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Oncotarget: The role of miRNA-133b and its target gene SIRT1 in FAP-derived desmoid tumor
Volume 11, Issue 26 of Oncotarget reported that in this study the authors studied the differences in mi RNA expression between sporadic and FAP-associated Desmoid tumors using microarray confirmed by quantitative PCR. (2020-10-12)

Oncotarget: Cooperative tumorigenic effects of targeted deletions of tumor suppressors
Volume 11, Issue 28 of Oncotarget features ''Genetic analysis of the cooperative tumorigenic effects of targeted deletions of tumor suppressors Rb1, Trp53, Men1, and Pten in neuroendocrine tumors in mice'' by Xu et, al. which reported that the authors examined whether the TSGs Rb1, Trp53, Pten, and Men1 have cooperative effects in suppressing neuroendocrine tumors in mice. (2020-10-11)

VAV1 gene mutations trigger T-cell tumors in mice
Researchers at the University of Tsukuba have shown how mutations in the VAV1 gene may trigger T-cell neoplasia in laboratory mice. Using cutting-edge research techniques including generation of specific transgenic mice models, tumor cell transplantation, whole transcriptome analysis, whole exome sequencing and in vivo treatment, the team was able to clarify the molecular pathways of T-cell tumor formation. These experimental protocols and animal models may be useful in evaluating novel treatments for such tumors. (2020-10-11)

Urine-based liquid biopsy test outperforms urine cytology in detecting bladder cancer
Analysis of DNA copy number variants (CNVs) in the cells exfoliated in urine showed better sensitivity and similar specificity in detecting urothelial carcinoma compared with urine cytology (2020-10-09)

Potential drug treatment for particular type of lung-cancer
Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Nature Communications the mechanism making some lung-cancer patients resistant to the drug osimertinib. In addition, they suggest a combined drug treatment resolving osimertinib resistance in the case of cancer cells expressing low amounts of AXL, a protein belonging to the class of receptor tyrosine kinases. (2020-10-05)

Cancer cells use nerve-cell tricks to spread from one organ to the next
New research suggests that breast and lung tumors metastasize by hijacking a neural signaling pathway, potentially opening the door to better diagnostics and treatments. (2020-09-30)

Scientists propose immune cocktail therapy to boost cancer-immunity cycle in multiple aspects
A research team led by Prof. TIAN Huayu from the Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry (CIAC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences proposed an innovative immune cocktail therapy that combined ICT along with other therapeutic approaches. The cocktail therapy achieved multiple boosting of the cancer-immunity cycle by utilizing a nano-delivery system. (2020-09-30)

Scientists kill cancer cells by 'shutting the door' to the nucleus
Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have shown that blocking the construction of nuclear pores complexes--large channels that control the flow of materials in and out of the cell nucleus--shrank aggressive tumors in mice while leaving healthy cells unharmed. The study, published in Cancer Discovery, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, reveals a new Achilles heel for cancer that may lead to better treatments for deadly tumors such as melanoma, leukemia and colorectal cancer. (2020-09-28)

New insights into colorectal cancer: Growth factor R-spondin suppresses tumor growth
R-spondin, which enhances the growth of healthy cells in the gut, suppresses the growth of intestinal adenoma cells, thus reducing the formation of intestinal tumors. (2020-09-23)

Algorithms uncover cancers' hidden genetic losses and gains
Limitations in DNA sequencing technology make it difficult to detect some major mutations often linked to cancer, such as the loss or duplication of parts of chromosomes. Now, methods developed by Princeton computer scientists will allow researchers to more accurately identify these mutations in cancerous tissue, yielding a clearer picture of the evolution and spread of tumors than was previously possible. (2020-09-17)

Immunotherapy: Enhancing the therapeutic effectiveness of photothermal cancer treatments
Immune checkpoint blockade is the most promising therapy mode of cancer immunotherapy. But the therapeutic efficiency remains low mainly due to immunosuppression. Near-infrared light can be used to stimulate black phosphorus to produce heat, which can then be a specific immunological stimulator for reversing immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. The light-induced black phosphorus (BP) nanosystem,combined with anti-CD47 antibody offers significant synergistic antitumor effect and activates local and systemic anti-tumor immunity. (2020-09-15)

Feeding off fusion or the immortalization of tumor cells
Despite all recent progress, cancer remains one of the deadliest human diseases. In a new publication that appeared in the journal Cell, researchers from Jürgen Knoblich's lab at IMBA - Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences - found a very surprising and unexpected connection between the formation of tumors and mitochondria, the power house of the cells, that allows neural stem cells that normally build our brain to become deadly tumor cells. (2020-09-11)

