Current Visual Acuity News and Events

Current Visual Acuity News and Events, Visual Acuity News Articles.
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Sleep is vital to associating emotion with memory, according to U-M study
When you slip into sleep, it's easy to imagine that your brain shuts down, but University of Michigan research suggests that groups of neurons activated during prior learning keep humming, tattooing memories into your brain. (2021-02-22)

'In the blink of an eye' statistics
HSE University researchers Yuri Markov and Natalia Tiurina discovered that when people visually estimate the size of objects, they are also able to consider their distance from the observer, even if there are many such objects. The observers rely not only on the objects' retinal representation, but also on the surrounding context. The paper was published in the journal Acta Psychologica. (2021-02-19)

Neural pathway critical to correcting behavioral errors related to psych disorders found
Mount Sinai researchers have identified a neural pathway through which the brain detects errors and guides subsequent behavioral improvement (2021-02-19)

Human brain taps into visual cues when lacking a sense of touch - study
Evidence that a sense of our physical selves can develop even without the sense of touch has been uncovered in a new study by researchers in the UK and the United States. (2021-02-18)

Evidence shows how the human brain may tap into visual cues when lacking a sense of touch
Researchers at the University of Chicago, the University of Birmingham, and Bournemouth University have uncovered evidence that physical embodiment can occur without the sense of touch, thanks to a study involving two participants who lack the ability to feel touch. (2021-02-15)

White contours induce red hue
A color illusion that strongly induces color contrast effect has been found by a research team at the Toyohashi University of Technology. The powerful visual illusion clarified a century-old contradiction relating to simultaneous color contrast theory. The team demonstrated that the presence or absence of flanking contours formed from extremely thin white lines could be used to switch between contradictory visual phenomena. This solution is expected to contribute to industrial design and high-definition imaging. (2021-02-10)

Experiment shows how our visual system avoids overloading
Russian researchers from HSE University have studied a hypothesis regarding the capability of the visual system to automatically categorize objects (i.e., without requiring attention span). The results of a simple and beautiful experiment confirmed this assumption. The paper was published in the journal Scientific Reports. The study was supported by a Russian Science Foundation grant. (2021-02-09)

Correspondence between representations in visual cortices and neural networks
A research group led by Nobuhiko Wagatsuma, Lecturer at Toho University, Akinori Hidaka, Associate Professor at Tokyo Denki University, and Hiroshi Tamura, Associate Professor at Osaka University, found that the neural network structure of attention prediction, based on deep learning used in the development of artificial intelligence, has similar characteristics to the cerebral mechanism of primates. (2021-02-08)

Audiovisual professionalisation affects how the brain perceives media content
According to a study conducted by the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, the Instituto Radio Televisión Española and the Universidad Pablo de Olavide in Seville, audiovisual professionals decrease their eyeblink rate after cuts, suggesting that they can better manage the loss of visual information that blinking entails. (2021-02-05)

Brain-related visual problems may affect one in 30 primary school children
A brain-related visual impairment, which until recently was thought to be rare, may affect one in every 30 children according to new research investigating the prevalence of Cerebral Visual Impairment [CVI]. The University of Bristol-led findings published today [3 February] in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, aim to raise awareness of CVI among parents and teachers to help them identify signs of the condition earlier. (2021-02-03)

The benefits of reading outdoors
Investigators demonstrate that image luminance has opposite effects on the contrast sensitivity of cortical pathways signaling lights than darks. It impairs luminance discrimination for the brightest stimuli of the scene while improving it for the darkest stimuli, a mechanism that is needed to efficiently sample natural scenes. (2021-02-02)

Remyelinating drug could improve vision in patients with multiple sclerosis
A team led by a biomedical scientist at the University of California, Riverside, reports a drug -- an estrogen receptor ligand called indazole chloride (IndCl) -- has the potential to improve vision in patients with multiple sclerosis, or MS. The study, performed on mice induced with a model of MS and the first to investigate IndCl's effect on the pathology and function of the complete afferent visual pathway, is published in Brain Pathology. (2021-02-02)

A study reveals that the brain distributes sensory information highly efficiently
Extracting information from a small fraction of neurons, according to a study published in Nature Communications, involving Rubén Moreno-Bote, a researcher at the Center for Brain and Cognition, together with researchers from the University of Zaragoza and the University of the Basque Country, led by Harvard University (USA). (2021-02-01)

