Current Aerosols News and Events

Current Aerosols News and Events, Aerosols News Articles.
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Airflow studies reveal strategies to reduce indoor transmission of COVID-19
At the 73rd Annual Meeting of the American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics, researchers presented a range of studies investigating the aerodynamics of infectious disease. Their results suggest strategies for lowering risk based on a rigorous understanding of how infectious particles mix with air in confined spaces. (2020-11-22)

Which particulate air pollution poses the greatest health risk?
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, together with colleagues from several other European institutions, have investigated whether particulate matter from certain sources can be especially harmful to human health. They found evidence that the amount of particulate matter alone is not the greatest health risk. Rather, it could be the so-called oxidative potential that makes particulate pollution so harmful. They are publishing their results today in the scientific journal Nature. (2020-11-18)

Reducing aerosol pollution without cutting carbon dioxide could make the planet hotter
Humans must reduce carbon dioxide and aerosol pollution simultaneously to avoid weakening the ocean's ability to keep the planet cool, new UC Riverside research shows. (2020-11-17)

Cutting emissions makes North Atlantic focus of ocean heat uptake under global warming
Scientists discover an obvious hemispheric asymmetry in Ocean Heat Undertake (OHU) under the low-emission scenario. In the long term, North Atlantic OHU keeps increasing and will become the main region of OHU. (2020-11-09)

New drug candidate for the treatment of COVID-19
Researchers from the University of Kent, the Goethe-University in Frankfurt am Main (Germany), and the Hannover Medical School (Germany) have identified a drug with the potential to provide a treatment for COVID-19. (2020-10-30)

SARS-CoV-2 outbreak investigation in meat processing plant suggests aerosol transmission in confined
The importance of maintaining high quality air flow to restrict transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in confined workspaces has been strongly indicated by the investigation of an outbreak of the virus at a German meat processing plant during May and June 2020. The study, published in EMBO Molecular Medicine, concluded that in such confined spaces where unfiltered air is recirculated at low rates of external air exchange, transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur over distances of at least eight metres. (2020-10-28)

Video provides guidance on surgery to wean patients with COVID-19 off ventilators
A temporary tracheostomy can be essential for allowing a critically ill patient to come off a ventilator. A new article, with an accompanying video, published in the New England Journal of Medicine by clinicians at Massachusetts General Hospital offers valuable guidance on how to safely perform the procedure in patients with COVID-19. (2020-10-28)

Effective ventilation may be a key factor in preventing the spread of COVID-19
During the first wave of COVID-19, which paralyzed the world in spring, it was initially thought that effective hand washing and 2-meter social distancing would help prevent the highly contagious virus. Scientists, however, have now come to the conclusion that proper indoor ventilation is even more effective. (2020-10-20)

Report finds COVID-19 rate among dentists is less than one percent
Fewer than one percent of dentists nationwide were found to be COVID-19 positive, according to a first-of-its-kind report in the US based on data collected in June 2020. (2020-10-15)

New study shows which medical procedures pose COVID-19 risk to health-care providers
Autopsy, airway suctioning and cardiopulmonary resuscitation are among the list of medical procedures that pose a risk of spreading COVID-19 from a patient to their health-care provider by creating aerosols, according to new research published in the journal BMJ Open Respiratory Research. The team, led by UAlberta medicine professor Sebastian Straube, carried out a systematic review of public health guidelines, research papers and policy documents from around the globe to determine which procedures are classified as aerosol-generating. (2020-10-13)

A 2014 seal flu illustrates how avian flu viruses can adapt to spread between mammals
In a study appearing October 7, 2020 in the journal Cell Host & Microbe, researchers pinpoint the mammalian adaptation mutations that appeared during a deadly 2014 avian influenza outbreak in seals. They show that these mutations also made the virus transmissible via the air in ferrets and that similar mutations play a recurring and consistent role in making avian influenza viruses more transmissible between other mammal species. (2020-10-07)

Climate change could mean fewer sunny days for hot regions banking on solar power
Changes to regional climates brought on by global warming could make it so that areas such as the American Southwest that are currently considered ideal for solar power would be less viable in the future, a Princeton-based study suggests. Higher surface temperatures will lead to more moisture, aerosols and particulates in the atmosphere, which may result in less solar radiation and more cloudy days. The study is the first to assess the day-to-day reliability of solar energy under climate change. (2020-10-07)

