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Current White Matter News and Events, White Matter News Articles.
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Alpha particles lurk at the surface of neutron-rich nuclei
Scientists from an international collaboration have found evidence of alpha particles at the surface of neutron-rich heavy nuclei, providing new insights into the structure of neutron stars, as well as the process of alpha decay. (2021-01-21)

Innovations through hair-thin optical fibres
Scientists at the University of Bonn have built hair-thin optical fibre filters in a very simple way. They are not only extremely compact and stable, but also colour-tunable. This means they can be used in quantum technology and as sensors for temperature or for detecting atmospheric gases. The results have been published in the journal ''Optics Express''. (2021-01-20)

Eye tests predict Parkinson's-linked cognitive decline 18 months ahead
Simple vision tests can predict which people with Parkinson's disease will develop cognitive impairment and possible dementia 18 months later, according to a new study by UCL researchers. In a related study, the researchers also found that structural and functional connections of brain regions become decoupled throughout the entire brain in people with Parkinson's disease, particularly among people with vision problems. (2021-01-19)

Eggs reveal what may happen to brain on impact
Our brains consist of soft matter bathed in watery cerebrospinal fluid inside a hard skull, and in Physics of Fluids, researchers describe studying another system with the same features, an egg, to search for answers about concussions. Considering that in most concussive brain injuries, the skull does not break, they wanted to find out if it was possible to break or deform the egg yolk without breaking the eggshell. (2021-01-19)

Vermont's BIPOC drivers are most likely to have a run-in with police, study shows
Examining more than 800,000 police stops in Vermont between 2014 to 2019, researchers confirm that Vermont authorities stop, ticket, arrest and search Black drivers at a rate far beyond their share of the state's total driving population. (2021-01-18)

Study: X-Rays surrounding 'Magnificent 7' may be traces of sought-after particle
A new study, led by a theoretical physicist at Berkeley Lab, suggests that never-before-observed particles called axions may be the source of unexplained, high-energy X-ray emissions surrounding a group of neutron stars. (2021-01-15)

Helium nuclei at the surface of heavy nuclei discovered
Scientists are able to selectively knockout nucleons and preformed nuclear clusters from atomic nuclei using high-energy proton beams. In an experiment the existence of preformed helium nuclei at the surface of several tin isotopes could be identified in a reaction. The results confirm a theory, which predicts the formation of helium clusters in low-density nuclear matter and at the surface of heavy nuclei. (2021-01-15)

USC study measures brain volume differences in people with HIV
With access to treatment, HIV has become a lifelong chronic condition for the majority of 38 million people living with it. Understanding how it affects the brain over time is increasingly important for improving both treatment and quality of life. A new study of brain scans of 1,203 HIV-infected adults across 5 continents found that with people with lower white blood cell counts also had less brain volume in the hippocampus and thalamus. (2021-01-15)

Measurements of pulsar acceleration reveal Milky Way's dark side
It is well known that the expansion of the universe is accelerating due to a mysterious dark energy. Within galaxies, stars also experience an acceleration, though this is due to some combination of dark matter and the stellar density. In a new study to be published in Astrophysical Journal Letters researchers have now obtained the first direct measurement of the average acceleration taking place within our home galaxy, the Milky Way. (2021-01-11)

In changing oceans, sea stars may be 'drowning'
New Cornell University-led research suggests that starfish, victims of sea star wasting disease (SSWD), may actually be in respiratory distress - literally 'drowning' in their own environment - as elevated microbial activity derived from nearby organic matter and warm ocean temperatures rob the creatures of their ability to breathe. (2021-01-06)

Mental health of UK women, ethnic minorities especially affected during pandemic
In the UK, men from ethnic minorities and women may have experienced worse mental health declines than White British men, according to a study published January 6, 2021 in the open access journal PLOS ONE by Eugenio Proto and Climent Quintana-Domeque of institutions including the University of Glasgow and the University of Exeter, UK. (2021-01-06)

Mouse study finds link between gut disease and brain injury in premature infants
Working with mice, researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine and the University of Lausanne in Switzerland have identified an immune system cell that they say travels from the gut to the brain and attacks cells rather than protect them as it normally does. (2021-01-06)

