Current Equilibrium News and Events

Current Equilibrium News and Events, Equilibrium News Articles.
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Enriching research in ecology and evolution through nine 'flavors' of history
In a recent article in The Quarterly Review of Biology, ''Beyond Equilibria: The Neglected Role of History in Ecology and Evolution,'' author Hamish G. Spencer argues for a revitalized view of history. This historical view is a response to current research in the field of ecology and evolution, which is dominated by an ahistorical view of dynamic systems. (2020-11-23)

New research explores the thermodynamics of off-equilibrium systems
Arguably, almost all truly intriguing systems are ones that are far away from equilibrium -- such as stars, planetary atmospheres, and even digital circuits. But, until now, systems far from thermal equilibrium couldn't be analyzed with conventional thermodynamics and statistical physics. In a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, physicist David Wolpert of the Santa Fe Institute presents a new hybrid formalism to overcome these limitations. (2020-11-11)

No matter the size of a nuclear party, some protons and neutrons will pair up and dance
No matter the size of a nuclear party, certain protons and neutrons will always pair up and dance, a new MIT study finds. The results will help map the workings within neutron stars and heavy radioactive nuclei. (2020-11-09)

Solar cells of the future
Organic solar cells are cheaper to produce and more flexible than their counterparts made of crystalline silicon, but do not offer the same level of efficiency or stability. During his doctoral thesis, Andrej Classen, who is a young researcher at FAU, demonstrated that increases in efficiency can be achieved using luminescent acceptor molecules. (2020-11-03)

The order of life
A new model that describes the organization of organisms could lead to a better understanding of biological processes (2020-10-30)

New artificial skin functions like natural skin
Researchers at RIKEN in Japan have developed an improved human-skin equivalent that reproduces a property that controls the structure and physiological function of skin. This artificial skin will enhance in-depth analyses of physiological skin functions, provide solutions to skin problems caused by diseases or ageing, and reduce the need for animal testing. (2020-10-30)

Solved: the mystery of how dark matter in galaxies is distributed
In a recent article in Astronomy & Astrophysics Letters, scientists at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC)/University of La Laguna (ULL) and of the National University of the North-West of the Province of Buenos Aires (Junín, Argentina) have shown that the dark matter in galaxies follows a 'maximum entropy' distribution, which sheds light on its nature. (2020-10-28)

For the first time: Realistic simulation of plasma edge instabilities in tokamaks
Among the loads to which the plasma vessel in a fusion device may be exposed, so-called edge localised modes are particularly undesirable. By computer simulations the origin and the course of this plasma-edge instability could now be explained for the first time in detail. (2020-10-22)

A trillion turns of light nets terahertz polarized bytes
Nanophotonics researchers at Rice University, the Polytechnic University of Milan and the Italian Institute of Technology have demonstrated a novel technique for modulating light at terahertz frequencies with plasmonic metasurfaces. (2020-10-19)

Researchers discover a uniquely quantum effect in erasing information
Researchers from Trinity College Dublin have discovered a uniquely quantum effect in erasing information that may have significant implications for the design of quantum computing chips. Their surprising discovery brings back to life the paradoxical ''Maxwell's demon'', which has tormented physicists for over 150 years, (2020-10-16)

Wound-healing waves
How do cells in our bodies ask for directions? Without any maps to guide them, they still know where to go to heal wounds and renew our bodies. Edouard Hannezo and his group at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) together with Tsuyoshi Hirashima and his group at Kyoto University just published a new study in Nature Physics that shows how mechanical and chemical waves coordinate the movement of cells. (2020-09-28)

How the brain balances emotion and reason
Navigating through life requires balancing emotion and reason, a feat accomplished by the brain region ''area 32'' of the anterior cingulate cortex. The area maintains emotional equilibrium by relaying information between cognitive and emotional brain regions, according to new research in monkeys published in JNeurosci. (2020-09-28)

Defying a 150-year-old rule for phase behavior
Today, researchers from Eindhoven University of Technology and University Paris-Saclay are defying a classical theory from American physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs, with proof of a five-phase equilibrium, something that many scholars considered impossible. (2020-09-18)

