Current Microorganisms News and Events

Current Microorganisms News and Events, Microorganisms News Articles.
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New insights into how the CRISPR immune system evolved
With new insights into how the genetic tool CRISPR - which allows direct editing of our genes - evolved and adapted, we are now one step closer to understanding the basis of the constant struggle for survival that takes place in nature. The results can be used in future biotechnologies. (2020-11-25)

Bed dust microorganisms may boost children's health
In the most extensive study of its kind, researchers from the University of Copenhagen, in collaboration with the Danish Pediatric Asthma Center at Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, have found a link between microorganisms living in the dust of children's beds and the children's own bacteria. The correlation suggests that microorganisms may reduce a child's risk of developing asthma, allergies and autoimmune diseases later on in life. (2020-11-19)

Antibiotic exposure in children under age 2 associated with chronic conditions
Children under age 2 who take antibiotics are at greater risk for childhood-onset asthma, respiratory allergies, eczema, celiac disease, obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, according to a paper written jointly by Mayo Clinic and Rutgers researchers. While previous studies have looked at the association of antibiotics with single diseases, this is the first to look at the association across many diseases. (2020-11-16)

A more resistant material against microorganisms is created to restore cultural heritage
The study was performed by a research team at the University Research Institute into Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry at the University of Cordoba and Seville's Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of the Spanish National Research Council (2020-11-09)

RUDN University soil scientist: Deforestation affects the bacterial composition of the soil
A soil scientist from RUDN University studied the effect of forest conversion on the properties of the soil: its acidity, carbon and nitrogen resources, bacterial composition, and the activity of microorganisms. The study can help improve the methods of soil cultivation after deforestation, namely, select the best fertilizers, prevent erosion, slow down nutrient depletion, and balance the composition of the bacterial community. (2020-11-09)

Clay subsoil at Earth's driest place may signal life on Mars
Diverse microbes discovered in the clay-rich, shallow soil layers in Chile's dry Atacama Desert suggest that similar deposits below the Martian surface may contain microorganisms, which could be easily found by future rover missions or landing craft. (2020-11-05)

Europe took centre-stage in global spread of the coronavirus, says new research
A collaboration between genome researchers at the University of Huddersfield and Portugal's University of Minho has discovered it is Europe, not China, which has been the main source of spreading the coronavirus disease around the world. (2020-11-03)

Decaying jellyfish blooms can cause temporary changes to water column food webs
Decaying jellyfish blooms fuel the rapid growth of just a few specific strains of seawater bacteria, causing temporary changes to the water column food web. This is the finding of a new study furthering our understanding of how jellyfish blooms, which are happening with increasing frequency, impact marine ecosystems. It details these fast-growing bacteria effectively reduce the amount of jellyfish detrital material reaching the seafloor, keeping it instead within the water column food web. (2020-10-30)

Bacilli and their enzymes show prospects for several applications
This publication is devoted to the des­cription of different microbial enzymes with prospects for practical application. The interest in microbial enzymes is due to the inability of animal and plant proteolytic enzymes to fully meet the needs of the global population. Microorganisms are an accessible source of enzymes owing to their wide variety, the safety of handling, ease of cultivation, and genetic transformability. (2020-10-30)

Biophysicists modelled the effect of antiseptics on bacterial membranes
A team of biophysics from leading Russian research and educational institutions (MSU, RUDN University, and the Federal Research and Clinical Center of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia) developed a computer model that shows the effect of antiseptics on bacterial membranes. The common concepts regarding the mode of action of antiseptics turned out to be incorrect: instead of destroying bacterial membranes, they cause changes in their structure. These changes make the bacteria weaker and more susceptible to adverse external factors. (2020-10-28)

Endangered trees in Guam contribute to ecosystem diversity and health
Research at the University of Guam has shown that the decomposition of leaf litter from three threatened tree species releases nitrogen and carbon into the soil for use by other plants. (2020-10-27)

Discoveries reshape understanding of gut microbiome
The findings redefine how the so-called gut microbiome operates and how our bodies coexist with some of the 100 trillion bacteria that make it up. The discoveries could lead to new therapies for inflammatory bowel disease and people who've had portions of their bowels removed due to conditions like colon cancer and ulcerative colitis. They also help explain why the use of antibiotics can create a multitude of problems in the digestive system. (2020-10-22)

Multi-mucus barrier segregates colon microbiota from host tissue
Whole-colon imaging in mice has revealed a continuous colonic mucus system, which forms a protective barrier between potentially harmful gut microbiota and host tissue by encapsulating fecal pellets as they form and as they are eliminated from the colon. (2020-10-22)