Scientists discover mutations associated with early onset dementia
Scientists at Trinity College Dublin today announced a significant advance in our understanding of an early onset form of dementia that may also progress our understanding of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Adult onset Leukoencephalopathy with axonal Spheroids and Pigmented glia (ALSP) is an ultra-rare condition that manifests initially with psychiatric and behavioural changes in patients followed by a rapid progression of dementia in the third or fourth decade of life. (2020-12-22)

Looking for dark matter near neutron stars with radio telescopes
In 1983, theoretical physicist Pierre Sikivie found that axions have another remarkable property: In the presence of an electromagnetic field, they should sometimes spontaneously convert to easily detectable photons. What was once thought to be completely undetectable, turned out to be potentially detectable as long as there is high enough concentration of axions and strong magnetic fields. (2020-12-21)

Optoelectronic devices that emit warm and cool white light
A single semiconducting material can produce white light by emitting light across the visible spectrum. (2020-12-21)

Longest intergalactic gas filament discovered
Astrophysicists led by the University of Bonn (Germany) have for the first time observed a gas filament with a length of 50 million light years. Its structure is strikingly similar to the predictions of computer simulations. The observation therefore also confirms our ideas about the origin and evolution of our universe. The results are published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. (2020-12-17)

How does immersive reality affect implicit racial bias?
A University of Barcelona study shows that when the virtual scenario is affectively negative, implicit bias increases, and even the illusion of owning a virtual body is lessened. Researchers argue that negative affect prevents the formation of new positive associations with black, and distress leads to disownership of the virtual body. Results challenge virtual reality as an empathy machine and may have implications in the way virtual reality should be used to reduce implicit biases. (2020-12-17)

Big brains and white matter: New clues about autism subtypes
Researchers found that a long-accepted theory about brain size in some children with autism may not be true. In a separate study, they linked development of white matter with changes in autism symptom severity. (2020-12-17)

Combined observations of neutron stars constrain their equation of state and the Hubble constant
Combining signals from multiple observations of neutron stars has allowed researchers to better understand the properties of ultra-dense matter and constrain the Hubble constant, which describes how fast the Universe is expanding, according to a new study. (2020-12-17)

Can white dwarfs help solve the cosmological lithium problem?
For the first time, lithium has been identified and measured in the atmosphere of a white dwarf. The finding, reported by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, provides clues for what's become of the lithium expected from the Big Bang. (2020-12-17)

COVID-19 cuts into college students' drinking
When college campuses closed in the spring due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the quantity of alcohol consumed by students decreased significantly if they went from living with peers to living with parents, according to a new report in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. (2020-12-16)

BAME babies at highest risk of Vitamin D deficiency
A third of all babies and half of Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) babies are vitamin D deficient, a large study of 3000 newborn's in the West Midlands has shown. (2020-12-16)

Crowdfunding can affect consumer product choices -- especially when the products do good
A new study from the UBC Sauder School of Business shows that people will pay far more for social good items when they're crowdfunded. (2020-12-16)

Unique prediction of 'modified gravity' challenges dark matter
An international group of scientists, including Case Western Reserve University Astronomy Chair Stacy McGaugh, has published research contending that modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) -- a rival idea to the popular dark matter hypothesis--more accurately predicts a galactic phenomenon that appears to defy the classic rules of gravity. (2020-12-16)

Polariton interactions: Light matters
Why do 2D exciton-polaritons interact? This intriguing quasiparticle, which is part light (photon), and part matter (exciton), doesn't behave as predicted: continuing to interact with other particles when confined to two dimensions in extremely cold conditions. A new FLEET/Monash study finds the answer lies in the 'light-like' characteristics of these quasiparticles, with importance for future applications such as ultra-low energy electronics. (2020-12-16)

Irrelevant information interferes with making decisions, new research reveals
According to new research from behavioral economist Ian Chadd, an assistant professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, irrelevant information or unavailable options often cause people to make bad choices. When both elements are present, the probability of a poor decision is even greater. Through an experiment involving 222 individual tests each consisting of more than 40 questions, Chadd's research revealed that decisions made in an environment of irrelevant information carry time, cognitive, and consequence costs. (2020-12-14)

The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health: Black children diagnosed with severe sepsis are more likely to die than White or Hispanic children, hospital data suggests
Black children hospitalized in the US due to severe sepsis have 20% greater odds of death than White or Hispanic children, according to research published in The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health journal. (2020-12-14)

