Current Applied sciences News and Events

Current Applied sciences News and Events, Applied sciences News Articles.
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Understanding the utility of plasmas for medical applications
Plasma medicine is an emerging field, as plasmas show promise for use in a wide range of therapies from wound healing to cancer treatment, and plasma jets are the main plasma sources typically used in plasma-surface applications. To better understand how plasma jets modify the surfaces of biological tissue, researchers conducted computer simulations of the interaction between an atmospheric pressure plasma jet with a surface that has properties similar to blood serum. (2020-11-24)

Connecting two classes of unconventional superconductors
The understanding of unconventional superconductivity is one of the most challenging and fascinating tasks of solid-state physics. Different classes of unconventional superconductors share that superconductivity emerges near a magnetic phase despite the underlying physics is different. (2020-11-11)

Improving high-energy lithium-ion batteries with carbon filler
Lithium-ion batteries are the major rechargeable power source for many portable devices as well as electric vehicles, but their use is limited, because they do not provide high power output while simultaneously allowing reversible energy storage. Research reported in Applied Physics Reviews aims to offer a solution by showing how the inclusion of conductive fillers improves battery performance. (2020-11-10)

Lost and found: UH geologists 'resurrect' missing tectonic plate
A team of geologists at the University of Houston College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics believes they have found the lost plate known as Resurrection in northern Canada by using existing mantle tomography images. (2020-10-20)

Layer of strength, layer of functionality for biomedical fibers
Wound dressing, tissue scaffolding, controlled and sustained drug delivery, and cardiac patching are all biomedical processes requiring a material that combines strength with functionality. Core-sheath polymer fibers, fibers comprised of a strong core surrounded by a biologically applicable sheath layer, are an affordable way to meet these requirements. In the journal Applied Physics Reviews, researchers discuss methods of producing core-sheath polymer fibers and their promising applications. (2020-10-13)

RAP tag: A new protein purification approach
A research team from the University of Tsukuba described a new approach for protein labelling and purification using plant cells. Using the RAP tag and PMab-2 antibody, this affinity purification approach showed high affinity and specificity. Moreover, they showed that plant-produced monoclonal antibodies maintain their characteristics and their production can optimized to reduce the cost of antibody-based approaches. (2020-09-25)

How to better understand what makes a virus win during transmission?
The framework, published in Frontiers in Microbiology, was applied on transmission data of the influenza virus, and offers to be a new tool for anticipating the consequences of microbial diversity and optimizing disease control measures. (2020-09-25)

Building mechanical memory boards using origami
Origami can be used to create mechanical, binary switches, and in Applied Physics Letters, researchers report the fabrication of such a paper device, using the Kresling pattern, that can act as a mechanical switch. By putting several together on a single platform, the investigators built a functioning mechanical memory board. They found that oscillating the platform up and down at a certain speed will cause it to flip, or switch, between its two stable states. (2020-08-25)

Naming guides how 12-month-old infants encode and remember objects
Even for infants just beginning to speak their first words, the way an object is named guides infants' encoding, representation and memory for that object, according to new Northwestern research. Encoding objects in memory and recalling them later is fundamental to human cognition and emerges in infancy. Evidence from a new recognition memory task reveals that as they encode objects, infants are sensitive to a principled link between naming and object representation by 12 months. (2020-08-18)

Ultra-low voltage proven effective at killing bacteria, study finds
Research into the antimicrobial properties of ultra-low voltage electricity demonstrates that the power creates holes in the bacteria's outer membrane allowing two-way leakage and ultimately killing the cell. (2020-08-17)

Research recommends integrated approaches to managing reniform nematodes in cotton
While there are many pests affecting cotton, the reniform nematode is one the most damaging, with the ability to cause annual losses of approximately $33 million within the Mid-Southern United States. Farmers struggle to manage this pest as commercially available resistance is not widespread and a limited number of products are commercially available for use in suppressing the reniform nematode. (2020-08-13)

New material can generate hydrogen from salt and polluted water
Developed a new 2D material to produce hydrogen, which is the basis of alternative energy. The material efficiently generates hydrogen molecules from fresh, salt, and polluted water by exposure to sunlight (2020-07-21)

FEFU astrophysicists revealed ten-microne silicate feature in large dust particles
Astrophysicists of Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) with colleagues from Russia and oversea have revealed that large and dense particles with irregular shapes possess a 10 nm silicate feature introduced in lots of comets and protoplanetary discs. The outcome based on 15 examples of olivine silicate studied doesn't meet Mie theory provisions applied for comet particles modeling and capable of helping to reconsider the results of data. A related article appears in Icarus. (2020-07-07)

