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A route for avoiding defects during additive manufacturing
Research published in Science reveals how pores form during metals additive manufacturing and become defects trapped in solidifying metal. The practical value of this research is that it can inform industry on how to predict and improve 3D printing processes. (2020-11-26)

Doctors use existing treatment earlier to save the lives of Covid-19 patients
The lives of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are being saved by doctors who are using an existing medical treatment at an earlier stage. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) in the first days of hospitalisation seems to save between 10% to 20% of patients. The researchers also found that the early use of CPAP potentially reduces lung damage during the worst of the COVID-19 infection and allows the patient to recover from the inflammatory effects. (2020-11-25)

What do slight arm movements reveal about our breathing and health?
Special activity trackers can be used to fairly accurately determine the respiratory rate of people while they sleep. This is the result of a new study conducted by researchers at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) together with Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and published in the journal Scientific Reports. In the future, activity trackers could be used to detect the early stages of a disease, as a person's respiratory rate can indicate signs of an undetected medical problem. (2020-11-23)

Staying ahead of the curve with 3D curved graphene
A team of researchers has amplified 3D graphene's electrical properties by controlling its curvature. (2020-11-20)

SARS-CoV-2 transmission model offers decision-making pathways for safe school opening
A study in BMC Public Health reports on a new model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the school setting that finds if appropriate precautions are followed both in school and in the community, schools can safely remain open or reopen. (2020-11-20)

Breathing problems in teens: COVID-19 or lung injury due to vaping?
In a case series of three teen patients, UC Davis Health pediatricians present common manifestations of COVID-19 and lung injury due to vaping (EVALI). As EVALI and COVID-19 share many symptoms, it is critical for health providers to get the vaping history of teenagers with unexplained breathing problems. (2020-11-19)

Two liquids of water exist
Using x-ray lasers, researchers at Stockholm University have been able to follow the transformation between two distinct different liquid states of water, both being made of H2O molecules. At around -63 Centigrade the two liquids exist at different pressure regimes with a density difference of 20%. By rapidly varying the pressure before the sample could freeze, it was possible to observe one liquid changing into the other in real time. Their findings are published in the journal Science. (2020-11-19)

Diagnosing the cause of exercise-induced respiratory symptoms
Exercise?induced respiratory symptoms are common in childhood, and it can be difficult to diagnose their cause. A study published in Pediatric Pulmonology found that the diagnoses proposed by primary care physicians are often not the same as the final diagnoses after specialist referrals. (2020-11-18)

Metal-organic frameworks become flexible
Materials consisting of inorganic and organic components can combine the best of two worlds: under certain circumstances, the so-called MOFs - short for metal-organic frameworks - are structured in the same order as crystals and are at the same time porous and deformable. This opens up the prospect of intelligent materials for energy-saving technical applications. However, so far only a few flexible MOFs have been identified. (2020-11-17)

Novel glass materials made from organic and inorganic components
Researchers from the Universities of Jena and Cambridge have succeeded in creating a new class of hybrid glass materials that combine organic and inorganic components. To do this, the scientists use special material combinations in which chemical bonds between organometallic and inorganic glasses can be generated. They included materials composed of organometallic networks. This is primarily because their framework structures can be created in a targeted manner. (2020-11-16)

Exercised over nothing: Masks don't impair lung function during physical activity
A team of American and Canadian researchers report that while they may feel uncomfortable, there is little empirical evidence that wearing a facemask significantly diminishes lung function, even when worn during heavy exercise. (2020-11-16)

Sleep apnea may be risk factor for COVID-19
The question of sleep apnea as the risk factor for COVID-19 arose in a study conducted by the Turku University Hospital and the University of Turku on patients of the first wave of the pandemic. This is the first COVID-19-related study where sleep apnea as suspected risk factor emerges as the main finding. (2020-11-13)

Best practices for mechanical ventilation in patients with ARDS, COVID-19
A team from pulmonary and critical care medicine at Michigan Medicine outlines 20 evidence-based practices shown to reduce time spent on a ventilator and death in patients with acute respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress -- conditions that have many overlaps with severe COVID-19. (2020-11-13)

Canadian discovery: A potential game-changer to reverse alcohol intoxication
In a study published today in Scientific Reports, a Nature Research Journal, a team of researchers led by Dr. Joseph Fisher presents a proof of concept of a simple method that could become a game-changer in rescue therapy for severe alcohol intoxication, as well as just ''sobering up.'' (2020-11-12)

