by investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital may help realize the potential of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles -- tiny lipid particles that carry molecules through the bloodstream -- as biomarkers that could monitor a tumor's response to therapy and provide detailed information to guide treatment choice. (2018-02-27)

Jekyll and Hyde and seek
Writing in the Feb. 27 online issue of Science Signaling, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center describe how a signaling protein that normally suppresses tumors can be manipulated (or re-programmed) by growth factors, turning it into a driver of malignant growth and metastasis. (2018-02-27)

New research could lead to improved method of treating pancreatic cancer
A heating and freezing process known as dual thermal ablation can kill pancreatic cancer cells, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University at New York. (2018-02-26)

Cancer risk associated with key epigenetic changes occurring through normal aging process
Some scientists have hypothesized that tumor-promoting changes in cells during cancer development--particularly an epigenetic change involving DNA methylation--arise from rogue cells escaping a natural cell deterioration process called senescence. Now, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center demonstrated that instead, tumor-associated epigenetic states evolve erratically during early stages of tumor development, eventually selecting for a subset of genes that undergo the most changes during normal aging and in early tumor development. (2018-02-22)

UT Dallas scientists isolate cancer stem cells using novel method
Researchers at The University of Texas at Dallas have devised a new technique to isolate aggressive cells thought to form the root of many hard-to-treat metastasized cancers -- a significant step toward developing new drugs that might target these cells. (2018-02-22)

New therapeutic gel shows promise against cancerous tumors
Scientists at the UNC School of Medicine and NC State have created an injectable gel-like scaffold that can hold combination chemo-immunotherapeutic drugs and deliver them locally to tumors in a sequential manner. The results in animal models so far suggest this approach could one day ramp up therapeutic benefits for patients bearing tumors or after removal of the primary tumors. (2018-02-21)

Scientists discover new nanoparticle, dubbed exomeres
A new cellular messenger discovered by Weill Cornell Medicine scientists may help reveal how cancer cells co-opt the body's intercellular delivery service to spread to new locations in the body. (2018-02-21)

Stem cell vaccine immunizes lab mice against multiple cancers
Stanford University researchers report that injecting mice with inactivated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) launched a strong immune response against breast, lung, and skin cancers. The vaccine also prevented relapses in animals that had tumors removed. The work appears in the journal Cell Stem Cell on Feb. 15. (2018-02-15)

Huntington's disease provides new cancer weapon
Patients with Huntington's disease, a fatal genetic illness that causes the breakdown of nerve cells in the brain, have up to 80 percent less cancer than the general population. Scientists have discovered why Huntington's is so toxic to cancer cells and harnessed it for a novel approach to treat cancer, a new study reports. (2018-02-12)

Cancer-fighting nanorobots programmed to seek and destroy tumors
In a major advancement in nanomedicine, Arizona State University (ASU) scientists, in collaboration with researchers from the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST), of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, have successfully programmed nanorobots to shrink tumors by cutting off their blood supply. (2018-02-12)

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