Current Chromatin News and Events

Current Chromatin News and Events, Chromatin News Articles.
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Mapping out the mystery of blood stem cells
Princess Margaret scientists have revealed how stem cells are able to generate new blood cells throughout our life by looking at vast, uncharted regions of our genetic material that hold important clues to subtle biological changes in these cells. (2020-11-25)

Scientists discover roles for a cellular motor in cancer
Utah scientists have discovered new functions of a key cellular machine that regulates gene packaging and is mutated in 20% of human cancers. The study was published in print today in the journal Molecular Cell. (2020-11-19)

Picture this: Chromosomes look different than you think
A new method to capture high-resolution, 3D images of human chromosomes in single cells reveals how DNA structure might influence its function (or malfunction). (2020-11-18)

Drug discovery: First highly scalable method to monitor protein levels and localizations
Researchers at CeMM, the Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, have developed a highly scalable method which allows for the study of hundreds of proteins in parallel in order to monitor the changes of their levels and localization in the cell. This novel strategy is a notable contribution, not only to drug development for future treatments against diseases such as cancer, but also to our general understanding and knowledge of proteome dynamics. (2020-11-17)

Neurons stripped of their identity are hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, study finds
Researchers at the University of California San Diego have identified new mechanisms in neurons that cause Alzheimer's disease. In particular, they discovered that changes in the structure of chromatin, the tightly coiled form of DNA, trigger neurons to lose their specialized function and revert to an earlier cell state. This results in the loss of synaptic connections, an effect associated with memory loss and dementia. (2020-11-13)

New molecular atlases reveal how human cells grow and develop
Two cell atlases have been created that track gene expression and chromatin accessibility during the development of human cell types and tissues. The atlases provide a fundamental resource for understanding gene expression and chromatin accessibility in human development that is unprecedented in scale. One maps gene expression within individual cells across 15 fetal tissues. The other maps chromatin accessibility of individual genes within cells. (2020-11-12)

Sugar work: U-M study finds sugar remodels molecular memory in fruit flies
A high-sugar diet reprograms the taste cells in fruit flies, dulling their sensitivity to sugar and leaving a ''molecular memory'' on their tongues, according to a University of Michigan study. (2020-11-11)

A novel finding on Kabuki syndrome, a rare genetic disease
It has a long time since the cause of the disease has been identified: mutations of KMT2D gene codify for MLL4, a protein involved in the regulation of chromatin, which is the complex of proteins and nucleic acids contained in the nucleus of cells. However, research still has a long way to go to identify therapeutic approaches. An Italian team, coordinated by the University of Trento, has taken a step forward in this direction (2020-11-09)

At our cores, we're all strengthened by 'dumbbells'
Scientists at Rice's Center for Theoretical Biological Physics detail the structure of dumbbell-like sequences in DNA during interphase that suggest several unseen aspects of chromosome configuration and function. (2020-10-21)

New 3-D model of a DNA-regulating complex in human cells provides cancer clues
Scientists have created an unprecedented 3-dimensional structural model of a key molecular ''machine'' known as the BAF complex, which modifies DNA architecture and is frequently mutated in cancer and some other diseases. (2020-10-13)

Research team discovers mechanism that restores cell function after genome damage
Researchers at the University of Cologne have found out how cells can recover their development and longevity after damage by UV / discovery may enable therapy against premature aging (2020-10-13)

A dance of histones silences transposable elements in pluripotent stem cells
A study lead by SciLifeLab Fellow Simon Elsässer elucidates the mechanism of a peculiar type of heterochromatin, used by embryonic stem cells to silence 'parasitic' DNA-elements within the context of their highly dynamic pluripotent chromatin. (2020-10-09)

Sanford Burnham Prebys wins $8.5 million in NIH Transformative Research grants
Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute today announced that two faculty members, Peter Adams, Ph.D., and Jerold Chun, M.D., Ph.D., have received National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director's Transformative Research Awards. The awards, which total $8.5 million and are two of only nine granted in 2020, come from the NIH Common Fund's High-Risk, High-Reward Program. (2020-10-06)

