Current Mitochondria News and Events

Current Mitochondria News and Events, Mitochondria News Articles.
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Researchers improve neuronal reprogramming by manipulating mitochondria
Researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum M√ľnchen and Ludwig Maximilians University Munich (LMU) have identified a hurdle towards an efficient conversion: the cell metabolism. By expressing neuron-enriched mitochondrial proteins at an early stage of the direct reprogramming process, the researchers achieved a four times higher conversion rate and simultaneously increased the speed of reprogramming. (2020-11-17)

Catalyzing a zero-carbon world by harvesting energy from living cells
Scientists from Nagoya University have achieved a breakthrough in converting energy-deficient metabolites to a biorenewable resource thanks to a versatile catalyst. (2020-11-12)

Innovative machine-learning approach for future diagnostic advances in Parkinson's disease
In a new study led by the Immune Systems Biology research group of the LIH Department of Infection and Immunity, researchers adopted a holistic machine-learning approach to elucidate how the interactions between neuronal mitochondria can serve as a powerful tool to distinguish nerve cells from Parkinson's patients from those belonging to healthy subjects, thereby providing new insights in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this neurodegenerative disorder. The results were published in 'Nature Partner Journals Systems Biology and Application'. (2020-11-12)

'Rewiring' metabolism in insulin-producing cells may aid Type 2 diabetes treatment
Researchers have discovered a previously unknown way that pancreatic cells decide how much insulin to secrete. It could provide a promising new target to develop drugs for boosting insulin production in people with Type 2 diabetes. (2020-11-12)

Muscle pain and energy-rich blood: Cholesterol medicine affects the organs differently
Contrary to expectation, treatment with statins has a different effect on blood cells than on muscle cells, a new study from the University of Copenhagen reveals. Today, statins are mainly used in the treatment of elevated cholesterol, but the new results may help design drugs for a number of conditions. (2020-10-29)

Brazilian researchers discover how muscle regenerates after exercise
Adaptation of muscle tissue to aerobic exercise alters the metabolism of muscle stem cells, helping them recover from injury. Findings may contribute to treatment of cachexia, sarcopenia and other conditions associated with lean mass loss. (2020-10-28)

Timeline of early eukaryotic evolution unveiled
By analyzing duplicates of thousands of genes, researchers have reconstructed the evolutionary events leading to the creation of eukaryotic cells, the precursors to virtually all life you can see with the naked eye. The evolutionary timeline from simple bacterial cells to complex eukaryotic cells progressed differently than previously thought. The study, a collaboration between the Comparative Genomics lab at IRB Barcelona and the University of Utrecht, has been published in Nature Ecology & Evolution. (2020-10-26)

New tricks for old antibiotics
The study published in the journal Immunity reveals that tetracyclines (broad spectre antibiotics), by partially inhibiting cell mitochondria activity, induce a compensatory response on the organism that decreases tissue damage caused during infection. This finding opens new doors in the field of disease tolerance and positions this group of antibiotics as potential adjuvant treatment for sepsis, due to their effects that go beyond the control of bacterial burden. (2020-10-22)

Fats fighting back against bacteria
With antibiotic-resistant superbugs on the rise, this research shows a new way that cells are using to protect themselves - using fats as a covert weapon, and giving us new insights into alternative ways to fight infection. (2020-10-16)

Glutathione precursor GlyNAC reverses premature aging in people with HIV
Supplementation of precursors of glutathione, a major antioxidant produced by the body, improves multiple deficits associated with premature aging in people with HIV. (2020-10-15)

Phosphate polymer forms a cornerstone of metabolic control
In a changing climate, understanding how organisms respond to stress conditions is increasingly important. New work could enable scientists to engineer the metabolism of organisms to be more resilient and productive in a range of environments. Their research focuses on polyphosphate, an energy-rich polymer of tens to hundreds phosphate groups which is conserved in all kingdoms of life and is integral to many cellular activities, including an organism's ability to respond to changing environmental conditions. (2020-10-15)

Mammalian lipid droplets organize and support innate host immunity
Mammalian lipid droplets -- tiny lipid-filled pockets floating amidst a cell's cytoplasm -- represent an intracellular first line of defense against microbial pathogens, researchers report. (2020-10-15)

