Current Transmission News and Events

Current Transmission News and Events, Transmission News Articles.
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Oral drug blocks SARS-CoV-2 transmission, Georgia State biomedical sciences researchers find
Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a new antiviral drug, MK-4482/EIDD-2801 or Molnupiravir, completely suppresses virus transmission within 24 hours, researchers in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University have discovered. (2020-12-03)

Outbreak investigation reveals "super-spreader" potential of Andes virus
''Super-spreader'' events and extensive person-to-person contact propelled an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a small village in Argentina from 2018-2019, according to research published today in The New England Journal of Medicine. An international scientific team reports the genetic, clinical, and epidemiologic features of the outbreak caused by the Andes virus, a member of the hantavirus family. Their analysis could aid in managing outbreaks of other viral diseases with similar transmission patterns, including COVID-19. (2020-12-03)

After 100 years, Cornell University plant pathologists revisit fire blight hypothesis
Historically credited as being the first bacterium ever characterized as a plant pathogen, fire blight is a bacterial disease that leads to significant losses of pear and apple. The role of insects in the spread of this disease has been long studied. In a new study, plant pathologists based at Cornell University and Cornell AgriTech take a hypothesis that has been more or less ignored for 100 years and provided support for its validity. (2020-12-01)

Safe ultraviolet light could be used to sterilise high-risk COVID-19 environments
Research at Cranfield University is paving the way for a new solution to kill aerosolised COVID-19 in enclosed environments such as hospitals and long-term care facilities. Computational modelling has shown that low dose far-ultraviolet C (UVC) lighting can be used to disinfect in-room air, increasing disinfection rates by 50-85% compared to a room's ventilation alone. (2020-11-26)

SARS-CoV-2 mutations do not appear to increase transmissibility
None of the mutations currently documented in the SARS-CoV-2 virus appear to increase its transmissibility in humans, according to a study led by UCL researchers, published in Nature Communications. (2020-11-25)

Effect of climate change on infectious diseases unknown to half of the population
Although it is a widely known scientific fact that infectious diseases emerge and re-emerge due to climate change, a study which included the involvement of the UAB published in PlosOne reveals that 48.9% of the population surveyed are not aware of this relation. (2020-11-25)

SARS-CoV-2 transmission model offers decision-making pathways for safe school opening
A study in BMC Public Health reports on a new model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the school setting that finds if appropriate precautions are followed both in school and in the community, schools can safely remain open or reopen. (2020-11-20)

SFU researchers examine which approaches are most effective at reducing COVID-19 spread
Simon Fraser University professors Paul Tupper and Caroline Colijn have found that physical distancing is universally effective at reducing the spread of COVID-19, while social bubbles and masks are more situation-dependent. The researchers developed a model to test the effectiveness of measures such as physical distancing, masks or social bubbles when used in various settings. (2020-11-20)

For COVID-19 surveillance, test frequency and turnaround time are paramount, modeling suggests
Speed of test results and frequency of testing are paramount for effective COVID-19 surveillance, suggests a new study that modeled trade-offs in test sensitivity, test frequency, and sample-to-answer reporting time, in select scenarios. Test sensitivity is secondary to these factors in the scenarios studied. (2020-11-20)

How the flu virus spreads within cities
New insights into the local transmission of seasonal influenza may be valuable for planning interventions to combat the spread of respiratory diseases within cities, according to a study published November 19, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Nicola Müller and Tanja Stadler of ETH Zürich, and colleagues. (2020-11-19)

Lovestruck by oxytocin! Novel roles of the hormone in controlling male sexual function
Hormones are the master regulators of sexual functions in mammals. The hormone oxytocin has a well-established role in social bonding, sexual function, maternal instinct, nursing, and lactation. Researchers from Okayama University have now explored the roles of oxytocin in male sexual function for the first time. Findings from the study suggest that oxytocin-mediated control of male sexual function via the spinal cord may in fact be instrumental in treating erectile dysfunction. (2020-11-18)

Two K-State studies focus on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in domestic cats, pigs
Two recently published studies from Kansas State University researchers and collaborators include important findings related to SARS-CoV-2 transmission and the COVID-19 pandemic. (2020-11-18)