Strong fields and ultrafast motions - how to generate and steer electrons in liquid water
Water molecules undergo ultrafast dithering motions at room temperature and generate extremely strong electric fields in their environment. New experiments demonstrate how in presence of such fields free electrons are generated and manipulated in the liquid with the help of an external terahertz field. (2020-09-02)

Structural colors from cellulose-based polymers
A surface displays structural colors when light is reflected by tiny, regular structural elements in a transparent material. Researchers have now developed a method to make structural colors from cellulose-based polymers by using coated droplets that exist in a surrounding fluid--so-called liquid marbles. The system readily responds to environmental changes, which makes it interesting for applications in bio-based sensors and soft photonic elements, according to the study published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. (2020-08-28)

Quantum simulation for 3D chiral topological phase
Professor Liu at PKU, Professor Du and Professor Wang at USTC build up a quantum simulator using nitrogen-vacancy center to investigate a three-dimensional (3D) chiral topological insulator which was not realized in solid state system, and demonstrate a complete study of both the bulk and surface topological physics by quantum quenches. (2020-08-25)

Recent global warming trends are inconsistent with very high climate sensitivity
Research published this week in Earth System Dynamics reports that the most sensitive climate models overestimate global warming during the last 50 years. (2020-08-18)

Dynamic membranes set to solve problems of liquid waste treatment
The co-authors, Associate Professor Dinar Fazullin and Associate Professor Gennady Mavrin, have been engaged in the topic of membrane elements for water purification for ten years. This research area is very pertinent because of the large volumes of liquid waste and a lack of specialized types of membranes. (2020-08-14)

New study provides evidence for decades-old theory to explain the odd behaviors of water
A new study provides strong evidence for a controversial theory that at very cold temperatures water can exist in two distinct liquid forms, one being less dense and more structured than the other. Researchers at Princeton University and Sapienza University in Rome conducted computer simulations of water molecules to discover the critical point at the transition between the two forms. (2020-07-16)

Robust high-performance data storage through magnetic anisotropy
A technologically relevant material for HAMR data memories are thin films of iron-platinum nanograins. An international team led by the joint research group of Prof. Dr. Matias Bargheer at HZB and the University of Potsdam has now observed experimentally for the first time how a special spin-lattice interaction in these iron-platinum thin films cancels out the thermal expansion of the crystal lattice. (2020-07-10)

Quantum physics: Realization of an anomalous Floquet topological system
An international team led by physicists from the Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet (LMU) in Munich realized a novel genuine time-dependent topological system with ultracold atoms in periodically-driven optical honeycomb lattices. (2020-07-03)

Matching-commitment agreements to incentivize climate action
Many countries are failing to comply with the non-binding commitments of the Paris Agreement, making it increasingly clear that we have to reconsider how to ensure collective action to limit global warming to less than 2°C above preindustrial levels. A new IIASA-led study supports a different approach to designing an international climate agreement that would incentivize countries to cooperate. (2020-06-19)

Discovery of graphene switch
Researchers at Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST) successfully developed the special in-situ transmission electron microscope technique to measure the current-voltage curve of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) with observing the edge structure and found that the electrical conductance of narrow GNRs with a zigzag edge structure abruptly increased above the critical bias voltage, indicating that which they are expected to be applied to switching devices, which are the smallest in the world. (2020-06-15)

Climate change increases migration at the expense of the poor
A climate game developed by Max Planck researchers shows that global cooperation can be possible -- although not without effort. (2020-05-26)

Double helix of masonry -- Researchers discover the secret of Italian renaissance domes
University of Bergamo and Princeton University researchers found that the masonry of Italian renaissance domes, such as the duomo in Florence, use a double-helix structure that is self-supporting during and after construction. Their study is the first to quantitatively prove the forces at work in such masonry domes, which may lead to advances in modern drone construction techniques. (2020-05-18)

A theoretical boost to nano-scale devices
Researchers with the School of Electrical Engineering at KAIST have developed a new approach to the underlying physics of semiconductors. They calculated the quasi-Fermi levels in molecular junctions applying an initio approach. (2020-05-17)

Eavesdropping on single molecules with light by replaying the chatter
Scientists have pioneered a new technique to expose hidden biochemical pathways involving single molecules at the nanoscale. (2020-05-15)