Towards lasers powerful enough to investigate a new kind of physics
In a paper that made the cover of the journal Applied Physics Letters, an international team of researchers has demonstrated an innovative technique for increasing the intensity of lasers. This approach, based on the compression of light pulses, would make it possible to reach a threshold intensity for a new type of physics that has never been explored before: quantum electrodynamics phenomena. (2020-07-03)

Improved medical imaging improves cancer staging
Prof. TIAN Chao's group improved the imaging quality and 3D construction of the photoacoustic imaging, and applied them to in vivo sentinel lymph node imaging. (2020-06-28)

Determining effective magnetic moment of multicore nanoparticles
Most commercial nanoparticles do not possess a single magnetic core but have small magnetic crystals called crystallites. The important question is how these crystallites behave inside a multicore nanoparticle and how they respond to an applied magnetic field. In the Journal of Applied Physics, researchers compare the effective magnetic moments of different multicore nanoparticle systems and shows that they are magnetic-field dependent. The paper's findings are important for researchers optimizing magnetic nanoparticles for various applications. (2020-06-16)

New findings help design highly efficient metal oxide catalyst for ozone removal
A research team led by Prof. CHEN Yunfa from the Institute of Process Engineering (IPE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences demonstrated the electron generation, compensation and transfer between ZnO and O3 through tuning crystal defects in ZnO. The findings may help design and synthesize highly efficient metal oxide catalytic materials for air cleaning. (2020-06-11)

How magnetic fields and 3D printers will create the pills of tomorrow
Doctors could soon be administering an entire course of treatment for life-threatening conditions with a 3D printed capsule controlled by magnetic fields thanks to advances made by University of Sussex researchers. (2020-06-09)

Next-generation cockroach-inspired robot is small but mighty
Dubbed HAMR-JR, this microrobot developed by Harvard researchers is a half-scale version of the cockroach-inspired Harvard Ambulatory Microrobot or HAMR. About the size of a penny, HAMR-JR can perform almost all of the feats of its larger-scale predecessor, making it one of the most dexterous microrobots to date. (2020-06-03)

RIT scientists develop method to help epidemiologists map spread of COVID-19
Rochester Institute of Technology scientists have developed a method they believe will help epidemiologists more efficiently predict the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Their new study, published in Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, outlines a solution to the SIR epidemic model, which is commonly used to predict how many people are susceptible to, infected by, and recovered from viral epidemics. (2020-05-29)

Urban green spaces can help pollinators -- new research provides basic recommendations
Bee populations are experiencing a global decline as a result of climate change, parasites and pathogens, and pesticide exposure, as well as a lack of foraging resources due to human land use. The good news is that gardens and parks can be valuable sites for providing foraging resources to these urban pollinator communities because of their low pesticide use, complex landscapes, and protected environments. (2020-05-29)

Organic memory devices show promise for flexible, wearable, personalized computing
The advent of artificial intelligence, machine learning and the internet of things is expected to change modern electronics. The pressing question for many researchers is how to handle this technological revolution. Brain-inspired electronics with organic memristors could offer a functionally promising and cost- effective platform. Since memristors are functionally analogous to the operation of neurons, the computing units in the brain, they are optimal candidates for brain-inspired computing platforms. (2020-04-21)

Scientists develop high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries
Recently, research groups led by Prof. LIU Jian and Prof. WU Zhongshuai from the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have developed Fe1-xS-decorated mesoporous carbon spheres as the nanoreactor, which can be applied as lithium-sulfur battery cathode. (2020-04-16)

New insights into US flood vulnerability revealed from flood insurance big data
An international team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, has found that current estimates of flood risk rely upon methods for calculating flood damage which are inadequately verified and match poorly with observations. (2020-03-19)

Nanosatellites improve detection of early-season corn nitrogen stress
For corn growers, the decision of when and how much nitrogen fertilizer to apply is a perennial challenge. Scientists at the University of Illinois have shown that nanosatellites known as CubeSats can detect nitrogen stress early in the season, potentially giving farmers a chance to plan in-season nitrogen fertilizer applications and alleviate nutrient stress for crops. (2020-01-13)

Genes controlling mycorrhizal colonization discovered in soybean
Like most plants, soybeans pair up with soil fungi in a symbiotic mycorrhizal relationship. In exchange for a bit of sugar, the fungus acts as an extension of the root system to pull in more phosphorus, nitrogen, micronutrients, and water than the plant could on its own. (2020-01-06)

Brassica crops best for crop rotation and soil health in potato production systems
Crop rotation is vital to any crop production system. Rotating crops maintains crop productivity and soil health by replenishing organic matter, nutrients, soil structure, and other properties while also improving water management and reducing erosion. Rotating crops also reduces the buildup of soilborne pathogens and diseases. (2020-01-03)