Common SARS-CoV-2 mutation may make COVID-19 more susceptible to a vaccine
A common strain of coronavirus has mutated to help it spread quickly, but the spike mutation may make SARS-CoV-2 more susceptible to vaccines under development, according to a new study in Science. (2020-11-12)

Attosecond boost for electron microscopy
A team of physicists from the University of Konstanz and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München in Germany have achieved attosecond time resolution in a transmission electron microscope by combining it with a continuous-wave laser -- new insights into light-matter interactions. (2020-11-11)

Study of nearly 2,000 Marine recruits reveals asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 transmission
Results suggest the need for widespread surveillance testing to reduce COVID-19 transmission in group settings (2020-11-11)

Evolution favours new diseases of 'intermediate' severity
New epidemic diseases have an evolutionary advantage if they are of ''intermediate'' severity, research shows. (2020-11-11)

In the Netherlands, two-way transmission of SARS-CoV-2 transmission on mink farms
In the Netherlands, whole genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on 16 mink farms has revealed virus transmission between human to mink, as well as from mink to human. (2020-11-10)

Could SARS-CoV-2 evolve resistance to COVID-19 vaccines?
Similar to bacteria evolving resistance to antibiotics, viruses can evolve resistance to vaccines, and the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 could undermine the effectiveness of vaccines that are currently under development, according to a paper published November 9 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by David Kennedy and Andrew Read from Pennsylvania State University, USA. The authors also offer recommendations to vaccine developers for minimizing the likelihood of this outcome. (2020-11-09)

Social distancing may have saved more than 59,000 u.s. Lives if implemented two weeks earlier
Implementing social distancing, business closures, and other non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) in the U.S. two weeks sooner, during the earliest stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, may have (2020-11-06)

Tracking flight trajectory of evaporating cough droplets
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led many to study airborne droplet transmission in different conditions and environments, and in Physics of Fluids, researchers from A*STAR conducted a numerical study on droplet dispersion using high fidelity air flow simulation. The scientists found a single 100-micrometer cough droplet under wind speed of 2 meters per second can travel up to 6.6 meters and even further under dry air conditions due to droplet evaporation. (2020-11-03)

Focus on COVID-19 deaths in under-65s for better insights into infection rates
Simply comparing the total number of deaths across countries may provide a misleading representation of the underlying level of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, because of large differences in reported COVID-19 death rates in elderly populations in different countries. (2020-11-02)

Covid-19 "super-spreading" events play outsized role in overall disease transmission
MIT researchers find Covid-19 super-spreading events, in which one person infects more than six other people, are much more frequent than anticipated, and that they have an outsized contribution to coronavirus transmission. (2020-11-02)

Malaria parasites adapt to survive the dry season, research shows
The main parasite that causes malaria can alter its gene expression to survive undetected in the human blood stream, new research has shown. (2020-10-30)

VUMC study finds faster, wider spread of COVID-19 in US households
COVID-19 spreads faster and more widely throughout US households than previously reported, according to new preliminary research from a multicenter study led by Vanderbilt University Medical Center researchers and published in MMWR, a weekly report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020-10-30)

Is the COVID-19 pandemic affecting dengue virus case numbers?
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in dramatic changes to human mobility, which has the potential to change the transmission dynamics of other infectious diseases. Now, researchers reporting in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases have found that social distancing has led to a significant increase in dengue infections in Thailand but no change in dengue in Singapore or Malaysia. (2020-10-29)

Stay focused: Algae-inspired polymers light the way for enhanced night vision
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba processed sulfur, and algae and plant compounds, into an elastic lens that maintains substantial variable focus in infrared imaging. This development will be useful in policing, firefighting, ecology, and many other applications where it's critical to see detail at variable distances in dark environments, such as at night or through smoke. (2020-10-27)

Energy at risk: the impact of climate change on supply and costs
The energy sector is not only cause, but also victim of climate change. As global temperatures rise, cooling demand is increasing. But in the face of an increased energy demand in the hot season, energy reliability may be jeopardized, due to climate change impacts on the energy system, especially in South Asia and Latin America. A review paper on Nature Energy shows how extreme climate-related events are affecting the efficiency of energy infrastructures and threatening renewable technologies. (2020-10-27)