Skoltech scientists developed a novel bone implant manufacturing method
Scientists from the Skoltech Center for Design, Manufacturing, and Materials (CDMM) have developed a method for designing and manufacturing complex-shaped ceramic bone implants with a controllable porous structure, which largely enhances tissue fusion efficiency. Specimens of designed ceramic implants were fabricated at a 3D printer. This method enables changing the porous structure so as to produce implants of different densities to accommodate the patients' individual needs. (2020-11-12)

Study reveals how to improve natural gas production in shale
A new hydrocarbon study contradicts conventional wisdom about how methane is trapped in rock, revealing a new strategy to more easily access the valuable energy resource. (2020-11-12)

Selective encapsulation of ultrafine Pd and Pt nanoparticles within the shallow layers of MOF
A solvent assisted ligand exchange-hydrogen reduction (SALE-HR) strategy is demonstrated to selectively encapsulate ultrafine metal nanoparticles (Pd or Pt) within the shallow layers of a MOF, i.e., UiO-67, for highly efficient hydrogenation reactions. (2020-11-11)

New source of lymphatic system leak discovered in children with rare open heart surgery complication
Interventional radiologists with Nemours Children's Health System have identified a new source of abnormal lymphatic flow between the liver and the lungs that may be responsible for some cases of plastic bronchitis. Plastic bronchitis is a rare but serious late complication in patients with congenital heart disease who had Fontan surgery. A report detailing the discovery of this fluid leak, and successful treatment of two cases was published in European Heart Journal. (2020-11-11)

New airflow videos show why masks with exhalation valves do not slow the spread of COVID
Using high-speed video and schlieren imaging, NIST researcher Matthew Staymates created videos that show how air flows through masks with and without exhalation valves. 'When you compare the videos side by side, the difference is striking,' Staymates said. 'These videos show how the valves allow air to leave the mask without filtering it, which defeats the purpose of the mask.' (2020-11-10)

Coating plastics by porous nanofilm
A research team has developed a new method for creating metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films that can be applied to sensors and electric devices. (2020-11-09)

A biomimetic membrane for desalinating seawater on an industrial scale
Reverse osmosis is one of the most widely used techniques for the desalination of water. Some of the membranes currently used are artificial channels of water inserted into lipid layers. But their large-scale performance is not satisfactory. An international team has developed a hybrid strategy, which consists of combining a polyamide matrix and artificial water channels into a single structure. Their membranes have been tested under industrial conditions and outperform conventional membranes. (2020-11-09)

When malaria parasites trick liver cells to let themselves in
A new study led by Maria Manuel Mota, group leader at Instituto de Medicina Molecular, now shows that malaria parasites secrete the protein EXP2 that is required for their entry into hepatocytes. These findings, published today in the scientific journal Nature Communications, open a new avenue for prophylactic anti-malarial strategies, since blocking or decreasing the infection of the liver can prevent the disease. (2020-11-06)

USask researchers find face masks don't hinder breathing during exercise
A new University of Saskatchewan (USask) study has found that exercise performance and blood and muscle oxygen levels are not affected for healthy individuals wearing a face mask during strenuous workouts. (2020-11-05)

Laboratory findings associated with severe illness, mortality among hospitalized patients with COVID
This observational study examined how well sociodemographic features, laboratory value and comorbidities of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Eastern Massachusetts might predict a course of severe illness. (2020-10-30)

Study measures effectiveness of different face mask materials when coughing
A team of researchers have tested everything from t-shirts and socks to jeans and vacuum bags to determine what type of mask material is most effective at trapping the ultrafine particles which may contain viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, the virus which causes COVID-19. (2020-10-29)

CAM modes provide environment-specific water-saving benefits in a leaf metabolic model
Several plant lineages living in arid environments have evolved crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis, a water-saving mode of carbon fixation in which CO2 uptake and CO2 fixation are temporally separated. Researchers from IPK Gatersleben and the University of Oxford tested whether full CAM is also necessarily the best solution for C3 crops grown in temperate environments and attempted to identify alternative metabolic modes that best balance the trade-off between water loss and photosynthetic productivity under a range of environments. (2020-10-29)

Face mask aims to deactivate virus to protect others
Researchers have developed a face mask with an embedded antiviral layer that sanitizes the wearer's respiratory droplets to make them less infectious to others. (2020-10-29)

