Current Enzyme News and Events

Current Enzyme News and Events, Enzyme News Articles.
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Defined blockade
The addition and removal of methyl groups on DNA plays an important role in gene regulation. In order to study these mechanisms more precisely, a German team has developed a new method by which specific methylation sites can be blocked and then unblocked at a precise time through irradiation with light (photocaging). As reported in the journal Angewandte Chemie, the required regent is produced enzymatically, in situ. (2020-11-24)

Breakthrough in studying the enzyme that ultimately produces fish odour syndrome
Fish odour syndrome (trimethylaminuria) is a debilitating disease, in which the liver cannot break down the smelly chemical trimethylamine which is produced by enzymes from bacteria residing in the gut leaving people with a fish like odour. Researchers from the University of Warwick are paving the way to prevent the syndrome after a breakthrough in studying the enzyme in the gut which produces trimethylamine. (2020-11-23)

Unlocking cheaper chemicals
A new technique to make cheaper more efficient biological enzyme hybrids could have valuable applications in future water recycling, targeted drug manufacturing and other industries, Flinders University green chemistry researchers say in a new publication. The model enzyme system, which immobilises a catalyst enzyme hybrid for continuous flow use in the high-speed vortex fluidic device, showed a 16-fold increase in its efficiency, the researchers say in American Chemical Society journal, ASC Applied Materials & Interfaces. (2020-11-22)

Glyphosate may affect human gut microbiota
More than half of bacterial species in the core of the human gut microbiome are potentially sensitive to glyphosate, shows new research. Researchers from the University of Turku Finland, introduced the first bioinformatics resource to determine and test the potential sensitivity of organisms to glyphosate. (2020-11-20)

Biofriendly protocells pump up blood vessels
In a new study published today in Nature Chemistry, Professor Stephen Mann and Dr Mei Li from Bristol's School of Chemistry, together with Associate Professor Jianbo Liu and colleagues at Hunan University and Central South University in China, prepared synthetic protocells coated in red blood cell fragments for use as nitric oxide generating bio-bots within blood vessels. (2020-11-20)

Discovery illuminates how cell growth pathway responds to signals
A basic science discovery by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health reveals a fundamental way cells interpret signals from their environment and may eventually pave the way for potential new therapies. (2020-11-20)

Ribosome assembly - The final trimming step
Ribosomes synthesize all the proteins in cells. Studies mainly done on yeast have revealed much about how ribosomes are put together, but an Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich team now reports that ribosome assembly in human cells requires factors that have no counterparts in simpler model organisms. (2020-11-20)

Gut microbiome manipulation could result from virus discovery
Scientists have discovered how a common virus in the human gut infects and takes over bacterial cells - a finding that could be used to control the composition of the gut microbiome, which is important for human health. The Rutgers co-authored research, which could aid efforts to engineer beneficial bacteria that produce medicines and fuels and clean up pollutants, is published in the journal Nature. (2020-11-18)

Promising results from in vitro combination therapy against COVID-19
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden report promising results from an in vitro combination therapy against COVID-19. In a study published in EMBO Molecular Medicine, the researchers show that a combination of remdesivir, an approved drug against COVID-19, and hrsACE2, a medicine currently in phase II trials for COVID-19 treatment, reduced the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 and inhibited viral replication in cell cultures and organoids. (2020-11-17)

Newly discovered enzyme helps make valuable bioactive saponins
A team led by researchers from Osaka University discovered a new enzyme, closely related to the CSyGT family of enzymes involved in producing cellulose in plant cell walls. Unexpectedly, they found the new enzyme is responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of saponins, bioactive products with high-value applications in medicine and the food industry. The new enzyme opens up novel routes for commercial production of these valuable compounds in microbial cells. (2020-11-16)

Cellular powerplant recycles waste gases
Carbon monoxide is a very poisonous gas. Humans die within minutes when they inhale it. However, some microorganisms tolerate carbon monoxide. Knowledge about how these bacteria survive opens a window into the primeval times of the earth and the origin of life. At the same time, they might be useful for the future as they can be used to clean waste gases and produce biofuels. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen have now made a surprising discovery. (2020-11-16)