New aerosol research indicates significantly less risk of COVID-19 transmission from
New research published in Anaesthesia (a journal of the Association of Anaesthetists) shows that these procedures may only produce a fraction of the aerosols previously thought, much less than would be produced during a single regular cough. This brings into question whether the procedures should be designated aerosol generating procedures and provides an opportunity to dramatically speed up surgery. (2020-10-06)

Revising climate models with new aerosol field data
Advanced field measurements of how quickly aerosol particles are pulled out of the air can help improve climate predictions - and air quality forecasts. (2020-10-06)

Dust dampens albedo effect, spurs snowmelt in the heights of the Himalayas
Dust blowing onto high mountains in the western Himalayas is a bigger factor than previously thought in hastening the melting of snow there, researchers show in a study published Oct. 5 in Nature Climate Change. That's because dust - lots of it in the Himalayas - absorbs sunlight, heating the snow that surrounds it. (2020-10-05)

Letter from leading researchers urges terminology update, shift in COVID-19 guidance
Scientists affiliated with leading research institutions across the United States state in a letter published Monday in the journal Science that researchers across disciplines must converge to deliver clear public health guidance about how SARS-CoV-2 is spread in the air. (2020-10-05)

Climate: Iodic acid influences cloud formation at the North Pole
An international team of scientists from EPFL, the Paul Scherrer Institute and Stockholm University has identified a novel driver of new aerosol particle formation in the Arctic during the summer to fall transition. The authors show that iodic acid is important for forming new particles which subsequently influence the formation of clouds and their radiative effect over the Arctic pack ice. (2020-10-01)

Conversation quickly spreads droplets inside buildings
With implications for the transmission of diseases like COVID-19, researchers have found that ordinary conversation creates a conical 'jet-like' airflow that quickly carries a spray of tiny droplets from a speaker's mouth across meters of an interior space. (2020-09-29)

China's air pollutant reduction success could make it tougher to control climate change
China's success in improving air quality by cutting polluting emissions may have a negative knock-on effect on climate change overall, a new study has found. (2020-09-29)

Nasal calcium rich salts show reduction of exhaled aerosol particles up to 99%
In a paper published in Molecular Frontiers Journal, researchers from Cambridge, Massachusetts have discovered a more effective way of eliminating airborne particles from airways using nasal calcium-rich salts called FEND, which have potential applications in the fight against Covid-19. (2020-09-29)

Are China's pollution remediation efforts making the planet warmer?
A 10-year effort by China to improve air quality and reduce pollution-related health risks has caused warming in areas across the northern hemisphere, according to new work published in Environmental Research Letters. (2020-09-29)

Many ventilation systems may increase risk of COVID-19 exposure, study suggests
Ventilation systems in many modern office buildings, which are designed to keep temperatures comfortable and increase energy efficiency, may increase the risk of exposure to the coronavirus, particularly during the coming winter, according to research published in the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. (2020-09-29)

Unexpected wildfire emission impacts air quality worldwide
During wildfires, nitrous acid plays a leading role--spiking to levels significantly higher than scientists expected, driving increased ozone pollution and harming air quality, according to a new study led by the University of Colorado Boulder and the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. (2020-09-21)

Accurate labels like 'aerosol' or 'chemicals' increase perceived risks of e-cigarette use
Researchers at George Mason University found that students perceived e-cigarette emissions to be more harmful when accurate labels such as 'chemicals' and 'aerosols' were used to describe emissions, compared to tobacco industry coined jargon like 'vapor.' Students who viewed questions about 'aerosol' or 'chemical' were more likely to perceive secondhand exposure to e-cigarettes to be 'harmful/very harmful.' Further, students who perceived greater harmfulness from e-cigarette exposure were more likely to support a tobacco-free campus policy. (2020-09-16)

NASA's Terra highlights aerosols from western fires in danger zone
The year 2020 will be remembered for being a very trying year and western wildfires have just added to the year's woes. (2020-09-10)

Multiphase buffering by ammonia explains wide range of atmospheric aerosol acidity
Anthropogenic ammonia emissions and the water content matter more than dry particle composition for the acidity of atmospheric aerosols in populated regions. (2020-09-10)

