Current Ancient dna News and Events

Current Ancient dna News and Events, Ancient dna News Articles.
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Defined blockade
The addition and removal of methyl groups on DNA plays an important role in gene regulation. In order to study these mechanisms more precisely, a German team has developed a new method by which specific methylation sites can be blocked and then unblocked at a precise time through irradiation with light (photocaging). As reported in the journal Angewandte Chemie, the required regent is produced enzymatically, in situ. (2020-11-24)

Helicates meet Rotaxanes to create promise for future disease treatment
A new approach to treating cancers and other diseases that uses a mechanically interlocked molecule as a 'magic bullet' has been designed by researchers at the University of Birmingham. (2020-11-23)

Study reveals true origin of oldest evidence of animals
Two teams of scientists have resolved a longstanding controversy surrounding the origins of complex life on Earth. The joint studies found molecular fossils extracted from 635-million-year-old rocks aren't the earliest evidence of animals, but instead common algae. (2020-11-23)

The microbiome of Da Vinci's drawings
The microbiome study of seven drawings from Leonardo Da Vinci reveals that conservation work, geographical location, and past contaminations leave invisible traces on drawings despite their optimal storage conditions: a novel aspect of art objects that could be monitored to establish a bioarchive of our artistic heritage. (2020-11-20)

Near-infrared probe decodes telomere dynamics
A new synthetic probe offers a safe and straightforward approach for visualizing chromosome tips in living cells. The probe was designed by scientists at the Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Science (iCeMS) and colleagues at Kyoto University, and could advance research into aging and a wide range of diseases, including cancers. The details were published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. (2020-11-20)

A biochemical random number
ETH Zurich scientists have generated a huge true random number using DNA synthesis. It is the first time that a number of this magnitude has been created by biochemical means. (2020-11-20)

New tool to combat terrorism
Forensic science experts at Flinders University are refining an innovative counter-terrorism technique that checks for environmental DNA in the dust on clothing, baggage, shoes or even a passport. ''This microscopic environmental trace evidence, based on soil geochemical, bacterial and fungal analysis would complement and enhance current forensic intelligence tools,'' lead researcher Dr Jennifer Young says in new research in Forensic Science International: Genetics. (2020-11-19)

Geoscientists discover Ancestral Puebloans survived from ice melt in New Mexico lava tubes
New study explains how Ancestral Puebloans survived devastating droughts by traveling deep into the caves of New Mexico to melt ancient ice as a water resource. (2020-11-18)

A DNA-based nanogel for targeted chemotherapy
Current chemotherapy regimens slow cancer progression and save lives, but these powerful drugs affect both healthy and cancerous cells. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Nano Letters have designed DNA-based nanogels that only break down and release their chemotherapeutic contents within cancer cells, minimizing the impacts on normal ones and potentially eliminating painful and uncomfortable side effects. (2020-11-18)

New study could help predict which individuals are more susceptible to cancer-causing agen
New insights into the mechanisms behind how cancer-causing agents in the environment activate genetic recombination in DNA could help to explain some of the effects of exposure as well as predicting which individuals may be more susceptible to developing the disease, a new UK study has suggested. (2020-11-17)

UV light may be a greater risk for melanoma than suspected
Studies conducted in yeast show that exposure to ultraviolet light (UV) induces new types of DNA damage that may cause the deadliest form of skin cancer, malignant melanoma. While melanoma has been associated with UV light, this study directly links UV exposure to the atypical mutations known to spread the disease. The results also indicate that UV light can induce a more diverse spectrum of mutations than previously suspected. (2020-11-17)

Genetic code evolution and Darwin's evolution theory should consider DNA an 'energy code'
Darwin's theory of evolution should be expanded to include consideration of a DNA stability ''energy code'' - so-called ''molecular Darwinism'' - to further account for the long-term survival of species' characteristics on Earth, according to Rutgers scientists. (2020-11-16)

Orbits of ancient stars prompt rethink on Milky Way evolution
Theories on how the Milky Way formed are set to be rewritten following discoveries about the behaviour of some of its oldest stars. An investigation into the orbits of the Galaxy's metal-poor stars - assumed to be among the most ancient in existence - has found that some of them travel in previously unpredicted patterns. (2020-11-16)

The first detection of marine fish DNA in sediment sequences going back 300 years
Far too little is known about the long-term dynamics of the abundance of most macro-organism species. We used sedimentary DNA technology to quantify marine fish DNA abundance in sediment sequences spanning the last 300 years. This study first shows the existence of fish DNA in the sequences and proves that fish abundance can be tracked using sedimentary DNA, highlighting the utility of sedimentary DNA for researchers to acquire lengthy records of macro-organism species abundance. (2020-11-16)