Halved risk for severe retinal disease in extremely premature infants
Risk for a severe form of retinopathy of prematurity, which can cause blindness in extremely premature babies, was halved when the newborns were given a new supplement combining various fatty acids. This was shown in a Swedish study led from the University of Gothenburg. (2021-02-01)

In a tight spot
A newly discovered circuit helps fish to prioritize. (2021-01-27)

Hypnotic suggestions can make a complex task easy by helping vision fill in the blanks
New research demonstrates that hypnosis--the process of focusing a person's attention on a specific task or sensation--can turn a normally difficult visual task into a far easier one by helping individuals mentally ''fill in the gaps'' of missing visual cues. (2021-01-27)

Children cannot ignore what they hear when detecting emotions
Children determine emotion by what they hear, rather than what they see, according to new research. The first-of-its-kind study, by Durham University's Department of Psychology, looked at how children pick up on the emotions of a situation. They found that whilst adults prioritised what they see, young children showed an auditory dominance and overwhelmingly prioritised what they could hear. The researchers say their findings could benefit parents currently managing home learning and professional educators. (2021-01-26)

In ED patients with chest and abdominal pain, care delivered by physicians and APPs is si
In patients matched on complexity and acuity presenting to the emergency department with chest pain and abdominal pain, the care delivered by advanced practice providers (APPs) and emergency physicians is largely similar with respect to diagnostic test ordering and admission decisions. (2021-01-25)

Growing up in a bilingual home has lasting benefits
New research has found that growing up in a bilingual home can provide unexpected cognitive benefits later in life. The study, published in the journal Scientific Reports, demonstrates for the first time that adults who acquired their second language as a young child (early bilinguals) are quicker at shifting attention and quicker at detecting visual changes compared to adults who learnt their second language later in life (late bilinguals). (2021-01-22)

Neuronal recycling: This is how our brain allows us to read
Is there an area and cognitive mechanism in our brain specifically devoted to reading? Probably not. According to new research, underlying reading there is evolutionarily ancient function more generally used to process many other visual stimuli. We process letters and words similarly to how we do with any visual stimulus: we identify basic features as shape, size, structure. On the basis of the statistical frequency of specific symbols, we can recognise orthography, understand it and immerse ourselves in the pleasure of reading. (2021-01-21)

Tiny high-tech probes reveal how information flows across the brain
A new study from researchers at the Allen Institute collected and analyzed the largest single dataset of neurons' electrical activity to glean principles of how we perceive the visual world around us. The study, published Wednesday in the journal Nature, captures the hundreds of split-second electrical signals that fire when an animal is interpreting what it sees. (2021-01-20)

A biological strategy reveals how efficient brain circuitry develops spontaneously
Researchers have explained how the regularly structured topographic maps in the visual cortex of the brain could arise spontaneously to efficiently process visual information. This research provides a new framework for understanding functional architectures in the visual cortex during early developmental stages. (2021-01-19)

Eye tests predict Parkinson's-linked cognitive decline 18 months ahead
Simple vision tests can predict which people with Parkinson's disease will develop cognitive impairment and possible dementia 18 months later, according to a new study by UCL researchers. In a related study, the researchers also found that structural and functional connections of brain regions become decoupled throughout the entire brain in people with Parkinson's disease, particularly among people with vision problems. (2021-01-19)

Appreciating a flower's texture, color, and shape leads to better drone landings
A team of TU Delft and the Westphalian University of Applied Sciences researchers present an optical flow-based learning process that allows robots to estimate distances through the visual appearance (shape, color, texture) of the objects in view. This artificial intelligence (AI)-based learning strategy increases the navigation skills of small flying drones and entails a new hypothesis on insect intelligence. (2021-01-19)

Genetic rewiring behind spectacular evolutionary explosion in East Africa
Genetic rewiring could have driven an evolutionary explosion in the shapes, sizes and adaptations of cichlid fish, in East Africa's answer to Darwin's Galapagos finches. (2021-01-19)

Glass frogs living near roaring waterfalls wave hello to attract mates
A University of California, Berkeley, conservationist has discovered that the glass frog Sachatamia orejuela can be added to the list of species that make use of visual cues in response to their acoustic environments. This is the first time a member of the glass frog family (Centrolenidae) has been observed using visual communication in this manner. (2021-01-15)

