Current Cell biology News and Events

Current Cell biology News and Events, Cell biology News Articles.
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Molecular 'barcode' helps decide which sperm will reach an egg
A protein called CatSper1 may act as a molecular 'barcode' that helps determine which sperm cells will make it to an egg and which are eliminated along the way. (2020-12-01)

Defects in mitochondria may explain many health problems observed during space travel
Using data collected from a number of different resources, a multidisciplinary team is reporting discovery of a common thread that drives this damage: mitochondrial dysfunction. The researchers used a systems approach to look at widespread alterations affecting biological function. The findings are reported November 25 in the journal Cell. (2020-11-25)

To evade humans, this medicinal plant has evolved to hide in plain sight
Researchers reporting November 20, 2020 in the journal Current Biology have found that, in places where the herb is harvested more, the plant has evolved to blend in better with the background, making them harder for people to find. As a result, the plant varies in color from brown or grey to green, depending on whether it lives in a place that is frequented by human collectors or not. (2020-11-23)

Discovery illuminates how cell growth pathway responds to signals
A basic science discovery by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health reveals a fundamental way cells interpret signals from their environment and may eventually pave the way for potential new therapies. (2020-11-20)

Researchers create first map of bee species around the globe
There are over 20,000 species of bee, but accurate data about how these species are spread across the globe are sparse. However, researchers reporting in the journal Current Biology on November 19 have created a map of bee diversity by combining the most complete global checklist of known bee species with the almost 6 million additional public records of where individual species have appeared around the world. (2020-11-19)

Many unresolved questions remain regarding T cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2
T cell responses are critical for providing early control and clearance of many viral infections, but there remain many unknowns concerning T cell immunity in COVID-19. Some T cell responses may even have a detrimental impact on the clinical outcome and contribute to long COVID, a phenomenon that affects roughly 10% of COVID-19 patients, causing them to experience an array of symptoms for a month or longer. (2020-11-18)

New technique isolates brain cells associated with Parkinson's disease
Carnegie Mellon University researchers have developed a new technique for isolating a type of brain cell associated with Parkinson's disease symptoms, enabling them to study that cell type in detail. (2020-11-16)

Researchers simulate privacy leaks in functional genomics studies
In a study publishing November 12 in the journal Cell, a team of investigators demonstrates that it's possible to de-identify raw functional genomics data to ensure patient privacy. They also demonstrate how these raw data could be linked back to specific individuals through their gene variants by something as simple as an abandoned coffee cup if these sanitation measures are not put in place. (2020-11-12)

Researchers at Goethe University create artificial cell organelles for biotechnology
Cells of higher organisms use cell organelles to separate metabolic processes from each other. This is how cell respiration takes place in the mitochondria, the cell's power plants. They can be compared to sealed laboratory rooms in the large factory of the cell. A research team at Goethe University has now succeeded in creating artificial cell organelles and using them for their own devised biochemical reactions. (2020-11-12)

New prognostic markers for colon cancer identified
The study recently published by MedUni Vienna and collaborative partners nominates ILSs as novel prognostic players orchestrating the pathobiology of metastatic colorectal cancer. (2020-11-11)

Photopharmacology -- light-gated control of the cytoskeleton
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers have developed photoresponsive derivatives of the anticancer drug Taxol®, which allow light-based control of cytoskeleton dynamics in neurons. The agents can optically pattern cell division and may elucidate how Taxol acts. (2020-11-06)

Staying in touch!
New mechanism regulating the adhesion of cells to the surrounding extracellular support structures discovered at the University of Konstanz - New options for the treatment of inflammatory processes and tumour metastasis (2020-11-06)

When new males take over, these female primates hurry up and mature
Most mammals--including humans and other primates--reach sexual maturity early or late depending on lots of different factors, such as how much food there is to eat. Now, researchers studying close primate relatives of baboons known as geladas have shown for the first time that females of this species suddenly hurry up and mature when a new male enters the picture. Their findings are reported in the journal Current Biology on November 5th. (2020-11-05)

Biologists create "atlas" of gene expression in neurons, documenting diversity of brain cells
New York University researchers have created a ''developmental atlas'' of gene expression in neurons, using gene sequencing and machine learning to categorize more than 250,000 neurons in the brains of fruit flies. Their study, published in Nature, finds that neurons exhibit the most molecular diversity during development and reveals a previously unknown type of neurons only present before flies hatch. (2020-11-04)