Artificial cyanobacterial biofilm can sustain green ethylene production for over a month
Ethylene is one of the most important and widely used organic chemicals. The research group at the University of Turku led by Associate Professor Yagut Allahverdiyeva-Rinne has designed a thin-layer artificial biofilm with embedded cyanobacterial cell factories which were specifically engineered for photosynthetic production of ''green'' ethylene. The fabricated biofilms have sustained ethylene production for up to 40 days. (2020-10-15)

Can organic plant protection products damage crops?
Protecting crops against pests and diseases is essential to ensure a secure food supply. Around 95 percent of food comes from conventional agriculture, which uses chemical pesticides to keep crops healthy. Increasingly, organic pesticides are sought as an alternative. Some organic pesticides contain live spores of the fungus Trichoderma to suppress other pathogens. Researchers at Göttingen University found one Trichoderma species can cause severe rot in cobs of maize (corn). Results were published in Frontiers in Agronomy. (2020-09-30)

Water at the end of the tunnel
We humans need oxygen to breath - for a lot of microbes it is a lethal poison. That is why microorganisms have developed ways to render oxygen molecules harmless. Microbiologists from Bremen, Marburg and Grenoble have now succeeded in decrypting such a mechanism. They show, how methane-generating microbes transform oxygen into water without causing any damage to the cell. These findings are relevant for future bio-inspired processes. (2020-09-28)

Microbiome-based technologies drive multibillion-dollar market
New research field promises to transform food production and treatment of diseases. A global panel of experts unified concepts to define research priorities and offer basis for legislation. (2020-09-28)

Switching up: Marine bacteria shift between lifestyles to get the best resources
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba and ETH Zurich have found that marine bacteria exploit resource patches efficiently by switching between attached and planktonic lifestyles, and fine-tuning the time spent on patches depending on their quality. Bacteria stayed longer on higher-quality patches, as predicted by patch use theory. Future studies in this area could help to predict the role of marine bacteria in the global carbon cycle. (2020-09-25)

"New" lactic acid bacteria can make African camel milk safe
A research project headed by the Technical University of Denmark, DTU, has come up with the formula for a freeze-dried starter culture that African camel milk farmers can use to make safe, fermented milk products. (2020-09-22)

New live biotherapeutic products will require regulatory and scientific innovation
European regulatory expertise centre, the Pharmabiotic Research Institute (PRI), which supports the pharmaceutical development of microbiome-based drug products, a new field of biological medicine, has published a review of the regulatory and scientific requirements needed to properly develop live biotherapeutic products (LBPs). Similarly to other innovative medicinal products, demonstrating the quality, efficacy and safety of these living medicines will require an innovative regulatory and technical approach. (2020-09-17)

Siberia's permafrost erosion has been worsening for years
The Arctic is warming faster than any other region on the planet. As a result, permafrost that is thousands of years old is now being lost to erosion. As measurements gathered on the Lena River by AWI experts show, the scale of erosion is alarming. (2020-09-16)

A bifidobacterial protein that can reduce inflammation in COVID-19 found by a RUDN geneticist
A geneticist from RUDN University studied the effect of Bifidobacterium (intestinal bacteria) on the inflammatory process and discovered that their surface protein is capable of stopping excessive or uncontrollable inflammation, like the one observed in COVID-19 patients. A fragment of this protein can be used as an anti-inflammatory medication when treating coronavirus and other diseases. (2020-09-14)

Uncovering the science of Indigenous fermentation
Australian wine scientists are shedding scientific light on the processes underlying traditional practices of Australian Aboriginal people to produce fermented beverages. The scientists from the University of Adelaide and the Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI) have discovered the complex microbial communities associated with the natural fermentation of sap from the iconic Tasmanian cider gum, Eucalyptus gunnii. (2020-09-10)

Iron is to blame for carbon dioxide emissions from soil, says a soil scientists from RUDN
Iron minerals and bacteria can be the main agents of carbon dioxide emissions from the soil. A soil scientist from RUDN University made this conclusion after studying the process of organic plant waste decomposition of the micro-level. Iron and hydrogen peroxide enter into a reaction, as a result of which active oxygen forms (oxygen radicals) are formed. The radicals destroy plant waste in the soil and promote carbon dioxide emissions. (2020-09-09)

Cell-autonomous immunity and the pathogen-mediated evolution of humans
Although immune responses are generated by a complex, hierarchical arrangement of immune system organs, tissues, and components, the unit of the cell has a particularly large effect on disease progression and host survival. These cell-level defense mechanisms, known as cell-autonomous immunity, are among the most important determinants of human survival, and are millions to billions of years old, inherited from our prokaryotic and single-celled ancestors. (2020-09-04)