New study highlights links between inflammation and Parkinson's disease
An international collaboration involving researchers from the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biology (LCSB) at the University of Luxembourg established an association between inflammation and specific genetic mutations in Parkinson's patients. The study, recently published in the scientific journal Brain, highlights two biomarkers that could be used to assess Parkinson's disease state and progression. The results also suggest that targeting the immune system with anti-inflammatory medication holds the potential to influence the disease course, at least in a subset of patients. (2020-10-14)

Enzyme SSH1 impairs disposal of accumulating cellular garbage, leading to brain cell death
The protein p62 plays a major role in clearing misfolded tau proteins and dysfunctional mitochondria, the energy powerhouse in all cells including neurons. Neuroscientists at the University of South Florida Health (USF Health) Byrd Alzheimer's Center report for the first time that the protein phosphatase Slingshot-1, or SSH1 for short, disrupts p62's ability to function as an efficient 'garbage collector' and thereby impairs the disposal of both damaged tau and mitochondria leaking toxins. (2020-10-12)

NIH scientists reveal how the brain may fuel intense neural communication
In an in-depth study of neurons grown in laboratory petri dishes, National Institutes of Health researchers discovered how neuronal synapses find the energy to support intense communications bouts thought to underlie learning and memory. (2020-10-05)

Ludwig study finds a common nutritional supplement might boost cancer immunotherapy
A Ludwig Cancer Research study has uncovered a mechanism by which the tumor's harsh internal environment sabotages T lymphocytes, leading cellular agents of the anticancer immune response. (2020-10-05)

Inside mitochondria and their fascinating genome
EPFL scientists have observed -- for the first time in living cells -- the way mitochondria distribute their transcriptome throughout the cell, and it involves RNA granules that turn out to be highly fluid. (2020-09-28)

'Cheater mitochondria' may profit from cellular stress coping mechanisms
Cheating mitochondria may take advantage of cellular mechanisms for coping with food scarcity in a simple worm to persist, even though this can reduce the worm's wellbeing. (2020-09-22)

Cannabinoids decrease the metabolism of glucose in the brain
What happens when THC acts on the glial cells named astrocytes ? This research concludes that the activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in tmice astrocytes hampers the metabolism of glucose and the production of lactate in the brain; this alters neuronal function and leads to a deterioration in social interaction behaviours. (2020-09-19)

CNIC researchers discover a cell-cleaning system that keeps hearts healthy
The study published in Cell shows that macrophages, a type of immune cell, help cardiac cells to get rid of their waste material, and that this maintains the metabolic and contractile properties of the heart. (2020-09-15)

Structure of ATPase, the world's smallest turbine, solved
The chemical ATP, adenosine triphosphate, is the fuel that powers all life. Despite ATP's central role, the structure of the enzyme generating ATP, F1Fo-ATP synthase, in mammals, including humans, has not been known so far. Now, scientists from IST Austria report the first complete structure of the mammalian F1Fo-ATP synthase. This structure also settles a debate on how the permeability transition pore, a structure involved in cell death, cancer, and heart attacks, forms. (2020-09-14)

Different response of mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to endurance e
In obese individuals, endurance exercise improves fitness and increases the number of mitochondria * and cellular respiration in skeletal muscles. However, the intervention has no effect on cellular respiration in adipose tissue. This is the result of a study by DZD researchers that has now been published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. (2020-09-09)

Researchers solve decades old mitochondrial mystery that could lead to new disease treatments
Penn Medicine researchers have solved a decades old mystery around a key molecule fueling the power plant of cells that could be exploited to find new ways to treat diseases, from neurodegenerative disorders to cancer. (2020-09-09)

Nerve cells with energy saving program
Thanks to a metabolic adjustment, the cells can remain functional despite damage to the mitochondria. (2020-08-31)

A ribosome odyssey in mitochondria
The ciliate mitoribosome structure provides new insights into the diversity of translation and its evolution. (2020-08-26)

UC Davis researchers reveal molecular structures involved in plant respiration
A study published today (Aug. 25, 2020) in eLife provides the first-ever, atomic-level, 3D structure of the largest protein complex (complex I) involved in the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. The results could unlock new advances in agriculture. (2020-08-25)