Case study details leukemia patient who shed infectious SARS-CoV-2 for at least 70 days
The majority of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 appear to actively shed infectious virus for about 8 days, but there is a wide range of variability from person to person. Researchers report November 4 in the journal Cell an unusual case of one woman with leukemia and a low antibody count who was infected with the coronavirus for at least 105 days, and infectious for at least 70, while remaining asymptomatic the entire time. (2020-11-04)

Changes in subcellular traffic increase invasiveness of radioresistant cancer cells
Scientists have revealed the molecular mechanism regulating the trafficking of lysosomes that increases the invasiveness of radioresistant cancer cells following radiotherapy. (2020-10-29)

These spiders can hear
Ogre-faced spiders hide during the day and hunt by night, dangling from palm fronds and casting nets on insects. Researchers reporting in the journal Current Biology on October 29 have discovered that they can hear their predators and prey, using specialized receptors to pick up sounds from at least 2 meters away. The results suggest that spiders can hear low frequency sounds from insect prey as well as higher frequency sounds from bird predators. (2020-10-29)

How octopus suckers "taste by touch"
Imagine if you could taste something simply by touching it. Octopuses can do just that with their unique ''touch-taste'' sense, made possible by the suction-cup-like suckers along each of their eight arms. Now, researchers reporting October 29 in the journal Cell have new evidence as to how this sensory ability works. The findings help to explain how octopuses, and perhaps other marine organisms, explore the seafloor by tasting objects underwater with a simple touch. (2020-10-29)

Stem cells: new insights for future regenerative medicine approaches
The study published in Open Biology unravels important data for a better understanding of the process of division in stem cells and for the development of safer ways to use them in medicine. (2020-10-28)

Researchers find source of breast tumor heterogeneity and pathway that limits emergence
A team of researchers led by Dartmouth's and Dartmouth-Hitchcock's Norris Cotton Cancer Center has identified mammary basal cells as a contributing source to the development of heterogeneous tumor cell subpopulations and found that activation of the PKA signaling pathway can curtail their emergence, providing opportunities for new therapeutic approaches to breast cancer. (2020-10-28)

Yeast study yields insights into longstanding evolution debate
In a study published Oct. 27 in the journal Cell Reports, Yale scientists show how epigenetic mechanisms contribute in real time to the evolution of a gene network in yeast. Specifically, through multiple generations yeast cells were found to pass on changes in gene activity induced by researchers. (2020-10-27)

Identified a subgroup of stem cells that resists ageing and maintains muscle regeneration
For the first time the researchers have demonstrated in a study in mice that not all muscle stem cells age equally, and have identified a subgroup with greater regenerative capacity which is maintained until geriatric age. The finding provides a basis for mitigating the loss of muscle regenerative capacity in very elderly people. (2020-10-27)

Thymoquinone induces apoptosis & DNA damage in 5-Fluorouracil-resistant colorectal cancer
Volume 11, Issue 31 from @Oncotarget reported that TQ decreased the expression levels of colorectal stem cell markers CD44 and Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule Ep CAM and proliferation marker Ki67 in colonospheres derived from both cell lines and reduced cellular migration and invasion. (2020-10-22)

Nanodevices show how living cells change with time, by tracking from the inside
For the first time, scientists have introduced minuscule tracking devices directly into the interior of mammalian cells, giving an unprecedented peek into the processes that govern the beginning of development. (2020-10-20)

How some sea slugs keep their ability to carry out plant-like photosynthesis
Scientists have shed new light on a relationship between a sea slug and tiny structures called chloroplasts from their food algae that allow the animals to photosynthesise in a similar way to plants. (2020-10-20)

How bacteria adapt their machinery for optimum growth
The tiny 'machines' that keep the processes in bacterial cells going are made up of a large number of different proteins and RNA molecules. Depending on their growth rate, bacteria have to produce these in different concentrations. Bioinformatics researchers from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) have developed a model that explains for the first time the precise composition of this molecular 'cocktail' for a central cellular system. Their findings, which are also relevant for biotechnology, are presented in the scientific journal Nature Communications. (2020-10-16)