NOAA-NASA Suomi NPP captures fires and aerosols across America
On Sep. 07, 2020, NOAA/NASA's Suomi NPP satellite provided two different views of how fires are affecting the US. (2020-09-08)

Could singing spread COVID-19?
If silence is golden, speech is silver - and singing the worst. Singing doesn't need to be silenced, however, but at the moment the wisest thing is to sing with social distancing in place. The advice comes from aerosol researchers at Lund University in Sweden. They have studied the amount of particles we actually emit when we sing - and by extension - if we contribute to the increased spread of Covid-19 by singing. (2020-09-07)

It takes more than plexiglass to protect against aerosolized SARS-CoV-2
The FDA just revoked their EUA for intubation boxes - plastic shields that supposedly protect health care workers from becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 - due to concerns over aerosol leaks. This study describes a better box, with negative pressure and filtration, that contains airborne virus. (2020-09-03)

NOAA/NASA's Suomi NPP satellite shows two views of California's smoky skies
NOAA/NASA's Suomi NPP satellite captured two images that tell the story about the smoke coming off the fires in California. One instrument on the provided a visible image of the smoke, while another analyzed the aerosol content within. The images were captured on August 30, 2020. (2020-08-31)

First in situ radiation measurements 21 km up into the air over Tibetan Plateau
In situ vertical radiation measurements from the surface up to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), about 10~22 km in altitude, are rare over the TP or even over a large territory of China. The Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), in collaboration with the Aerospace Information Research Institute of CAS, developed a balloon-based measurement system to measure stratospheric radiation. (2020-08-27)

A chiral surprise in the rainforest
Reversed ratio of chiral volatile organic compounds over the Amazon rainforest reveal insects as unexplored important source of forest emissions. (2020-08-27)

NASA sees typhoon Bavi from one million miles away
Typhoon Bavi is a large storm moving through the Yellow Sea. A NASA camera captured an image of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean that showed Bavi headed north. (2020-08-26)

NASA's Terra Satellite shows smoky pall over most of California
More than 650 wildfires are blazing in California after unprecedented lightning strikes, storms, and a heatwave that has set new records in the state and NASA's Terra satellite captured the smoke-engulfed state on Aug. 24, 2020. (2020-08-24)

Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 spreads more indoors at low humidity
The airborne transmission of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 via aerosol particles in indoor environment seems to be strongly influenced by relative humidity, concludes the analysis of 10 most relevant international studies on the subject. Therefore, they recommend controlling the indoor air in addition to the usual measures such as social distancing and masks. A relative humidity of 40 to 60 percent could reduce the spread of the viruses and their absorption through the nasal mucous membrane. (2020-08-20)

Low humidity increases COVID risk; another reason to wear a mask
University of Sydney study confirms a link between COVID-19 cases and lower humidity. (2020-08-18)

Recent global warming trends are inconsistent with very high climate sensitivity
Research published this week in Earth System Dynamics reports that the most sensitive climate models overestimate global warming during the last 50 years. (2020-08-18)

Ocean microbes could interact with pollution to influence climate
Little is known about how gases and aerosols made by ocean microbes affect weather and climate, or how pollution could influence this process. Today, scientists report they've used an ''ocean-in-a-lab'' to show that air pollution can change the makeup of gases and aerosols that sea spray releases into the atmosphere, potentially altering weather patterns. The researchers will present their results today at the American Chemical Society Fall 2020 Virtual Meeting. (2020-08-17)

Culling cancer before it stems: A novel, rapid carcinogen detection method
Testing chemical compounds for their ability to cause cancer is one way in which scientists can identify hazardous chemicals and thereby protect public health. But, standard testing methods are usually complex and time-consuming. In a new paper published in Scientific Reports, scientists have described a novel testing method based on stem cells that may allow scientists to quickly assess large numbers of compounds for their carcinogenicity. (2020-08-05)

Pristine environments offer a window to our cloudy past
A new study uses satellite data over the Southern Hemisphere to understand global cloud composition during the industrial revolution. This research tackles one of the largest uncertainties in today's climate models -- the long-term effect of tiny atmospheric particles on climate change. (2020-07-27)

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