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Single-cell technique could provide 'egg health' indicators
Using the power of single-cell analysis, researchers at the Babraham Institute have assessed the effects of age on egg cells (oocytes) in mice, particularly looking to identify genomic and epigenetic factors that relate to reduced developmental competence. The knowledge uncovered by this research provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying egg quality and is relevant to the development of techniques to assess the quality of human egg cells, an area of growing importance as the use of fertility treatments increases. (2020-11-18)

New study could help predict which individuals are more susceptible to cancer-causing agen
New insights into the mechanisms behind how cancer-causing agents in the environment activate genetic recombination in DNA could help to explain some of the effects of exposure as well as predicting which individuals may be more susceptible to developing the disease, a new UK study has suggested. (2020-11-17)

Facing up to the reality of politicians' Instagram posts
A University of Georgia researcher used computer vision to analyze thousands of images from over 100 Instagram accounts of United States politicians and discovered posts that showed politicians' faces in nonpolitical settings increased audience engagement over traditional posts such as politicians in professional or political settings. (2020-10-29)

Light stimulation makes bones heavier
Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) researchers showed that laser ablation of bone inhibits expression of the osteogenesis inhibitor protein sclerostin without causing inflammation, unlike the conventional bur-drilling technique. Further investigations confirmed that this beneficial bio-stimulation works by inducing mechanical stress. These findings help advance research into the treatment of osteoporosis as well as specific enhancement of bone regrowth in orthopedic and dental surgery. (2020-10-08)

Minimizing the movement problem in single-particle cryo-EM
While single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has enabled access to structures of proteins that were previously intractable and, most recently, has done much to inform our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 structure, the technique still has some weaknesses. (2020-10-08)

Telehealth trains parents to improve behavior skills of children with autism
Training parents of children with autism spectrum disorder virtually about early behavioral intervention is an accessible and effective approach during the coronavirus pandemic or in other instances when in-person instruction is not possible, according to a Rutgers researcher. (2020-10-06)

AI learns to trace neuronal pathways
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory scientists dramatically improved the efficiency of automated methods for tracing neuronal connections. They taught a computer to recognize different parts of neurons, then used the math of topology to see how those neurons are likely to connect. (2020-09-28)

Replicating a genome starts with a twist, a pinch, and a bit of a dance
DNA replication begins with a set of proteins--the Origin of Replication Complex (ORC). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) researchers published images of the human ORC in exquisite detail, showing how it changes shapes in dramatic ways as it assembles around DNA. (2020-09-16)

A soft-hearted approach to healing
Researchers at the University of Tsukuba and Keio University have clarified the roles of matrix stiffness and mechanotransduction as well as the signaling pathways in the transformation of cardiac fibroblasts into contractile cardiomyocytes and show that soft substrates comparable to native myocardium improve the efficiency of this cardiac reprogramming. This has potential for research into biomaterials and may lead to clinical advances in regenerative treatment for heart failure. (2020-08-30)

COVID-19 may have a longer incubation period, suggests probability analysis of Wuhan cases
By applying the renewal theory in probability to reduce recall bias in initial case reports, scientists have come up with a new estimate for the incubation period of COVID-19. Their mean estimate of 7.76 days. (2020-08-07)

Blood test may point to patients at higher risk for COVID-19 deterioration, death
George Washington University researchers found five biomarkers associated with higher odds of clinical deterioration and death in COVID-19 patients. The study was published in Future Medicine. (2020-08-06)

Credible assumptions replace missing data in COVID analysis
How contagious is COVID-19, and how severe is the virus for those who've caught it? (2020-08-06)

Are vultures spreaders of microbes that put human health at risk?
A new analysis published in IBIS examines whether bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that are present in wild vultures cause disease in the birds, and whether vultures play a role in spreading or preventing infectious diseases to humans and other animal species. (2020-08-05)