Aerosol microdroplets inefficient carriers of COVID-19 virus
Aerosol microdroplets do not appear to be extremely efficient at spreading the virus that leads to COVID-19. While the lingering microdroplets are certainly not risk-free, due to their small size they contain less virus than the larger droplets that are produced when someone coughs, speaks, or sneezes directly on us, said researchers at the University of Amsterdam's Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute. The results were published in Physics of Fluids. (2020-10-27)

The rhythm of change: What a drum-beat experiment reveals about cultural evolution
Living organisms aren't the only things that evolve over time. Cultural practices change, too, and in recent years social scientists have taken a keen interest in understanding this cultural evolution. A new experiment used drum-beats to investigate the role that environment plays on cultural shifts, confirming that different environments do indeed give rise to different cultural patterns. (2020-10-27)

Estimating risk of airborne COVID-19 with mask usage, social distancing
In Physics of Fluids, researchers used a model to understand airborne transmission that is designed to be accessible to a wide range of people, including nonscientists. Employing concepts of fluid dynamics and factors in airborne transmission, they propose the Contagion Airborne Transmission inequality model. While not all factors may be known, it can still be used to assess relative risks. The researchers determined protection from transmission increases with physical distancing in an approximately linear proportion. (2020-10-26)

New data on increasing cloth mask effectiveness
A new study published in Risk Analysis, 'Reinventing cloth masks in the face of pandemics,' by Stephen Salter, P.Eng., describes how Effective Fiber Mask Programs (EFMPs) can help communities find a balance between the economy and curbing community spread. (2020-10-23)

To avoid impression that SARS-CoV-2 transmission is ever-changing, interpret new info using existing
The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 has taken a variety of forms, ranging from localized and quickly controlled outbreaks to large, ongoing epidemics with deadly consequences. (2020-10-22)

Preventive drugs halve malaria cases in African schoolchildren
Giving preventive drugs to school-age children in Africa substantially reduces malaria infections and cases of anaemia, according to a new study in The Lancet Global Health. (2020-10-22)

Perspective: Understanding COVID-19 vaccine efficacy
In this Perspective, Marc Lipsitch and Natalie Dean consider what would happen if a COVID-19 vaccine offers little to no protection in high-risk groups, like the elderly and those with comorbidities, yet is able to reduce infection or infectiousness in younger adults. (2020-10-21)

Covid-19 vaccine trials cannot tell us if they will save lives
Vaccines are being hailed as the solution to the covid-19 pandemic, but the vaccine trials currently underway are not designed to tell us if they will save lives, reports Peter Doshi, Associate Editor at The BMJ today. (2020-10-21)

Effective ventilation may be a key factor in preventing the spread of COVID-19
During the first wave of COVID-19, which paralyzed the world in spring, it was initially thought that effective hand washing and 2-meter social distancing would help prevent the highly contagious virus. Scientists, however, have now come to the conclusion that proper indoor ventilation is even more effective. (2020-10-20)

Light pollution may increase biting behavior at night in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Artificial light abnormally increases mosquito biting behavior at night in a species that typically prefers to bite people during the day, according to research from the University of Notre Dame that was published in The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. (2020-10-20)

Evidence review confirms CDC guidance about infectivity of novel coronavirus
A new review of dozens of studies suggests that people may shed virus for prolonged periods, but those with mild or no symptoms may be infectious for no more than about 10 days. People who are severely ill from COVID-19 may be infectious for as long as 20 days, according to the review. (2020-10-20)

High pressure is key for better optical fibers
Signal loss along optical communication networks could be cut in half if silica glass fibers are manufactured under high pressure. (2020-10-19)

Mouthwashes, oral rinses may inactivate human coronaviruses
Certain oral antiseptics and mouthwashes may have the ability to inactivate human coronaviruses, according to a Penn State College of Medicine research study. The results indicate that some of these products might be useful for reducing the viral load, or amount of virus, in the mouth after infection and may help to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. (2020-10-19)

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