Novel discovery challenges a current kidney cancer paradigm
Newly published research has reversed our understanding of an aspect of kidney tumor growth. Researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah discovered that two key proteins have opposite roles than what was previously believed. (2020-09-11)

How loss of single gene fuels deadly childhood brain cancer
UC San Diego researchers describe how the functional loss of a single gene negatively impacts neural development and promotes the growth of a particularly deadly form of pediatric brain cancer. (2020-09-10)

A lack of oxygen in tumors promotes metastasis
Metastases are formed by cancer cells that break away from the primary tumor. A research group at the University of Basel has now identified lack of oxygen as the trigger for this process. The results reveal an important relationship between the oxygen supply to tumors and the formation of metastases. This research may open up new treatment strategies for cancer. (2020-09-08)

Markers may predict patient response to immune therapy of cancer
Researchers have developed an approach to help identify potential clinical markers that may indicate which patients will respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors and which should be treated with other strategies. (2020-09-07)

Novel insights of how prostate cancer causes secondary tumors
An increased awareness on a molecular level of what mechanisms prostate cancer cells use to become mobile and start spreading may in the long run provide new opportunities for treatment of aggressive prostate cancer. This according to a new study by researchers at Umeå University, Sweden, in collaboration with researchers in Uppsala and Tokyo. (2020-09-03)

Attacking tumors from the inside
A new technology that allows researchers to peer inside malignant tumors shows that two experimental drugs can normalize aberrant blood vessels, oxygenation, and other aspects of the tumor microenvironment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), helping to suppress the tumor's growth and spread, UT Southwestern researchers report. (2020-09-03)

How mechanical forces nudge tumors toward malignancy
Researchers studying two forms of skin cancer identified a long-overlooked factor determining why some tumors are more likely to metastasize than others: the physical properties of the tissue in which the cancer originates. The findings might set the stage for new ways to monitor and treat the diseases in the future. (2020-09-02)

Effective cancer immunotherapy further linked to regulating a cell 'suicide' gene
Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have added to evidence that a gene responsible for turning off a cell's natural ''suicide'' signals may also be the culprit in making breast cancer and melanoma cells resistant to therapies that use the immune system to fight cancer. A summary of the research, conducted with mice and human cells, appeared Aug. 25 in Cell Reports. (2020-09-01)

Nanomaterials based strategies for treatment of hypoxic tumor
Hypoxic tumor microenvironment restricts efficiency of tumor therapies and leads to serious results of tumor recurrence and high mortality. Different strategies to treat hypoxic tumors based on nanomaterials have been utilized to eliminate the side effects of hypoxia on tumor therapies. The strategies could be summarized into two classes, i) elevating oxygen level in tumor by nanomaterials and ii) diminishing oxygen dependence of nanomaterials for hypoxic tumor therapy. (2020-08-31)

Radiation for young adult cancer linked to worse BC survival in premenopausal women
Bottom Line: Among premenopausal women with breast cancer, those who were previously treated with radiation for a primary childhood, adolescent, or young adult cancer had worse breast cancer-specific survival. (2020-08-26)

New therapy targets breast cancer metastases in brain
When breast cancer spreads to the brain, the prognosis is grim. Patients only have about six months to live. Women with HER2-positive breast cancer tend to develop brain metastases in up to 55% of cases. Chemotherapy drugs targeting breast cancer cells in the brain aren't effective, because they can't cross the blood-brain-barrier. But a new combination therapy targeting breast cancer tumors in the brain dramatically decreased tumor size and increased survival in a preclinical study. (2020-08-26)

Finding a way to STING tumor growth
The immune protein STING has long been noted for helping protect against viruses and tumors by signaling a well-known immune molecule. Now, UT Southwestern scientists have revealed that STING also activates a separate pathway, one that directly kills tumor-fighting immune cells. (2020-08-24)

New treatment developed by CHOP shows success in high-risk solid tumors
In a breakthrough study, researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) have shown that an enhanced treatment developed in their lab leads to long-term remissions in 80% to 100% of mice with drug-resistant or high-risk solid tumors. The research, which could soon lead to clinical trials, is described in Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. (2020-08-24)