A new protein discovered that repairs DNA
Our cells have DNA repair systems to defend themselves against this sort of damage. One of these systems is based on a protein, photolysis, which uses blue light to repair DNA damage before it leads to mutations. (2020-10-14)

New insight on mole growth could aid development of skin cancer treatments
Moles stop growing when they reach a certain size due to normal interactions between cells, despite having cancer-associated gene mutations, says a new study published today in eLife. (2020-10-13)

Computational approach to optimise culture conditions required for cell therapy
Collaboration by researchers in Singapore and Australia lead to first-of-its-kind computational biology algorithm that could enable more effective cellular therapies against major diseases. (2020-10-12)

There's a gene for detecting that fishy smell, olfactory GWAS shows
Some people carry a mutation in a particular gene that makes the smell of fish less intense, reports a paper publishing October 8 in the journal Current Biology. The study, which is the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of olfactory genes in humans involving a sniff test and looked at over 9,000 people from Iceland, also shows that people vary in their ability to discern the smell of licorice and cinnamon. (2020-10-08)

Taking sides - factors that influence patterns in protein distribution
A new paper, published in Current Biology has found that even cells in isolation can become polarised to create the head to tail pattern, and that this polarity can orient how the cell grows. (2020-10-08)

Quality control mechanism closes the protein production 'on-ramps'
Recent work revealed a newfound quality control system in the protein production assembly line with possible implications for understanding neurogenerative disease. (2020-10-08)

New perspectives to treat neuropschychiatric diseases
Researchers studied the major types of neurons of the prefrontal cortex of the brain in an international collaboration. The research team has identified molecular differences in neurons that may support drug development for the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression. (2020-10-08)

Tracking sea turtle egg traffickers with GPS-enabled decoy eggs
By placing 3D-printed and GPS-enabled decoy sea turtle eggs into nests on the beach, it's possible to gather key evidence needed to expose rampant illegal trade of the eggs, suggests a study publishing in the journal Current Biology on October 5, 2020. The researchers specifically tested how well the decoy eggs work and their safety for the endangered turtles. (2020-10-05)

Carb-eating bacteria under viral threat
Strictly speaking, humans cannot digest complex carbohydrates -- that's the job of bacteria in our large intestines. UC Riverside scientists have just discovered a new group of viruses that attack these bacteria. (2020-10-01)

Blue whales change their tune before migrating
While parsing through years of recorded blue whale songs looking for seasonal patterns, researchers were surprised to observe that during feeding season in the summer, whales sing mainly at night, but as they prepare to migrate to their breeding grounds for the winter, this pattern reverses and the whales sing during the day. This finding, published October 1 in the journal Current Biology, may explain known inconsistencies in whale song patterns. (2020-10-01)

Feeding C-section newborns their mother's poop may help build healthy microbiota
A paper published October 1, 2020 in the journal Cell suggests that newborns delivered by cesarean may benefit from drinking a small amount of their mother's feces dissolved in breast milk, because it provides them with beneficial bacteria they would otherwise be exposed to in vaginal birth. At three months, the procedure resulted in the newborns having a microbial makeup that looks more similar to babies born vaginally than to those born by C-section. (2020-10-01)

Sticking together
In unraveling how a single cell develops into a complex organism, one vexing question has remained for developmental biology: How do robust patterns form in the body? An answer has now been found for the zebrafish neural tube. In this paradigm of patterned tissues, the varying stickiness of cells combined with gradients of signaling molecules is responsible for generating a robust pattern. This is the result of a study published in Science. (2020-10-01)

Virus turns deadly fungus from foe to friend in plants
Researchers have discovered that a fungal virus (also called a mycovirus) can convert deadly fungal pathogens into beneficial fungus in rapeseed plants. Once transformed, the fungus boosts the plant's immune system, making the plant healthier and more resistant to diseases. These findings, published on September 29 in the journal Molecular Plant, indicate that some fungal viruses can be used for developing ''plant vaccines'' to improve crop health and enhance crop yield. (2020-09-29)

Inside mitochondria and their fascinating genome
EPFL scientists have observed -- for the first time in living cells -- the way mitochondria distribute their transcriptome throughout the cell, and it involves RNA granules that turn out to be highly fluid. (2020-09-28)

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