Masonic Medical Research Institute studies brown fat: Implications in obesity
The Lin Lab at the MMRI, quantified the number of brown fat cells present in newborn animals. For years, researchers have argued over whether brown fat continues to grow after birth. Dr. Lin and his team have become the first to prove that it does. (2020-12-11)

Pizza can help address the dark matter mystery?
The IBS research team developed a novel multiple-cell cavity ('pizza cavity') haloscope that will extend the axion search band to higher-frequency regions. (2020-12-11)

How much does the way you speak reveal about you?
Listeners can extract a lot of information about a person from their acoustic speech signal. During the 179th ASA Meeting, Dec. 7-10, Tessa Bent, Emerson Wolff, and Jennifer Lentz will describe their study in which listeners were told to categorize 144 unique audio clips of monolingual English talkers into Midland, New York City, and Southern U.S. dialect regions, and Asian American, Black/African American, or white speakers. (2020-12-10)

Noninvasive way to explore traumatic brain injuries
A noninvasive method to measure the stiffness parameters along fibrous pathways within the brain is helping researchers explore traumatic brain injuries. The stiffness of these tissues can reveal clues about changes and pathologies within the brain's gray and white matter. During the 179th ASA Meeting, Anthony J. Romano will describe the method known as waveguide elastography. Waveguide elastography merges magnetic resonance elastography and diffusion tensor imaging with a combination of isotropic and anisotropic inversion algorithms. (2020-12-09)

Observing the ultrafast motion of atoms and electrons
Photo-induced electron transfer is central to numerous physical processes, for instance in the magnetization of materials. The quest to understand and control this ultrafast process has long been pursued in vain, with no answer to the question of whether electrons induce atomic motion, or vice versa. To answer this question, the atomic equivalent of the paradox of the chicken and the egg, a consortium of scientists used an X-ray laser (X-FEL) located in Stanford. (2020-12-07)

White blood cells may cause tumor cell death -- but that's not good news
White blood cells are part of many immune system responses in the human body. New research shows that a specific type of those cells may cause brain cancer tissues to die -- but that's not good news, according to researchers at Penn State College of Medicine. They said that higher amounts of this tissue death have been associated with poor survival in patients with aggressive glioblastomas, a deadly type of brain cancer that is common in adults. (2020-12-07)

New pathway in Alzheimer's disease provides earlier target for potential therapies
A novel Alzheimer's disease marker--coming early in progression of the condition--could open significant new fronts of research into possible therapies (2020-12-04)

Once hospitalized, Black patients with COVID-19 have lower risk of death than white
While multiple research studies show that Black and Hispanic patients are more likely to test positive for COVID-19, a team of investigators at NYU Langone Health has found that once hospitalized, Black patients (after controlling for other serious health conditions and neighborhood income) were less likely to have severe illness, die, or be discharged to hospice compared to White patients. (2020-12-04)

Medicine-carriers made from human cells can cure lung infections
Scientists used human white blood cell membranes to carry two drugs, an antibiotic and an anti-inflammatory, directly to infected lungs in mice. The nano-sized drug delivery method successfully treated both the bacterial growth and inflammation in the mice's lungs. The study shows a potential new strategy for treating infectious diseases, including COVID-19. (2020-12-03)

Mortality rate after cancer surgery drops, but gap persists between Black and white patients
Mortality rates after cancer surgery declined for Black as well as white patients during a recent ten-year period, although the mortality gap between the two groups did not narrow, according to new research by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard University investigators. (2020-12-03)

Chicago neighborhoods with barriers to social distancing had higher COVID-19 death rates
New research has found that Chicago neighborhoods with barriers to social distancing, including limited access to broadband internet and low rates of health insurance, had more COVID-19 deaths in spring 2020. (2020-12-03)

How a police contact by middle school leads to different outcomes for Black, white youth
A new University of Washington study finds that Black youth are more likely than white youth to be treated as 'usual suspects' after a first encounter with police, leading to subsequent arrests over time. Even as white young adults report engaging in significantly more illegal behavior, Black young adults face more criminal penalties. (2020-12-03)

A French team has improved the measurement of a fundamental physical constant
A team of French researchers has just conducted the most accurate measurement to date of the fine-structure constant, which characterizes the strength of interaction between light and charged elementary particles, such as electrons. This value has just been determined with an accuracy of 11 significant digits; improving the precision of the previous measurement by a factor of 3. (2020-12-02)

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