A metabolic enzyme as a potential new target for cancer immune therapies
The metabolic enzyme IL4I1 (Interleukin-4-Induced-1) promotes the spread of tumor cells and suppresses the immune system. This was discovered by scientists at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH). The enzyme that activates the dioxin receptor is produced in large quantities by tumor cells. In the future, substances that inhibit IL4I1 could open up new opportunities for cancer therapy. The scientists have now published their results in the journal Cell. (2020-08-20)

Drugs against alpha-ketoglutarate may combat deadly childhood brain tumor
Every year, 150 to 300 children in the United States are diagnosed with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs), aggressive and lethal tumors that grow deep inside the brain, for which there are no cures. In a study funded by the National Institutes of Health, researchers showed that experimental drugs designed to lower the body's natural production of alpha-ketoglutarate extended the lives of mice harboring DIPG tumors by slowing the growth of the cancer cells. (2020-08-18)

Why young and female patients don't respond as well to cancer immunotherapy
UC San Diego researchers discovered that tumor cells in younger and female patients accumulate cancer-causing mutations that are more poorly presented to the immune system, better enabling tumors to escape detection and clearance. (2020-08-17)

Exploring connections between ovarian cancer and blood cells
Recent discoveries made by researchers at Texas A&M University could change the way ovarian cancer is understood and treated. (2020-08-14)

Study suggests new potential approach against fatal childhood brain cancer
In mouse models of DIPG, a fatal childhood brain cancer, simultaneously attacking two metabolic pathways led to significant improvements in survival. (2020-08-13)

A cancer mystery of more than 40 years ago is solved thanks to epigenetics
In an article that was just published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) by the group of Dr. Manel Esteller, Director of the Josep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute, ICREA Research Professor and Professor of Genetics at the University of Barcelona is solved this mystery by describing that in cancer cells the protein that generates the nucleotide ''Y'' is epigenetically inactivated, causing small but highly aggressive tumors. (2020-08-12)

Immunotherapy-resistant cancers eliminated in mouse study
In a mouse study, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that an antibody that targets the protein TREM2 empowers tumor-destroying immune cells and improves the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy. (2020-08-11)

Magnesium alloy with eddy-thermal effect for novel tumor magnetic hyperthermia therapy
Magnetic hyperthermia therapy (MHT) as a noninvasive local treatment strategy is able to ablate tumors. There is still a demand to find new magnetocaloric agents with strong AMF-induced heating performance and excellent biocompatibility. The eddy thermal effect of magnesium alloy (MgA) could be employed for MHT to effectively ablate tumors was reported by scientists based in China. Considering the wide clinical use of implantable MgA devices, such a strategy holds great promise in clinical translation. (2020-08-10)

Genes related to down syndrome abnormalities may protect against solid tumors
Scientists from Stanley Manne Children's Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago discovered that a set of genes with decreased expression in individuals with Down syndrome may lead to clinical abnormalities in this population, such as poor muscle development and heart valve problems. Impairment in these same genes may also protect people with Down syndrome from developing solid tumors. Their findings were published in Scientific Reports. (2020-08-06)

Tasmanian devil research offers new insights for tackling cancer in humans
Researchers found a single genetic mutation that leads to reduced growth of a transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils in the wild. The finding gives hope for the animals' survival and could lead to new treatment for human cancers. (2020-08-06)

Dozens of pesticides linked with mammary gland tumors in animal studies
In an analysis of how regulators review pesticides for their potential to cause cancer, researchers at Silent Spring Institute identified more than two dozen registered pesticides that were linked with mammary gland tumors in animal studies. The new findings raise concerns about how the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approves pesticides for use and the role of certain pesticides in the development of breast cancer. (2020-08-04)

Minimally invasive percutaneous treatment for osteoid osteoma of the spine
Osteoid osteomas are benign but painful bone-forming tumors usually involving long bones, with localization at the spine in 10-20% of the cases. In the last years, percutaneous radiofrequency ablation has been proposed as a new mini-invasive technique for the treatment of osteoid osteomas. (2020-07-31)

Precision medicine identifies key recurring mutation in head and neck cancers
Researchers at UC San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center report that an investigational drug candidate called tipifarnib showed promise in treating key recurring mutation in head and neck cancers. (2020-07-30)

Deadly genetic synergy in cancer cells could be exploited for therapy
A Ludwig Cancer Research study has identified a new instance in which the simultaneous mutation of two nonessential genes -- neither of which is on its own vital to cell survival -- can cause cancer cell death. (2020-07-27)

The first mouse model of human pancreas cancer subtypes
Organoids power the first mouse model of two pancreas cancer subtypes, identifying genes influencing a lethal transformation of one subtype to the other. (2020-07-23)

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