'I will do my very best!' Children who engage in positive self-talk about effort can boost their math achievement
Children who think poorly of themselves often underachieve in school. A new Dutch study tested whether a simple mental activity -- having children with low self-confidence say favorable, encouraging words to themselves -- could boost their achievement. The study found that children who engaged in this kind of self-talk improved their math performance when the talk focused on effort, not ability. (2019-12-17)

Consider soil in fall-applied ammonia rates, Illinois study says
Fall-applied anhydrous ammonia may not fulfill as much of corn's nitrogen needs as previously assumed. According to a new study from the University of Illinois, the effectiveness of the practice depends on the soil. (2019-12-09)

Potato virus Y is the most serious threat to potato -- some strains more than others
Potato virus Y (PVY) is the most serious problem facing the potato industry in the United States and is the main cause for rejection of seed potato lots. The virus affects potatoes in two ways: It reduces the yield of potato tubers by 70-80% and also negatively affects the quality of the remaining tubers due to necrotic reactions. During the last 10 years, major changes have been observed in the prevalence of different strains. (2019-11-18)

A better understanding of soft artificial muscles
Artificial muscles will power the soft robots and wearable devices of the future. But more needs to be understood about the underlying mechanics of these powerful structures in order to design and build new devices. Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have uncovered some of the fundamental physical properties of artificial muscle fibers. (2019-11-15)

Researchers make neural networks successfully detect DNA damage caused by UV radiation
Researchers of Tomsk Polytechnic University jointly with the University of Chemistry and Technology (Prague) conducted a series of experiments, which proved that artificial neural networks can accurately identify DNA damages caused by UV radiation. In the future, this approach can be used in modern medical diagnostics. An article, dedicated to those studies, was published in the Biosensors and Bioelectronics journal (Q1, 9.518). (2019-10-24)

Creating miracles with polymeric fibers
Mohan Edirisinghe leads a team at University College London studying the fabrication of polymeric nanofibers and microfibers -- very thin fibers made up of polymers. The fibers can be woven into textilelike structures but depending on the use, different fiber thicknesses may be necessary. To study the effects of various parameters on fiber fabrication, the researchers compared the characteristics of fibers created in different ways. The group describes the work in Applied Physics Reviews. (2019-10-15)

Quantum physics: Ménage à trois photon-style
When two photons become entangled, the quantum state of the first will correlate perfectly with the quantum state of the second. Today, researchers (UNIGE and IPM) have proved that 3 pairs of entangled photons allow for a new form of quantum correlation in theory. When the scientists forced 2 photons from separate pairs to become entangled, the connection was also made with their twin photon present elsewhere in the network, forming a highly-correlated triangle. (2019-10-15)

Stable radicals can solve unconventional problems in modern science and technology
Scientists of Tomsk Polytechnic University study reaction properties of verdazyl radicals, which can expand scientific knowledge into the field of organic chemistry and help to obtain new materials. The first results are related to control of the target compounds structures through chemical transformations and following obtaining various properties of the molecules by combining structural blocks. The possible application areas are quite extensive from energy accumulation and the production of the polymers to designing elements for a quantum computer (2019-10-10)

Combination of techniques could improve security for IoT devices
A multi-pronged data analysis approach that can strengthen the security of Internet of Things (IoT) devices -- such as smart TVs, home video cameras and baby monitors -- against current risks and threats has been created by a team of Penn State World Campus students. (2019-10-10)

Artificial intelligence used to recognize primate faces in the wild
Scientists at the University of Oxford have developed new artificial intelligence software to recognize and track the faces of individual chimpanzees in the wild. The new software will allow researchers and wildlife conservationists to significantly cut back on time and resources spent analyzing video footage, according to the new paper published today in Science Advances. (2019-09-04)

Psychosensory electronic skin technology for future AI and humanoid development
Professor Jae Eun Jang's team developed electronic skin technology for robots or electronic devices to feel pain through sense of touch. Expected to be applied in humanoid that needs 5 human senses and patients wearing prosthetic hands. (2019-08-29)

A new model of heat transfer in crystals was developed by Russian scientists
The understanding of atomic level processes opens a wide range of prospects in nanoelectronics and material engineering. One of such studies is a model suggested by a team of scientists from Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU). The model describes the distribution of heat in ultrapure crystals at the atomic level. (2019-08-26)

Could biological clocks in plants set the time for crop spraying?
Plants can tell the time, and this affects their responses to certain herbicides used in agriculture according to new research led by the University of Bristol. The study, in collaboration with Syngenta, found that plant circadian rhythms regulate the sensitivity of plants to a widely used herbicide according to the time of day. The findings could benefit agriculture by reducing crop loss and improving harvests. (2019-08-16)

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