Biophysicists modelled the effect of antiseptics on bacterial membranes
A team of biophysics from leading Russian research and educational institutions (MSU, RUDN University, and the Federal Research and Clinical Center of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia) developed a computer model that shows the effect of antiseptics on bacterial membranes. The common concepts regarding the mode of action of antiseptics turned out to be incorrect: instead of destroying bacterial membranes, they cause changes in their structure. These changes make the bacteria weaker and more susceptible to adverse external factors. (2020-10-28)

Cracking the secrets of dinosaur eggshells
Since the famous discovery of dinosaur eggs in the Gobi Desert in the early 1920s, the fossilized remains have captured the imaginations of paleontologists and the public, alike. Although dinosaur eggs have now been found on every continent, it's not always clear to scientists which species laid them. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Omega have narrowed down the list for an unknown eggshell from Mexico by comparing its microstructure and composition with four known samples. (2020-10-28)

Black Hispanic individuals hardest hit by COVID-19
Results from a new study led by Boston Medical Center (BMC) demonstrate the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on Hispanic groups within the US, with the most severe outcomes, including death and intensive care, among Hispanic Black individuals. (2020-10-27)

Hydrogen sulfide helps maintain your drive to breathe
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have found that the production of hydrogen sulfide gas is necessary to breathe normally. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide production in rats prevented brain neurons that control breathing from functioning normally. These findings have identified new mediators of breathing that can now be explored in the context of human health and disease. (2020-10-26)

Making biodiesel from dirty old cooking oil just got way easier
Researchers develop a new sponge-like catalyst that is so tough it can make biodiesel from low-grade ingredients containing up to 50% contaminants. And it's so efficient it could double the productivity of manufacturing processes for transforming food scraps, microplastics and old tyres into high-value commodity chemicals. (2020-10-26)

Engineering drought-resistant crops with Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis
This work examines requirements for introducing CAM and alternative water-saving pathways into C3 plants in different environments. (2020-10-23)

Nasal septum surgery can affect behaviour, say medics from RUDN University
A team of medics from RUDN University conducted an experiment on rats and confirmed that surgeries in the nasal cavity can cause behavioral changes, namely, make the animals timider. This effect is associated with an ANS reaction triggered by stress. (2020-10-22)

The First Book of Breathing: A new assessment based on an edition of papyrus FMNH 31324
Assessment of a Papyrus in the Field Museum has led to a new analysis of the First Book of Breathing, an ancient Egyptian funerary text intended to enable deceased people to join the gods in the afterlife. (2020-10-21)

Tocilizumab doesn't ease symptoms or prevent death in moderately ill COVID-19 inpatients
The drug tocilizumab (Actemra) does not reduce the need for breathing assistance with mechanical ventilation or prevent death in moderately ill hospitalized patients with COVID-19, according to a study by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital. The study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, casts doubt on earlier research suggesting that tocilizumab, which is commonly prescribed for rheumatoid arthritis and other conditions, might be an effective treatment for patients with worsening cases of COVID-19. (2020-10-21)

Highly selective membranes
Membranes with microscopic pores are useful for water filtration. The effect of pore size on water filtration is well-understood, as is the role of ions, charged atoms, that interact with the membrane. For the first time, researchers have successfully described the impact water molecules have on other water molecules and on ions as part of the filtration mechanism. The researchers detail a feedback system between water molecules which opens up new design possibilities for highly selective membranes. Applications could include virus filters. (2020-10-20)

A first-of-its-kind catalyst mimics natural processes to break down plastics
A team of scientists led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has developed a first-of-its-kind catalyst that is able to process polyolefin plastics, types of polymers widely used in things like plastic grocery bags, milk jugs, shampoo bottles, toys, and food containers. (2020-10-19)

Less invasive ventilation use grows dramatically, without needed data
Analysis of nearly 2.5 million Medicare-funded hospitalizations near the end of a patient's life found the use of non-invasive ventilation has increased substantially, even though there is little data to support its use in certain patient groups, such as those with cancer and dementia near the end of life. (2020-10-19)

A controllable membrane to pull carbon dioxide out of exhaust streams
A system developed by chemical engineers at MIT could provide a way of continuously removing carbon dioxide from a stream of waste gases, or even from the air. The key component is an electrochemically assisted membrane whose permeability to gas can be switched on and off at will, using no moving parts and relatively little energy. (2020-10-16)

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