Light shed on the atomic resolution structure of phage DNA tube
Given that phages are able to destroy bacteria, they are of particular interest to science. Basic researchers from the Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) in Berlin are especially interested in the tube used by phages to implant their DNA into bacteria. In collaboration with colleagues from Forschungszentrum Jülich and Jena University Hospital, they have now revealed the 3D structure of this crucial phage component in atomic resolution. (2020-11-13)

New molecular atlases reveal how human cells grow and develop
Two cell atlases have been created that track gene expression and chromatin accessibility during the development of human cell types and tissues. The atlases provide a fundamental resource for understanding gene expression and chromatin accessibility in human development that is unprecedented in scale. One maps gene expression within individual cells across 15 fetal tissues. The other maps chromatin accessibility of individual genes within cells. (2020-11-12)

DNA repair supports brain cognitive development
Researchers at Osaka University showed that the enzyme Polβ functions in genome maintenance by preventing double-stranded breaks in DNA during brain development in mice. In mice lacking Polβ, these breaks occurred during epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the developing hippocampus, peaking two weeks after birth. The increased breaks were associated with abnormal neuronal dendrites and poor memory ability. (2020-11-11)

Stanford researchers develop DNA approach to forecast ecosystem changes
The rapid, low-cost technique is the first to analyze DNA left behind in animals' feces to map out complex networks of species interactions in a terrestrial system. It could help redefine conservation as we know it, identify otherwise hard-to-find species and guide a global effort to rewild vast areas. WATCH VIDEO: (2020-11-10)

Rapid test can ID unknown causes of infections throughout the body
UC San Francisco scientists have developed a single clinical laboratory test capable of zeroing in on the microbial miscreant afflicting patients hospitalized with serious infections in as little as six hours -- irrespective of what body fluid is sampled, the type or species of infectious agent, or whether physicians start out with any clue as to what the culprit may be. (2020-11-10)

Nut consumption causes changes in sperm DNA function
Researchers have evaluated for the first time the effect of a short/middle-term consumption of a mixture of tree nuts (almonds, hazelnuts and walnuts) on sperm DNA methylation patterns in healthy individuals reporting eating a Western-style diet. They have observed that the methylation of 36 genomic regions was significantly different between baseline and the end of the trial only in the group that consumed nuts, and 97.2% of the regions displayed hypermethylation. (2020-11-09)

Paleogenomics -- the prehistory of modern dogs
An international team of scientists has used ancient DNA samples to elucidate the population history of dogs. The results show that dogs had already diverged into at least five distinct lineages by about 11,000 years ago and that their early population history only partially reflects that of human groups. (2020-11-06)

Population dynamics and the rise of empires in Inner Asia
In a new study published in Cell, researchers seek to understand the genetic, sociopolitical and cultural changes surrounding the formation of the eastern Eurasian Steppe's historic empires. The study analyzes genome-wide data for 214 ancient individuals spanning 6,000 years and discusses the genetic and cultural changes that preceded the rise of the Xiongnu and Mongol nomadic pastoralist empires. (2020-11-05)

Blood cell mutations confound prostate cancer liquid biopsy results
Unrelated mutations, when present in the blood, can give false positive results in men with advanced prostate cancer undergoing liquid biopsies. Such tests, which look for variants in cell-free DNA that tumors shed into the blood plasma, help determine suitable treatment options. Incorrect test results might mean the patient gets therapies unsuited for his cancer. A simple solution overcomes this problem. (2020-11-05)

A species identified in 2016 as an ancient form of chameleon was misidentified at that time, say researchers
A species identified in 2016 as an ancient form of chameleon was misidentified at that time, say researchers, many of whom were part of the original 2016 report. (2020-11-05)

The long and complex history of cereal cuisine in ancient China
Changing cuisines in ancient China were driven by multiple environmental and cultural practices over thousands of years, according to a study published November 4, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Xinyi Liu of Washington University in St. Louis and Rachel E. B. Reid of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Virginia. (2020-11-04)

New research traces the origins of trench fever
Trench fever was first clinically described in World War 1 when it sickened nearly 500,000 soldiers. New DNA evidence proves the disease predates that time period by thousands of years. (2020-11-04)

Stanford engineers have developed a genetic microlab that can detect COVID-19 in minutes
The microlab test takes advantage of the fact that coronaviruses like SARS-COV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, leaves behind tiny genetic fingerprints wherever they go in the form of strands of RNA, the genetic precursor of DNA. If the coronavirus's RNA is present in a swab sample, the person from whom the sample was taken is infected. (2020-11-04)