Study finds missing link in the evolutionary history of carbon-fixing protein Rubisco
A team led by researchers at UC Davis has discovered a missing link in the evolution of photosynthesis and carbon fixation. Dating back more than 2.4 billion years, a newly discovered form of the plant enzyme rubisco could give new insight into plant evolution and breeding (2020-08-31)

Gut microbes could unlock the secret to healthy ageing
Bacteria and other microorganisms in the digestive tract are linked with dozens of health conditions including high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and body mass index (BMI) according to research presented today at ESC Congress 2020. (2020-08-27)

Microbes working together multiply biomass conversion possibilities
Non-edible plants are a promising alternative to crude oil, but their heterogenous composition can be a challenge to producing high yields of useful products. Scientists from EPFL, the University of Cambridge, and the Bern University of Applied Sciences have developed a platform that combines different microorganisms that can make a dramatic difference. (2020-08-27)

Tag team gut bacteria worsen symptoms of multiple sclerosis
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS) have discovered that a particular combination of microorganisms in the gut can worsen symptoms in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. The study published in the scientific journal Nature shows that two specific gut bacteria enhance the activity of immune cells that attack the body's own brain and spinal cord. (2020-08-26)

A protein with an unprecedented fold helps bacteria uptake thiosulfate as a sulfur source
L-Cysteine is an important amino acid for our proteins and also widely used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Its synthesis therefore has key implications in health but remains costly. In this study, the scientists discover that the YeeE protein allows bacteria to uptake thiosulfate from the environment for cysteine synthesis. The crystal structure revealed a unique hourglass shape that allows YeeE to undergo minimal conformational changes for the uptake compared with other transporter proteins. (2020-08-26)

Scientists create protein models to explore toxic methylmercury formation
A team led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory created a computational model of the proteins responsible for the transformation of mercury to toxic methylmercury, marking a step forward in understanding how the reaction occurs and how mercury cycles through the environment. (2020-08-25)

Less flocking behavior among microorganisms reduces the risk of being eaten
When algae and bacteria with different swimming gaits gather in large groups, their flocking behaviour diminishes, something that may reduce the risk of falling victim to aquatic predators. This finding is presented in an international study led from Lund University in Sweden. (2020-08-24)

Global gut health experts guide growth of synbiotics
Chances are you've heard of probiotics: supplements delivering 'good microbes' to the gut, providing a wide range of health benefits. You may also be aware of prebiotics: supplements designed to fuel the good microbes already living in our guts. The next wave of gut-health supplements, known as synbiotics, essentially combine pre- and probiotics. To keep research and development on the right track, an expert panel recently redefined the term and developed guidelines on scientific investigation. (2020-08-24)

Group of international scientists align on a definition for 'synbiotic'
To address the scientific ambiguity around synbiotics, a group of 11 leading international scientists formed a panel to create a consensus definition and to clarify the evidence required to show synbiotics are safe and effective. (2020-08-21)

Ancient gene family protects algae from salt and cold in an Antarctic lake
Two species of Chlamydomonas algae from the ice-covered, hypersaline Lake Bonney in Antarctica use variants of an ancient gene family to synthetize the protective molecule glycerol, one of several adaptations that allow them to thrive in this extreme environment. The surprising ability of many microorganisms, such as these lake algae, to survive under extreme conditions has led many scientists to revise their views on the possibility of extraterrestrial life. (2020-08-20)

Stanford researchers develop new way to study ocean life
Insights from innovative device could provide a new window into secrets of microscopic ocean life and their effects on crucial planetary processes, such as carbon fixation. (2020-08-17)

Flavonoids' presence in sorghum roots may lead to frost-resistant crop
Flavonoid compounds -- produced by the roots of some sorghum plants -- positively affect soil microorganisms, according to Penn State researchers, who suggest the discovery is an early step in developing a frost-resistant line of the valuable crop for North American farmers. (2020-08-13)

Pollution linked to antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic resistance is an increasing health problem, but new research suggests it is not only caused by the overuse of antibiotics. It's also caused by pollution. (2020-08-13)

Are vultures spreaders of microbes that put human health at risk?
A new analysis published in IBIS examines whether bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that are present in wild vultures cause disease in the birds, and whether vultures play a role in spreading or preventing infectious diseases to humans and other animal species. (2020-08-05)

How climate change affects allergies, immune response and autism
Climate change and disruption of the ecosystem have the potential to profoundly impact the human body. Xue Ming, professor of neurology at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, who recently published a paper in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health on the effects of climate change on allergies, autoimmunity and the microbiome -- the beneficial microorganisms that live on and inside the human body -- discusses how the delicate balance of the environment affects conditions such as allergies, autism and immune disorders. (2020-08-05)

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