Current Transplantation News and Events

Current Transplantation News and Events, Transplantation News Articles.
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Stem cell transplantation: undesirable rejection mechanism identified
In the treatment of leukaemia, stem cell transplantation subsequent to chemotherapy and radiation can often engender severe adverse inflammatory reactions - especially in the skin or in the gut, since these so-called barrier organs are more frequently affected. Up until now, the reason for this was unclear. A team of researchers in Vienna has now identified an immune mechanism that is partially responsible for this. (2020-11-19)

New European consensus on management of osteoporosis in advanced chronic kidney disease
This Consensus is authored by the European Renal Osteodystrophy Working Group, with expertise from the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association and the International Osteoporosis Foundation. It provides a succinct review of current clinical practice, and outlines practical recommendations for diagnosis, assessment of fracture risk, intervention thresholds, non-pharmacological and pharmacological intervention strategies, monitoring, and secondary fracture prevention. (2020-11-11)

Simultaneous kidney transplant plus weight loss surgery safe for obese patients
A new study shows that robotic-assisted kidney transplant and weight loss surgery can be performed safely. (2020-11-10)

Baking soda treatment may help prevent leukemia relapse after stem cell transplants
Scientists have discovered that sodium bicarbonate - also known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda - can reprogram T cells in leukemia patients to resist the immune-suppressing effects of cancer cells, which can drive leukemia relapse after stem cell transplants. (2020-10-28)

Poverty linked to higher risk of death in children with cancer undergoing transplant
Despite the increasing use and promise of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) as curative therapy for children with cancer and other life-threatening diseases, new research suggests that children transplanted for cancer are more likely to die from treatment-related complications if they live in poorer neighborhoods. The study, published today in the journal Blood, also found that having Medicaid versus private insurance, another marker of poverty, was associated with a higher chance of dying. (2020-10-26)

Study reveals details behind transplant disparities experienced by black patients
In an analysis of information on patients with kidney failure, Black patients are less likely than white patients to be placed on transplant waiting lists. For patients on such lists, Blacks are less likely to receive transplants than whites. Results from the study will be presented online during ASN Kidney Week 2020 Reimagined October 19-October 25. (2020-10-25)

Gut bacteria linked to weight gain following chemotherapy treatment for breast cancer
A new study suggests that gut bacteria are partially responsible for metabolic changes that lead to weight gain following chemotherapy treatment. If the composition of intestinal bacteria may predict which women will gain weight as a result of chemotherapy, researchers say they eventually hope to identify women at risk of gaining weight and offer methods to prevent it. (2020-10-21)

Octopus-inspired sucker transfers thin, delicate tissue grafts and biosensors
Thin tissue grafts and flexible electronics have a host of applications for wound healing, regenerative medicine and biosensing. A new device inspired by an octopus's sucker rapidly transfers delicate tissue or electronic sheets to the patient, overcoming a key barrier to clinical application, according to researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and collaborators. (2020-10-16)

Hearts harvested from pigs may soon help solve chronic shortages of these donor organs
An analysis discusses scientific breakthroughs that have overcome obstacles to cardiac xenotransplantation. (2020-10-07)

Effects of acute and chronic graft-versus-myelodysplastic syndrome on long-term outcomes following a
A research group led by Assistant Professor Takaaki Konuma in the Department of Hematology/Oncology, the Hospital of the Institute of Medical Science, the University of Tokyo (IMSUT Hospital) has demonstrated a graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect of a previously unknown/novel allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in MDS patients. In addition, they succeeded in identifying a category of patients for whom the GVT effect was identified. (2020-10-06)

A small switch with a big impact
Minor changes in immune cells can significantly affect the immune response, scientists of the University of W├╝rzburg have now discovered. Their findings could be relevant for stem cell therapy. (2020-10-05)

Could a poo transplant one day be the secret of eternal youth?
Poo transplants could one day be used to restore cognitive decline among the elderly - according to new research. A new study published today shows how faecal transplants from older to younger mice altered their gut microbiome, which in turn impacted their spatial learning and memory. The research team hope the reverse could also be true, and one day used as a therapy to restore cognitive function in older people. (2020-10-02)

AGA releases largest report on safety and effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation
Today, the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) released the first results from the NIH-funded AGA Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) National Registry, the largest real-world study on the safety and effectiveness of FMT. Published in Gastroenterology, the registry reported that FMT led to a cure of Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection in 90% of patients across 20 North American FMT practice sites. Few serious side effects were reported. (2020-10-01)

Super-potent blood stem cells discovered in human embryos
In research recently published in Stem Cell Reports, Andrejs Ivanovs, Alexander Medvinsky (a.medvinsky@ed.ac.uk) and colleagues from the University of Edinburgh discovered that HSCs from early human embryos, when HSCs are just starting to form, are more robust at expanding than those from the cord blood. (2020-09-17)

EBMT trial shows improvements in treatment of Severe Aplastic Anaemia
The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), Europe's collaborative peer network of professionals working in the field of stem cell transplantation and cellular therapy, announced today the results of the phase III RACE trial during EBMTs virtual 46th Annual Meeting. Preliminary data show that adding Eltrombopag to standard immunosuppressive treatment is safe and increases response rates in patients with Severe Aplastic Anaemia (SAA). (2020-08-31)

A soft-hearted approach to healing
Researchers at the University of Tsukuba and Keio University have clarified the roles of matrix stiffness and mechanotransduction as well as the signaling pathways in the transformation of cardiac fibroblasts into contractile cardiomyocytes and show that soft substrates comparable to native myocardium improve the efficiency of this cardiac reprogramming. This has potential for research into biomaterials and may lead to clinical advances in regenerative treatment for heart failure. (2020-08-30)