Neuroscientists discover a molecular mechanism that allows memories to form
Encoding memories in engram cells is controlled by large-scale remodeling of the proteins and DNA that make up cells' chromatin, according to an MIT study. This chromatin remodeling, which allows specific genes involved in storing memories to become more active, takes place in multiple stages spread out over several days. (2020-10-05)

Latent lineage potential in neural stem cells enables spinal cord repair in mice
Spinal stem cells in mice can be reprogrammed to generate protective oligodendrocytes after spinal cord injury, enhancing neural repair, according to a new study. (2020-10-01)

Penn researchers uncover epigenetic drivers for Alzheimer's disease
New findings suggest that late-onset Alzheimer's Disease is driven by epigenetic changes -- how and when certain genes are turned on and off -- in the brain. Results were published today in Nature Genetics. (2020-09-28)

Divide and enlarge
Researchers discover a mechanism that causes cell nuclei to grow. (2020-09-22)

Why some cancers may respond poorly to key drugs discovered
Scientists have identified a driver of drug resistance in breast, ovarian and prostate cancers that may help doctors predict which patients will become resistant to a class of drugs frequently used to treat BRCA 1/2-deficient tumors. (2020-09-22)

Building bridges: PARP enzymes bring broken DNA together
St. Jude researchers capture the structure of PARP enzymes at work, leading to a new understanding of DNA repair that may aid cancer treatments targeting the process. (2020-09-16)

Heroin-addicted individuals have unique brain disturbances resembling those of Alzheimer's
Herion-addicted individuals have alterations in the expression a gene called FYN - a gene known to regulate the production of Tau, a protein that is highly elevated and implicated in neurocognitive disorders like Alzheimer's disease. The study emphasizes that opioid use can affect the brain in a way that might increase vulnerability of neural systems that trigger neurodegeneration later in life; however, since these changes are epigenetic (alterations in gene function that are influenced by environmental factors and not alterations of the DNA itself), they are reversible and medications that have already been developed to target FYN for neurodegenerative disorders may be studied as a novel treatment for opioid addiction. (2020-09-14)

Innate immune system -- How cGAS is kept bottled up
In higher organisms, detection of DNA in the cytoplasm triggers an immune reaction. The enzyme that senses 'misplaced' DNA is also found in the nucleus, but nuclear DNA has no such effect. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers now report why that is so. (2020-09-10)

Finding cortisone alternatives with fewer side effects
Many people use cortisone of a regular basis. It is used for treating rheumatism, asthma, multiple sclerosis, or even COVID-19. Steroidal medication such as cortisone is highly effective but also possesses severe side effects. Henriette Uhlenhaut, professor at Technical University of Munich (TUM), and her team are examining the beneficial effects of cortisone in order to lay the groundwork for the development of similar drugs with fewer side effects. (2020-09-02)

Dana-Farber study advances understanding of rare sarcoma
In this study, scientists discover how abnormal protein disrupts gene expression in synovial sarcoma. For the first time, scientists discover the molecular basis for the cancer-specific targeting properties of the culprit fusion protein found in synovial sarcoma (2020-08-03)

Allelic imbalance of chromatin openness is linked to neuropsychiatric disorders
New study finds single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect chromatin accessibility, which in turn affects whether or not a gene can be expressed (2020-08-03)

UMMS scientists lead effort to annotate human genome
UMass Medical School scientists Jill Moore, PhD, Zhiping Weng, PhD, and MD/PhD students Michael Purcaro and Henry Pratt are lead authors on the latest publication of data from the ambitious ENCODE project to annotate the human genome. (2020-07-29)

Identified a new regulatory mechanism of response to metabolic stress
The Chromatin Biology group, led by Dr. Alex Vaquero has identified a new enzymatic activity in SIRT7, involved in stress response, aging and hematopoiesis, which plays a key role in metabolic stress and aging. (2020-07-27)