Invisible fungi revealed by their genetic material
How can new life forms that we cannot see be discovered? Using a novel method based on looking for DNA in soil samples, researchers at Uppsala University have revealed the existence of two hitherto unknown, but very common fungus species. They are thought to perform a key function in the ecosystem, but their exact role remains to be clarified. The study is published in the journal IMA Fungus. (2020-11-03)

Europe took centre-stage in global spread of the coronavirus, says new research
A collaboration between genome researchers at the University of Huddersfield and Portugal's University of Minho has discovered it is Europe, not China, which has been the main source of spreading the coronavirus disease around the world. (2020-11-03)

Lizard skull fossil is new and 'perplexing' extinct species
A new species of extinct lizard, Kopidosaurus perplexus, has been described by a graduate student at The University of Texas at Austin. The first part of the name references the lizard's distinct teeth; a 'kopis' is a curved blade used in ancient Greece. But the second part is a nod to the 'perplexing' matter of just where the extinct lizard should be placed on the tree of life. (2020-11-02)

Denisovan DNA found in sediments of Baishiya Karst Cave on Tibetan Plateau
A joint research team from China, Germany and Australia has now reported their findings of Denisovan DNA from sediments of the Baishiya Karst Cave (BKC) on the Tibetan Plateau where the Xiahe mandible was found. (2020-10-30)

Denisovan DNA in the genome of early East Asians
Researchers analyzed the genome of the oldest human fossil found in Mongolia to date and show that the 34,000-year-old woman inherited around 25 percent of her DNA from western Eurasians, demonstrating that people moved across the Eurasian continent shortly after it had first been settled by the ancestors of present-day populations. This individual and a 40,000-year-old individual from China also carried DNA from Denisovans, an extinct form of hominins that inhabited Asia before modern humans arrived. (2020-10-29)

New ancient genomes reveal a complex common history of dogs and humans
Newly sequenced whole genomes of ancient dogs reveal a complicated genetic legacy that reflects a long, shared history with humans spanning more than 11,000 years into the past. (2020-10-29)

Two studies expand insights into Denisovan ancestry and population history in East Asia
In a pair of studies, researchers provide evidence that expands our understanding of modern humans in eastern Asia and their interactions with their most elusive cousins, the Denisovans. (2020-10-29)

New Denisovan DNA expands diversity, history of species
Ancient Denisovan mitochondrial DNA has been recovered in sediments from Baishiya Karst Cave, a limestone cave at the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau, 3280 meters above sea level and adds more evidence to the record that Denisovans, a group of extinct hominins that diverged from Neanderthals about 400,000 years ago, may have more widely inhabited northeast central Asia. (2020-10-29)

Study of ancient dog DNA traces canine diversity to the Ice Age
A global study of ancient dog DNA, led by scientists at the Francis Crick Institute, University of Oxford, University of Vienna and archaeologists from more than 10 countries, presents evidence that there were different types of dogs more than 11,000 years ago in the period immediately following the Ice Age. (2020-10-29)

Study finds 5 distinct dog types from 11,000 years ago
An international team of researchers that includes a Texas A&M University professor has studied the lineage of dogs and found that there were at least five different types of dogs as far back as 11,000 years ago. (2020-10-29)

DNA sleuths target ivory poachers
The tiniest amount of DNA is being accurately analysed to identify the origins of old ivory. This clever new technique has the potential to thwart international ivory poachers, by placing the origins of ivory pieces into accurate source locations, thereby identifying specific areas where ivory poachers are actively operating. (2020-10-26)

Timeline of early eukaryotic evolution unveiled
By analyzing duplicates of thousands of genes, researchers have reconstructed the evolutionary events leading to the creation of eukaryotic cells, the precursors to virtually all life you can see with the naked eye. The evolutionary timeline from simple bacterial cells to complex eukaryotic cells progressed differently than previously thought. The study, a collaboration between the Comparative Genomics lab at IRB Barcelona and the University of Utrecht, has been published in Nature Ecology & Evolution. (2020-10-26)

Researchers solve 'protein paradox' and suggest way to exploit cancer weakness
Researchers from UCPH have discovered how thus far a mysterious function of the so-called MCM proteins protect the human cells against DNA instability, which can cause devastating diseases including cancer. In addition to their known role as molecular motors of genome duplication, MCM proteins control the speed of this process. How cells manage to constrain the speed of DNA replication has puzzled researchers for decades and has even been called a ''MCM paradox''. (2020-10-22)

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