Owner behavior affects effort and accuracy in dogs' communications
Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History and Friedrich Schiller University in Jena have found that dogs adapt their communicative strategies to their environment and that owner behavior influences communicative effort and success. Experimental results found no evidence that dogs rely on communication history or follow the principle of least effort and suggest that owner behavior has a bigger impact on canine communication than previously thought. (2020-07-06)

An accurate simulation of high-pressure plasma for an economical helical fusion reactor
In order to realize fusion energy, it is economically desirable to confine higher pressure plasma with the same strength of the magnetic field. A research team of fusion scientists has succeeded using computer simulation in reproducing the high-pressure plasma confinement observed in the Large Helical Device. This result has enabled highly accurate predictions of plasma behavior aimed at realizing an economical helical fusion reactor. (2020-06-29)

Ethnolinguistic diversity slows down urban growth
Where various ethnic groups live together, cities grow at a slower rate. That is the conclusion reached by a researcher from the University of Basel and his colleagues based on worldwide data that shows how the diversity of language groups in 1975 has influenced urban growth 40 years later. The scientists have reported their findings in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (2020-06-29)

World's first genetic and environmental risks identified for common form of childhood epilepsy
A new study of childhood epilepsy has identified the world's first environmental risk factor for the disease - maternal smoking in pregnancy, and discovered a new genetic association with the condition, pointing to potential new treatments for the disease. (2020-06-24)

Early African Muslims had a halal -- and cosmopolitan diet -- discovery of thousands of ancient animal
Early Muslim communities in Africa ate a cosmopolitan diet as the region became a trading centre for luxury goods, the discovery of thousands of ancient animal bones has shown. (2020-05-26)

The prevention of childhood obesity would require stricter advertising regulations
Spain ranks fifth among European countries for childhood obesity. Sugar-sweetened beverages and soft drinks are consumed by 81% of Spanish children weekly. Mireia Montaña and Mònika Jiménez, researchers of the Open University of Catalonia and the UPF Department of Communication, respectively, have performed a study based on the assumption that advertising is one of the factors that contributes to the obesogenic environment. (2020-05-26)

Pain doesn't take a holiday: Dental opioids study points to need for better prescribing
As dentists and their teams across America get back to their regular schedules after a sharp COVID-19-related reduction, a new study shows a key opportunity to reduce the use of opioid painkillers by patients. The analysis of four years' worth of data from two million patients show that those who had dental procedures on a Friday or day before a holiday were much more likely to fill a prescription for an opioid than other patients. (2020-05-22)

Multi-drug regimen for heart failure could meaningfully extend patients' lives
A team led by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital has conducted an analysis to estimate the potential benefits of using a comprehensive regimen for heart failure patients compared to using a more conventional regimen, finding that comprehensive therapy could extend lifespan up to six years and eight years free from cardiovascular death or first hospital admission for heart failure. (2020-05-21)

Green tea may help with weight loss efforts
In an analysis published in Phytotherapy Research of randomized controlled trials, individuals who consumed green tea experienced a significant decline in body weight and body mass index. (2020-05-06)

Exploring why males are larger than females among mammals
In most animals, females are larger than males, but in most mammals, males are larger than females. A new analysis published in Mammal Review examines the potential drivers of these differences. (2020-04-08)

Research identifies regular climbing behavior in a human ancestor
A new study led by the University of Kent has found evidence that human ancestors as recent as two million years ago may have regularly climbed trees. (2020-03-30)

Female mice respond differently to fasting, showing the importance of studying both sexes
In response to short, six-hour fasts in mice, female mice put on more liver fat than males, but also seemed to be better at using it up, according to research published in The Journal of Physiology. This may be beneficial for health, potentially reducing susceptibility to diseases including diabetes and high blood pressure. (2020-03-23)

Does inflammatory bowel disease carry certain risks during pregnancy?
Pregnant women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are more likely to undergo delivery by Caesarean section and face certain risks during pregnancy, according to an analysis published in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. (2020-01-08)

