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Current White Matter News and Events, White Matter News Articles.
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Connections between two brain regions linked with financial risk tolerance
Researchers have known that connections between two areas of the brain, the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), have been implicated in the development of affective disorders like depression and anxiety. But new research published April 5 in the journal Neuron suggests that this same brain system plays a role in a person's ability to tolerate economic risk. (2018-04-05)

Fragile X imaging study reveals differences in infant brains
For the first time, UNC School of Medicine researchers have used MRIs to show that babies with the neurodevelopmental condition fragile X syndrome had less-developed white matter compared to infants that did not develop the condition. Imaging various sections of white matter from different angles can help researchers focus on the underlying brain circuitry important for proper neuron communication. (2018-04-04)

Monitor detects dangerously low white blood cell levels
MIT researchers have now developed a portable device that could be used to monitor patients' white blood cell levels at home, without taking blood samples. (2018-04-03)

Farthest star ever seen in the universe detected
An international team of researchers including the Kavli IPMU have observed the most distant individual star, 9 billion light years from Earth. (2018-04-02)

Medicare program linked with reduced black-white disparities in hospital readmissions
A Medicare program that penalizes hospitals for high readmission rates was associated with a narrowing of readmission disparities between black and white patients and between minority-serving hospitals and other hospitals in the US, according to a new study from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. (2018-04-02)

How do you make a galaxy without dark matter
A team of astronomers has discovered a unique galaxy -- the first of its kind -- that appears to contain virtually no dark matter. It is an exceptional find since galaxies are commonly thought to contain more dark matter than the ordinary matter that makes up a galaxy's stars, gas and dust. Also, it is generally accepted that galaxies first formed from concentrations of dark matter that act like 'galaxy starters.' (2018-03-28)

Dark matter is a no show in ghostly galaxy
Astronomers using Gemini and W. M. Keck Observatory data in Hawai'i have encountered a galaxy that appears to have almost no dark matter. Since the universe is dominated by dark matter, and it is the foundation upon which galaxies are built, '...this is a game changer,' according to Principal Investigator Pieter van Dokkum of Yale University. (2018-03-28)

Dark matter goes missing in oddball galaxy
Galaxies and dark matter go together like peanut butter and jelly. You typically don't find one without the other. (2018-03-28)

Hubble finds first galaxy in the local Universe without dark matter
An international team of researchers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and several other observatories have, for the first time, uncovered a galaxy that is missing most -- if not all -- of its dark matter. This discovery of the galaxy NGC 1052-DF2 challenges currently-accepted theories of and galaxy formation and provides new insights into the nature of dark matter. The results are published in Nature. (2018-03-28)

Abnormal brain connections seen in preschoolers with autism
Preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder, or ASD, have abnormal connections between certain networks of their brains that can be seen using a special MRI technique, according to a new study. Researchers said the findings may one day help guide treatments for ASD. (2018-03-27)

New device uses biochemistry techniques to detect rare radioactive decays
UTA researchers are now taking advantage of a biochemistry technique that uses fluorescence to detect ions to identify the product of a radioactive decay called neutrinoless double-beta decay that would demonstrate that the neutrino is its own antiparticle. (2018-03-27)

Genes in songbirds hold clues about human speech disorders, UCLA biologists report
New insights about how songbirds learn to sing provide promising clues about human speech disorders and may lead to new ways of treating them. (2018-03-27)

MSU-based scientists described the collision of a shock wave and a 'star cradle'
A mathematician from MSU together with a Russian colleague modeled the formation of filaments (thread-like matter conglomerates) after the collision of a shock wave with molecular clouds in the interstellar space. The work will help the scientists better understand the birth of stars and star systems. The results of the study were published in Computers and Fluids magazine. (2018-03-26)

Prenatal choline intake increases grey and white matter in piglets
Choline intake during pregnancy can influence infant metabolism and brain development, according to a series of studies from the University of Illinois. Although the role of choline in neurodevelopment has been studied before in rodents, the new research, done with pigs, has more relevance to humans. (2018-03-26)