Fat crystals trigger chronic inflammation
A congenital disorder of the fat metabolism can apparently cause chronic hyperreaction of the immune system. This is the conclusion reached by researchers from the University of Bonn in a recent study. The results are published in the journal Autophagy. (2020-08-24)

Prevention of heart disease can start before birth
Babies that experience low oxygen levels in the womb due to pregnancy complications often go on to develop heart disease in adulthood. A study using sheep has discovered that a specialised antioxidant called MitoQ can prevent heart disease at its very onset. The results are published today in the journal Science Advances. (2020-08-19)

Bacteria's secret weapon revealed
Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI) scientists have discovered a previously unknown method used by bacteria to evade immune responses. (2020-08-17)

Gene targeting helps overcome the resistance of brain cancer to therapy
New insight into a gene that controls energy production in cancer stem cells could help in the search for a more effective treatment for glioblastoma. A McGill-led study published in Nature Communication reveals that suppressing the OSMR gene can improve the effectiveness of radiation therapy. (2020-08-17)

Becoming a nerve cell: Timing is of the essence
A Belgian team of researchers led by Pierre Vanderhaeghen (VIB-KU Leuven) finds that mitochondria regulate a key event during brain development: how neural stem cells become nerve cells. Mitochondria influence this cell fate switch during a precise period that is twice as long in humans compared to mice. This highlights an unexpected function for mitochondria that may help explain how humans developed a bigger brain during evolution, and how mitochondrial defects lead to neurodevelopmental diseases. (2020-08-13)

Lipoic acid supplements help some obese but otherwise healthy people lose weight
A compound given as a dietary supplement to overweight but otherwise healthy people in a clinical trial caused many of the patients to slim down. (2020-08-12)

A phylogenetic analysis reveals the evolution of the mitochondrial calcium transporter
The system that regulates cellular calcium levels duplicated, generating two non-equivalent systems, some one billion years ago before fungi and animals diverged evolutionarily. The fungal models currently used for the study of mitochondrial calcium regulation are not adequate, as the system they possess is not equivalent to that of animals. Chytrids, a divergent group of fungi, would be the only fungi that possess a system similar to ours. (2020-08-12)

Building the batteries of cells
A new study, led by Dr. Ruchika Anand and Prof. Andreas Reichert, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Germany, now found that two lipid-binding proteins located inside of mitochondria control the overall stability of these batteries. This study provides the first link between mitochondrial structure, lipids and assembly of large respiratory protein units of mitochondria and their importance in diabetes and heart diseases. (2020-08-11)

Imaging method highlights new role for cellular "skeleton" protein
While your skeleton helps your body to move, fine skeleton-like filaments within your cells likewise help cellular structures to move. Now, Salk researchers have developed a new imaging method that lets them monitor a small subset of these filaments, called actin. (2020-08-10)

Fireflies shed light on the function of mitochondria
By making mice bioluminescent, EPFL scientists have found a way to monitor the activity of mitochondria in living organisms. (2020-08-10)

Success in promoting plant growth for biodiesel
Scientists of Waseda University in Japan succeeded in promoting plant growth and increasing seed yield by heterologous expression of protein from Arabidopsis (artificially modified high-speed motor protein) in Camelina sativa, which is expected as a useful plant for biodiesel. The study is expected to apply to other plant resources for biodiesel, such as corn, rice, and sugar cane. (2020-08-07)

New insight into the evolution of complex life on Earth
A novel connection between primordial organisms and complex life has been discovered, as new evidence sheds light on the evolutionary origins of the cell division process that is fundamental to complex life on Earth. (2020-08-06)

Energy demands limit our brains' information processing capacity
Our brains have an upper limit on how much they can process at once due to a constant but limited energy supply, according to a new UCL study using a brain imaging method that measures cellular metabolism. (2020-08-03)

Tinkering with roundworm proteins offers hope for anti-aging drugs
KAIST researchers have been able to dial up and down creatures' lifespans by altering the activity of proteins found in roundworm cells that tell them to convert sugar into energy when their cellular energy is running low. Humans also have these proteins, offering up the intriguing possibilities for developing longevity-promoting drugs. These new findings were published on July 1 in Science Advances. (2020-07-31)

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