Why does COVID-19 seem to spare children?
Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) and their colleagues have determined a key factor as to why COVID-19 appears to infect and sicken adults and older people preferentially while seeming to spare younger children. (2020-11-13)

Interactive virtual reality emerges as a new tool for drug design against COVID-19
Bristol scientists have demonstrated a new virtual reality [VR] technique which should help in developing drugs against the SARS-CoV-2 virus - and enable researchers to share models and collaborate in new ways. The innovative tool, created by University of Bristol researchers, and published in the Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, will help scientists around the world identify anti-viral drug leads more rapidly. (2020-11-12)

'Rewiring' metabolism in insulin-producing cells may aid Type 2 diabetes treatment
Researchers have discovered a previously unknown way that pancreatic cells decide how much insulin to secrete. It could provide a promising new target to develop drugs for boosting insulin production in people with Type 2 diabetes. (2020-11-12)

Researchers discover enzyme suppressing immune response to viral infections
Viruses such as HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C evade or disrupt the immune system to create persistent infections. These viruses remain a serious health threat, but researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine have discovered how an enzyme that regulates several cellular processes might be a key target to preventing viruses from disarming the human immune response. (2020-11-10)

Cell ageing can be slowed by oxidants
At high concentrations, reactive oxygen species - known as oxidants - are harmful to cells in all organisms and have been linked to ageing. But a study from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, has now shown that low levels of the oxidant hydrogen peroxide can stimulate an enzyme that helps slow down the ageing of yeast cells. (2020-11-09)

How cell processes round up and dump damaged proteins
Reporting unexpected processes, chemist Eric Strieter at UMass Amherst says he and his group have discovered how an enzyme known as UCH37 regulates a cell's waste management system. (2020-11-06)

For quick COVID-19 testing, iSCAN can
A new test kit could enable quick and effective COVID-19 tests for people arriving at airports. (2020-11-05)

NIH researchers identify gene in mice that controls food cravings, desire to exercise
National Institutes of Health researchers have discovered a gene in mice that controls the craving for fatty and sugary foods and the desire to exercise. The gene, Prkar2a, is highly expressed in the habenula, a tiny brain region involved in responses to pain, stress, anxiety, sleep and reward. The findings could inform future research to prevent obesity and its accompanying risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. (2020-11-05)

Sugar-coated viral proteins hijack and hitch a ride out of cells
Many viruses - including coronaviruses ¬- have protective outer layer made of proteins, fats and sugars. New research shows targeting sugar production has potential for broad-spectrum antiviral drugs (2020-11-05)

Stanford engineers have developed a genetic microlab that can detect COVID-19 in minutes
The microlab test takes advantage of the fact that coronaviruses like SARS-COV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, leaves behind tiny genetic fingerprints wherever they go in the form of strands of RNA, the genetic precursor of DNA. If the coronavirus's RNA is present in a swab sample, the person from whom the sample was taken is infected. (2020-11-04)

Bacilli and their enzymes show prospects for several applications
This publication is devoted to the des­cription of different microbial enzymes with prospects for practical application. The interest in microbial enzymes is due to the inability of animal and plant proteolytic enzymes to fully meet the needs of the global population. Microorganisms are an accessible source of enzymes owing to their wide variety, the safety of handling, ease of cultivation, and genetic transformability. (2020-10-30)

The sweet spot of flagellar assembly
To build the machinery that enables bacteria to swim the flagellum is assembled piece by piece, ending with the helix called flagellar filament, composed of six different subunits called flagellins. Microbiologists from the University of Geneva have demonstrated that adding sugar to the flagellins is crucial for the flagellum's assembly and functionality. Among the six flagellins, one is the special one serving a signalling role to trigger the final assembly of the flagellum. (2020-10-27)

Neutrons chart atomic map of COVID-19's viral replication mechanism
To better understand how the novel coronavirus behaves and how it can be stopped, scientists have completed a three-dimensional map that reveals the location of every atom in an enzyme molecule critical to SARS-CoV-2 reproduction. Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory used neutron scattering to identify key information to improve the effectiveness of drug inhibitors designed to block the virus's replication mechanism. (2020-10-27)

Hydrogen sulfide helps maintain your drive to breathe
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have found that the production of hydrogen sulfide gas is necessary to breathe normally. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide production in rats prevented brain neurons that control breathing from functioning normally. These findings have identified new mediators of breathing that can now be explored in the context of human health and disease. (2020-10-26)