Researchers create new low-cost, sustainable material for reducing air and water pollution
A new class of hybrid materials shows promise as an affordable and sustainable product for reducing particulate matter in air and organic pollutants in wastewater. The material, produced inexpensively from an industrial waste by-product and naturally abundant polymers, performed more efficiently than activated carbon, the current gold standard. (2018-03-20)

Beyond the WIMP: Unique crystals could expand the search for dark matter
A new particle detector design proposed at the US Department of Energy's Berkeley Lab could greatly broaden the search for dark matter -- which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of - into an unexplored realm. (2018-03-20)

The search for dark matter widens
In this week's issue of Journal of Applied Physics, investigators report the discovery of a new material that may be able to directly detect dark matter. The material, known as a scintillator, should be sensitive to dark matter that is lighter than a proton. This will allow the search for dark matter to enter a largely unexplored mass range, below that of the proton. (2018-03-20)

Revolutionary new filter can improve drinking water quality
UNSW Sydney scientists have developed a world-first, graphene-based, laboratory-scale filter that can remove more than 99 percent of the natural organic matter left behind during conventional treatment of drinking water. The filter is being scaled up for possible use in conventional plants. (2018-03-19)

Eliminating injustice imposed by the death penalty
The Black Lives Matter movement has called for the abolition of capital punishment in response to what it calls 'the war against Black people' and 'Black communities.' This article defends the two central contentions in the movement's abolitionist stance: first, that US capital punishment practices represent a wrong to black communities, and second, that the most defensible remedy for this wrong is the abolition of the death penalty. (2018-03-19)

Mice change their appearance as a result of frequent exposure to humans
Many tame domesticated animals have a different appearance compared to their relatives in the wild, for example white patches in their fur or shorter snouts. UZH researchers have now for the first time shown that wild house mice develop the same visible changes -- without selection, as a result of exposure to humans alone. (2018-03-16)

New research sheds light on underlying cause of brain injury in stroke
New research led by Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry shows how the drug QNZ-46 can help to lessen the effects of excess release of glutamate in the brain -- the main cause of brain injury in stroke. As stroke is the second leading cause of disability and early death in the UK, this study could offer hope to thousands of people at risk. (2018-03-15)

UH scientists investigating mysterious dark matter
University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? (2018-03-15)

Studying DNA of ancient humans from Morocco reveals ancestral surprises
After sequencing DNA in bone matter of several 15,000-year-old humans from North Africa, a region critical for understanding human history but one in which it has been challenging to connect genetic dots, researchers report a notable lack of relatedness to ancient Europeans, in their specimens - a finding that rules out hypotheses of gene flow from southern Europe into northern Africa at a particular time. (2018-03-15)

Democratizing science: Making neuroscience experiments easier to share, reproduce
In a paper published online March 5 in Nature Communications, University of Washington researchers unveiled an open-access browser to display, analyze and share neurological data collected through a type of magnetic resonance imaging study known as diffusion-weighted MRI. (2018-03-15)

ADHD drugs increase brain glutamate, predict positive emotion in healthy people
The findings by Brown University scientists offer clues about how misused drugs affect healthy brains and hint at an undiscovered link between glutamate and mood. (2018-03-14)

A study suggests structural difference in the brain of transgender people
As published in Scientific Reports, research conducted in Brazil using magnetic resonance imaging points to variations in the volume of the insula, a brain region associated with body image According to scientists, this trait -- detected in transgenders either adherent or not to hormone treatment, strengthens an understanding that the matter is not related to gender ideology. (2018-03-14)

Ultra-white coating modelled on beetle scales
Researchers have developed a super-thin, non-toxic, lightweight, edible ultra-white coating that could be used to make brighter paints and coatings, for use in the cosmetic, food or pharmaceutical industries. (2018-03-13)