Complex compounds of vital metals serving as models of biological systems
Current research of metal complexes with organic ligands at Kazan Federal University concentrates on complex compounds of transition metals in aqueous and aqueous-organic solutions. So far, data has been obtained about the composition and stability of complexes of cobalt (II), nickel (II), copper (II) and vanadium oxide (IV) with mono-, di- and tetrahydrazides of various nature (aliphatic, aromatic, and macrocyclic) in aqueous, aqueous-dimethylsulfide, aqueos-dimethylformamide, aqueous-ethanol, and other media. (2020-05-12)

USTC has made significant progress in many-body simulation based on Rydberg atoms
The Group of Academician GUO Guangcan has made significant progress in the research of Rydberg Atom: Prof. SHI Baosen, Prof. DING Dongsheng and Prof. Charles Adams and others have carried out an experimental simulation of many-body self-organization based on Rydberg Atoms, the main results of which were published on April 29, 2020 in the famous journal of Physics Review X. (2020-05-06)

Some of the latest climate models provide unrealistically high projections of future warming
A new study from University of Michigan climate researchers concludes that some of the latest-generation climate models may be overly sensitive to carbon dioxide increases and therefore project future warming that is unrealistically high. (2020-04-30)

Maryland engineers open door to big new library of tiny nanoparticles
A research team has developed a new method for mixing metals generally known to be immiscible, or unmixable, at the nanoscale to create a new range of bimetallic materials. Such a library will be useful for studying the role of these bimetallic particles in various reaction scenarios such as the transformation of carbon dioxide to fuel and chemicals. (2020-04-24)

New discovery helps close the gap towards optically-controlled quantum computation
Scientists have discovered a light-induced switching mechanism in a Dirac semimetal. (2020-04-20)

Reducing sulfur dioxide emissions alone cannot substantially decrease air pollution
Due to the reduced emissions of SO2, and considering the high level of NH3 emissions in China, nitrogen dioxide emissions control is more effective in reducing the surface PM2.5 concentration in China. (2020-04-11)

Quantum copycat: Researchers find a new way in which bosons behave like fermions
When a one-dimensional gas of strongly interacting bosons expands, the velocity distribution of the bosons transforms into one that is identical to non-interacting fermions. (2020-03-27)

Mathematicians develop new theory to explain real-world randomness
Brownian motion describes the random movement of particles in fluids, however, this revolutionary model only works when a fluid is static, or at equilibrium. In real-life, fluids often contain particles that move by themselves, which can cause stirring in the fluid, driving it away from equilibrium. Now researchers have presented a novel theory to explain observed particle movements in these dynamic environments. (2020-03-18)

Supercomputers drive ion transport research
Kinetics of solute transport through nanoporous membranes captured through supercomputer simulations. Advanced path sampling techniques and molecular dynamics simulations performed on XSEDE-allocated Stampede2 system at TACC. Science team identified previously unknown mechanism for ion transport through nanopores, induced charge anisotropy. Research could help make progress in water desalination; decontaminating the environment; better pharmaceuticals, and more. (2020-03-04)

Helpful interactions can keep societies stable
University of Pennsylvania biologists have challenged old notions that communities with mutualistic interactions--where the presence of one species benefits another--are unstable. Their model, instead, shows that such interactions can make communities even more stable in some scenarios. (2020-02-26)

Study highlights new strategies for helping children process negative emotions
A recent study of indigenous people in southern Chile challenges Western assumptions about children's emotional capabilities and highlights the value of spending time outdoors to help children regulate their emotions. (2020-02-20)

Measuring a dynamical topological order parameter in quantum walks
Nonequilibrium dynamical processes are central in many quantum technological contexts. However, it has remained a key challenge to identify concepts for their characterization and classification, as the resulting quantum states purposely defy a description in terms of equilibrium statistical physics in order to realize states not accessible by conventional means. Scientists have now achieved a characterization in terms of a dynamical topological order parameter for quantum walks, which represent a paradigmatic class of nonequilibrium processes. (2020-02-18)

Blasting 'forever' chemicals out of water with a vortex of cold plasma
Researchers from Drexel University have found a way to destroy stubbornly resilient toxic compounds, ominously dubbed 'forever chemicals,' that have contaminated the drinking water of millions across the United States. (2020-02-11)

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