Closer to identifying leukemic stem cells
Researchers at the Josep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute have developed innovative diagnostic trials to identify cells resistant to leukemia treatment. These new trials allow the identification of a subgroup of patients with an unfavorable prognosis at the time of diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia. (2020-01-02)

Trends in Alzheimer's disease diagnoses across the United States
A recent analysis published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society offers estimates of the changes in incidence of Alzheimer's disease in the United States, confirming previous reports of a declining trend. (2019-12-04)

Strong winter dust storms may have caused the collapse of the Akkadian Empire
Fossil coral records provide new evidence that frequent winter shamals, or dust storms, and a prolonged cold winter season contributed to the collapse of the ancient Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia. (2019-10-24)

Industry has unduly influenced TV advertising regs on restricting unhealthy kids' foods
Industry has unduly influenced the regulations for TV advertising of unhealthy foods to children, likely weakening legislation in this area, argue doctors in an analysis, published in the online journal BMJ Open. (2019-09-23)

Researchers develop affordable, less intensive methane detection protocol
A new testing protocol that uses existing, affordable water chemistry tests can help scientists and regulators detect sites showing evidence of new methane gas leaks caused by oil and gas drilling, according to Penn State researchers. (2019-08-27)

Environmental DNA proves the expansion of invasive crayfish habitats
Environmental DNA (eDNA) has successfully proven the presence of invasive crayfish in almost all the small streams around Lake Akan in Japan, suggesting that eDNA analysis is an efficient and highly sensitive method to assess the distribution of aquatic organisms. (2019-08-21)

Encephalitis identified as rare toxicity of immunotherapy treatment
The results, published July 22 in Nature Medicine, are the latest findings by VICC researchers chronicling rare but serious toxicities that may occur with immune checkpoint inhibitors, the most widely prescribed class of immunotherapies. (2019-07-22)

Teacher treatment of students factors into racial gap in school suspensions
An analysis led by Brown sociologist Jayanti Owens found that different treatment of black and white students accounted for half of the racial gap in school suspensions and expulsions among 5- to 9-year-old children. (2019-07-19)

Risk and progression of Alzheimer's disease differ by sex
The abnormal accumulation of proteins in the brain is a biological marker for Alzheimer's disease, but the ways in which these proteins spread may help explain why the prevalence of Alzheimer's is higher in women than in men. (2019-07-16)

Initial results from New Horizon's exploration of distant Kuiper Belt Object 2014 MU69
On Jan. 1, 2019, the New Horizons Spacecraft conducted a flyby of (486958) 2014 MU69 -- a distant object orbiting in the outer reaches of the solar system. (2019-05-16)

Appendix removal associated with development of Parkinson's disease
Patients who had their appendix removed were more likely to develop Parkinson's disease than those whose appendix remained in place, according to the largest study to address the relationship between the two conditions. The retrospective study involving more than 62 million patient records from 26 health systems will be presented at Digestive Disease Week® (DDW) 2019. (2019-05-09)

Statins linked to lower risk of early death in patients with colorectal cancer
Use of statins before or after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer was linked with a lower risk of premature death, both from cancer and from other causes, in a Cancer Medicine analysis of published studies. (2019-05-09)

Study underlines large variation in patient mortality associated with different bloodstream infections
New research presented at this year's European Congress of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) in Amsterdam, Netherlands (April 13-16) shows the danger posed by bloodstream infections (BSIs), and the large variation in mortality rates associated with different infectious microorganisms. The study is by Liya Lomsadze and colleagues from Northwell Health, Great Neck, N.Y., United States. (2019-04-12)

Peeling back the data: NYS apple industry has larger economic impact
A Cornell University team has found that the economic impact of the apple industry in New York State is 21 percent larger than traditional models suggest. Researchers used the apple industry as a case study to test a new -- more precise -- framework for economic impact analysis. (2019-03-07)

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