Gene-controlling mechanisms play key role in cancer progression
MIT researchers have analyzed how epigenomic modifications change as tumors evolve. In a study of mouse lung tumors, the researchers identified 11 chromatin states, or epigenomic states, that cancer cells can pass through as they become more aggressive. (2020-07-23)

Simple twist of DNA determines fate of placenta
The development of the mammalian placenta depends upon an unusual twist that separates DNA's classic double helix into a single-stranded form, Yale researchers report July 15 in the journal Nature. (2020-07-15)

Research reveals regulatory features of maize genome during early reproductive development
A team of researchers led by Andrea Eveland, Ph.D., assistant member, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, has mapped out the non-coding, 'functional' genome in maize during an early developmental window critical to formation of pollen-bearing tassels and grain-bearing ears. (2020-07-07)

Epigenetics: What the embryo can teach us about cell reprogramming
Cell reprogramming provides an outstanding opportunity for the artificial generation of stem cells for regenerative medicine approaches in the clinic. As current cell reprogramming methods are low in efficiency, researchers around the globe aim to learn lessons from the early embryo which might lead them to a more efficient and faster generation of high-quality, fully reprogrammed stem cells. (2020-07-06)

UCLA study pinpoints new function for histones
Refuting earlier theories, scientists discovered that histones act as an enzyme that converts copper into a form that can be used by the cells. (2020-07-02)

New genomic atlas of the developing human brain
Researchers at Gladstone Institutes and UC San Francisco (UCSF) Weill Institute for Neurosciences have created a comprehensive region-specific atlas of the regulatory regions of the genome linked to human embryonic brain development. (2020-06-30)

Dynamics of DNA replication revealed at the nanoscale
Using super-resolution technology a University of Technology Sydney led team has directly visualised the process of DNA replication in single human cells. (2020-06-25)

Strahl lab decodes another piece of the histone code puzzle
Published in the journal Cell Reports, this research reinforces the notion that the multiple chemical modifications placed on histones by a single enzyme ensures multiple and distinct functions -- an idea that was postulated by Strahl and his former mentor, David Allis, Ph.D., and was called the Histone Code hypothesis. (2020-06-09)

Intestinal health: Dresden research team identifies enzyme essential for stem cell survival
Which pathways govern intestinal epithelial differentiation under constitutive conditions? Epithelial differentiation is largely controlled by the tissue-specific activity of transcription factors. Access to DNA is provided by accessible chromatin (euchromatin), while compacted heterochromatin limits access of transcription factors to DNA. Researchers at the TU Dresden Center for Regenerative Therapies (CRTD) have investigated the significance of the regulation of heterochromatin formation in the intestinal epithelium and published their findings in the renowned international scientific journal Gut. (2020-06-08)

Mothers ensure their offspring's success through epigenetics
Parents pass genes along to their offspring which equip them for their future life. In recent years, research has shown that the reality is much more complex and that parents endow much more than just genes. A new study in Cell by the laboratory of Asifa Akhtar at the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics reveals that active epigenetic modifications are also passed from one generation to the next. (2020-06-04)

New image of a cancer-related enzyme in action helps explain gene regulation
New images of an enzyme in action as it interacts with the chromosome could provide important insight into how cells--including cancer cells -- regulate their gene (2020-06-04)

Why developing nerve cells can take a wrong turn
Loss of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme leads to impediment in growth of nerve cells / Link found between cellular machineries of protein degradation and regulation of the epigenetic landscape in human embryonic stem cells (2020-06-03)

FloChiP, a new tool optimizing gene-regulation studies
EPFL scientists have developed FloChip, a new microfluidic take on the widely used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technique. By automating and cutting the cost of ChIP and sequential-ChIP, FloChIP has the potential to become a widely used tool for the study of chromatin biology and gene regulation. (2020-06-01)

Pregnancy reprograms breast cells, reducing cancer risk
Women who are pregnant before the age of 25 have a decreased risk of breast cancer throughout their lives. Searching for the mechanism behind this life-saver, CSHL researchers discovered that pregnancy reprograms the breast cells to turn off a cancer gene and turn on a gene that arrests cell growth. (2020-05-27)

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