Enzyme biofactories to enhance cord blood transplants
Stem cell trafficking to the bone marrow is improved by enzyme manufactured in silkworms and yeast. (2020-10-22)

Rapid method of isolating tumor-targeting T cells could propel personalized cancer treatment
When it comes to defeating cancer, some immune cells are mightier than others. But even the best-trained eye and today's advanced scientific tools have trouble discerning the most powerful tumor-fighting cells from the rest. A new technique developed by Scripps Research scientist Peng Wu, PhD, aims to change that--offering a new platform that could propel personalized cancer treatments that have been hindered due to the challenges of isolating the most useful immune cells in patients. (2020-10-22)

New drug that can prevent the drug resistance and adverse effects
A research team in Korea is garnering attention for having developed an anticancer drug that could potentially prevent drug resistance. The Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) announced that a team of researchers led by Dr. Kwang-meyung Kim at the Theragnosis research center successfully developed a cancer-specific anticancer drug precursor that can prevent the drug resistance. (2020-10-21)

Genome archeologists discover path to activate immune response against cancer
Ancient embedded elements in our DNA from generations past can activate a powerful immune response to kill cancer cells like an infection. (2020-10-21)

Researchers develop method for earlier detection of Alzheimer's Disease
Washington State University scientists have developed a method to detect the biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease that is 10 times more sensitive than current blood testing technology. (2020-10-20)

Repairing the photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry decipher the molecular mechanism of Rubisco Activase (2020-10-20)

Study identifies key enzyme for development of autoimmune diseases
An enzyme associated with energy production in cells also participates in the differentiation of immune cells involved in exacerbated inflammation. The discovery could lead to more effective treatment. (2020-10-19)

Controlling the speed of enzyme motors brings biomedical applications of nanorobots closer
A new study, published in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition, describes a tool for modulating nanomotors powered by enzymes, broadening their potential biomedical and environmental applications. (2020-10-13)

Planting parasites: Unveiling common molecular mechanisms of parasitism and grafting
Using the model Orobanchaceae parasitic plant Phtheirospermum japonicum, scientists have discerned the molecular mechanisms underlying plant parasitism and cross-species grafting, pinpointing enzyme β-1,4-glucanase (GH9B3) as an important contributor to both phenomena. Targeting this enzyme may help control plant parasitism in crops. (2020-10-10)

Bacterial cellulose degradation system could give boost to biofuels production
Researchers have uncovered details of how a certain type of bacteria breaks down cellulose--a finding that could help reduce the cost and environmental impact of the use of biomass, including biofuel production. The bacteria's cellulose degradation system is in some way different from how a fungus is already widely used in industry, including to soften up denim to make stone-washed jeans. (2020-10-08)

Liquid gel in COVID patients' lungs makes way for new treatment
In some patients who died with severe COVID-19 and respiratory failure, a jelly was formed in the lungs. Researchers have now established what the active agent in the jelly is and thanks to that, this new discovery can now be the key to new effective therapies. This according to a new study at Umeå University, Sweden. (2020-10-06)

NREL, UK university partner to dive deeper into how enzymes digest plastic
A collaboration between scientists at the US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the University of Portsmouth in the United Kingdom, and other partners has yielded further insight into the workings of plastic-eating enzymes. (2020-10-06)

Rise of the mutants: New uOttawa-led research to improve enzyme design methodologies
A group of researchers at the University of Ottawa has been looking for ways to improve enzyme design methodologies. They developed a novel computational procedure for enzyme design that is more accurate than previous methods because it allows to approximate the intrinsic flexibility of the protein scaffold used as a template for design. (2020-10-01)

Repurposed anti-malarial compounds kill diarrheal parasite, study finds
A class of compounds used for malaria treatment also kill the intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium, a leading cause of diarrheal disease and death in children that has no cure, a multi-institution collaboration of researchers found in a new study. (2020-10-01)

Common antioxidant enzyme may provide potential treatment for COVID-19
Catalase, a naturally occurring enzyme, holds potential as a low-cost therapeutic drug to treat COVID-19 symptoms and suppress the replication of coronavirus inside the body. (2020-09-29)

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