Tweaking AI software to function like a human brain improves computer's learning ability
Computer-based artificial intelligence can function more like human intelligence when programmed to use a much faster technique for learning new objects, say two neuroscientists who designed such a model that was designed to mirror human visual learning. (2021-01-12)

A brain mechanism underlying 'vision' in the blind is revealed
Researchers observed slow spontaneous fluctuations in the brain's visual centers that preceded visual hallucinations in blind people. (2021-01-07)

What happens when your brain can't tell which way is up or down?
What feels like up may actually be some other direction depending on how our brains process our orientation, according to psychology researchers at York University's Faculty of Health. In a new study published in PLoS One, researchers at York University's Centre for Vision Research found that an individual's interpretation of the direction of gravity can be altered by how their brain responds to visual information. (2021-01-07)

Tracing the many paths of vision
New study decodes the molecular diversity of neurons in the zebrafish retina. (2020-12-23)

Cataract surgery in infancy increases glaucoma risk
Children who undergo cataract surgery as infants have a 22% risk of glaucoma 10 years later, whether or not they receive an intraocular lens implant. The findings come from the National Eye Institute (NEI)-funded Infant Aphakic Treatment Study, which today published 10-year follow-up results in JAMA Ophthalmology. NEI is part of the National Institutes of Health. (2020-12-17)

NIH researchers discover brain area crucial for recognizing visual events
Researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) report that a brain region in the superior temporal sulcus (fSTS) is crucial for processing and making decisions about visual information. (2020-12-17)

Study in mice shows genes may be altered through drug repurposing
Researchers screened drugs that can enhance the PAX6 gene and found MEK inhibitors can stimulate PAX6 expression in the eye. They tested this drug in newborn PAX6 deficient mice and found that either topical or oral administration of the drug enhanced PAX6 and partially normalized their eye development. Mice treated with topical MEK inhibitor had clearer corneas (less scarring) and could see better. (2020-12-17)

Surgical and drug treatment options lead to similar outcomes for diabetic eye disease
Surgical and injectable drug approaches are equally effective for treatment of bleeding inside the eye from proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), according to a National Eye Institute (NEI)-supported clinical study from the DRCR Retina Network (DRCR.net). (2020-12-15)

Augmented reality visor makes cake taste moister, more delicious
Researchers have developed an augmented reality (AR) visor system that enables them to manipulate the light coming off food in such a way as to 'trick' people consuming the food into experiencing it as more or less moist, watery, or even delicious. (2020-12-15)

How childhood brain function and memory skills shape each other
In early childhood, memory skills predict the strength of future brain connections, and conversely, the strength of early brain connections predict future memory acuity. New research published in JNeurosci highlights the complex, bidirectional relationship between brain function and ability during development. (2020-12-14)

Artificial visual system of record-low energy consumption for the next generation of AI
A joint research led by City University of Hong Kong (CityU) has built an ultralow-power consumption artificial visual system to mimic the human brain, which successfully performed data-intensive cognitive tasks. Their experiment results could provide a promising device system for the next generation of artificial intelligence (AI) applications. (2020-12-11)

A matter of balance: asymmetric divisions are crucial to form a functional retina
Researchers at the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência and the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden, Germany, have discovered that in the developing retina, and important part of the central nervous system, the divisions leading to the first differentiating neurons are asymmetric and that this asymmetry is necessary to generate the correct types of neurons in the right numbers and proportions. (2020-12-11)

Diet modifications - including more wine and cheese - may help reduce cognitive decline
The foods we eat may have a direct impact on our cognitive acuity in our later years, according to new Iowa State University research. The study is the first of its kind to connect specific foods with cognitive decline. The findings show cheese protected against age-related cognitive problems and red wine was related to improvements in cognitive function. (2020-12-10)

Eyebuy: Sweeping glances can cost you money
When Christmas shopping, customers should keep their eyes unter control. As a study by researchers from Austria, Germany and UK shows, visual attention can be strongly influenced during shopping with very simple interventions. The researchers report in the Journal of Consumer Research that unplanned purchases can even double as a result. (2020-12-08)

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