HKUST-PKU physicists quantum simulate topological materials with ultracold atoms
A team of physicists from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and Peking University reported the observation of an SPT phase for ultracold atoms using atomic quantum simulation. This work opens the way to expanding the scope of SPT physics with ultracold atoms and studying non-equilibrium quantum dynamics in these exotic systems. (2018-03-13)

Hawaiian stick spiders re-evolve the same three guises every time they island hop
We don't usually expect evolution to be predictable. But Hawaiian stick spiders of the Ariamnes genus have repeatedly evolved the same distinctive forms, known as ecomorphs, on different islands, researchers report on March 8 in the journal Current Biology. Ecomorphs -- which look similar and live in similar habitats, but aren't as closely related as they appear -- are surprisingly rare. The researchers hope that these newly described ones might help us understand this strange evolutionary pattern. (2018-03-08)

Racial differences in age at breast cancer diagnosis challenges use of single age-based screening guidelines
Among women in the US diagnosed with breast cancer, a higher proportion of nonwhite patients were diagnosed at younger than 50 years of age compared to white patients, suggesting that age-based screening guidelines that do not account for race may result in underscreening of nonwhite women. (2018-03-07)

Young Southern white rhinos may produce four distinct, context-dependent calls
Young Southern white rhinos may produce four distinct calls in differing behavioral contexts, according to a study published March 7, 2018 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Sabrina Linn and Marina Scheumann from the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover and Serengeti-Park Hodenhagen, Germany, and colleagues. (2018-03-07)

Unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map
A research team released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. The dark matter distribution is estimated by the weak gravitational lensing technique. The team found indications that the number of dark matter halos could be inconsistent with what the simplest cosmological model suggests. This could be a new clue to understanding why the expansion of the universe is accelerating. (2018-03-02)

Search for first stars uncovers 'dark matter'
New research from a Tel Aviv University astrophysicist, published today in Nature, offers the first direct proof that dark matter exists and that it is composed of low-mass particles. (2018-02-28)

Exotic state of matter: An atom full of atoms
If the electron orbits the nucleus at a great distance, there is plenty of space in between for other atoms. A 'giant atom' can be created, filled with ordinary atoms. All these atoms form a weak bond, creating a new, exotic state of matter at cold temperatures, referred to as 'Rydberg polarons'. (2018-02-26)

Beaming with the light of millions of suns
A Caltech-led astronomy team is homing in on the nature of extreme objects known as ULXs. (2018-02-26)

Helium ions open whole new world of materials
QUT scientists have found an exciting new way to manipulate and design materials of the future at the atomic level and change the way they behave at a larger scale that opens the way to new applications such as early cancer biomarkers. (2018-02-26)

Being raised in greener neighborhoods may have beneficial effects on brain development
A study by ISGlobal, a center supported by the 'la Caixa' Banking Foundation, in collaboration with Hospital del Mar and UCLA's Fielding School of Public Health, shows for the first time that exposure to green space during childhood is associated with beneficial structural changes in the developing brain. (2018-02-23)

Study finds racial differences in cure rates for Hepatitis C
In a large ethnically diverse group of patients seen at a community-based Veterans Affairs practice, cure rates for chronic hepatitis C were lower for African American individuals relative to White individuals, even when patients were receiving optimal therapies. The findings are published in Pharmacology Research & Perspectives. (2018-02-22)

Color of judo uniform has no effect on winning
Contrary to previous studies and widespread belief, new research on competitive judo data finds a winning bias for the athlete who is first called, regardless of the color of their uniform. (2018-02-22)

UMass Amherst physicists contribute to dark matter detector success
This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at UCLA at its Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. WIMPs have been candidate dark matter particles for decades, but none have been found to date. Andrea Pocar of UMass Amherst says the DarkSide detector his group helped to build has demonstrated the great potential of liquid argon technology in the search for WIMPs. (2018-02-21)

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