Rejuvenating old organs could increase donor pool
Investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital are leading efforts to breathe new life into older organs by leveraging a new class of drugs known as senolytics, which target and eliminate old cells. (2020-08-27)

Ratio of two proteins may add kidneys to the transplant donor pool
An investigation by researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine, in collaboration with researchers at 13 other medical institutions in the United States, has shown that two proteins found in deceased donor urine can be measured to define which donor organs -- including those with AKI -- are the best candidates for saving the lives of patients with kidney failure. (2020-08-18)

Immune response to Sars-Cov-2 following organ transplantation
Even patients with suppressed immune systems can achieve a strong immune response to Sars-Cov-2. A test helps to adapt therapy following an infection. (2020-08-17)

Heart regeneration using stem cells: Why irregular heartbeats occur after transplantation
Increased predominance of the matured ventricular subtype in embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in vivo elucidated why arrhythmia occurs post-transplant of hESC-CMs. (2020-08-05)

Move over Akita: Introducing 'Kuma mutant' mice for islet transplantation research
Scientists at the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have used a gene editing technique to establish a novel mouse model of permanent neonatal diabetes--the immune-deficient Kuma mutant mice with a specific deletion in the Insulin2 (Ins2) gene. This model is expected to be useful for studying the mechanisms governing insulin-producing cell dysfunctions in the pancreas as well as for evaluating human stem-cell derived or interspecies-derived insulin-producing cell transplantation. (2020-08-05)

Insights on the gut microbiome could shape more powerful, precise treatment
In a recently published study, investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital explore how the dynamics of bacterial species may influence the success of fecal microbiota transplantation in treating recurrent C. difficile infection. In Nature Communications, the team presents an algorithm to design personalized probiotic cocktails for patients with unhealthy gut microbiomes due to rCDI. (2020-07-31)

Kidney transplantation between people with HIV is safe, NIH study finds
Kidney transplantation from deceased donors with HIV to people living with both HIV and end-stage kidney disease is feasible and safe, investigators supported by the National Institutes of Health have found. Their study demonstrates that the pool of available kidneys for people with HIV can be expanded by including donors with HIV, making more kidneys available for all who are awaiting a transplant. (2020-07-23)

Healthy offspring from testicular tissue plantation in mice: Retinoic acid key
Germ cell depletion in recipient testis has adverse effects on spermatogenesis in orthotopically transplanted testis pieces via retinoic acid insufficiency. Repetitive RA administration significantly improved donor spermatogenesis to produce healthy offspring. (2020-07-16)

New hope for kidney revival for transplant
Cell therapy delivered directly to the kidney can revive a 'marginal' organ, improving function and could offer new hope for providing more kidneys for transplant. (2020-07-14)

Human lungs rejected for transplant recovered using novel technique
A multidisciplinary team from Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) and Columbia University has demonstrated that injured human donor lungs declined for transplant can be recovered by cross-circulation between the human lung and a xenogeneic host. (2020-07-13)

A bioartificial system acts as 'dialysis' for failing livers in pigs
A bioartificial system that incorporates enhanced liver cells can act as an analogous form of dialysis for the liver in pigs, effectively carrying out the organ's detoxifying roles and preventing further liver damage in animals with acute liver failure. (2020-07-08)

Loss of intestinal goblet cells causes fatal disease after stem cell transplantation
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can cause a loss of protective goblet cells from the colon's inner lining, which can be fatal. But boosting those cells beforehand could improve the outcome. (2020-07-01)

A revolutionary new treatment alternative to corneal transplantation
A new approach in ophthalmology that offers a revolutionary alternative to corneal transplantation has just been developed by researchers and clinicians in North America, Europe, and Oceania. (2020-06-30)

Researchers have found a promising therapy for cardiac regeneration
New research gives information in order to understand safety, efficacy and mechanisms of action of a new cardiac therapy. (2020-06-30)

Study finds HCV-positive livers safe for transplantation; Patients cured afterward
UC researchers find similar results for positive outcomes when comparing patients receiving livers infected with hepatitis C to patients who receive livers without infection. (2020-06-22)

A novel radioisotope therapy for children with neuroblastoma
Researchers from Kanazawa University retrospectively analyzed children with refractory or relapsed high-risk neuroblastoma who were treated with high-dose 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine at Kanazawa University Hospital. They showed that within a 5-year period, this therapy could provide a favorable prognosis without severe non-hematological side effects. These findings could provide new insights into a novel treatment option for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. (2020-06-19)

Liver perfusion could save 7 in 10 rejected donor livers
A major study investigating the effectiveness of liver perfusion as a technique to improve the function of donor livers that would have otherwise been rejected has shown that up to 7 in every 10 could be used after just 4-6 hours of the assessment. (2020-06-17)

For babies born with a rare immune deficiency, a unique new test to better target care
A new test developed at CHU Sainte-Justine in Montreal will enable better management of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). (2020-06-17)

Fred Hutch and University of Washington experts: Treat COVID-19 earlier to save lives
Infectious disease experts from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and UW Medicine are advocating for earlier actions to reduce hospitalizations and deaths from COVID-19. (2020-06-16)

Women are not more likely to die of cirrhosis than men, despite fewer liver transplants
Prior studies suggested women might have higher mortality of cirrhosis of the liver than men. Women are also less likely to receive liver transplantation. But the research was unclear. A comprehensive new Northwestern Medicine study shows women are not more likely to die of liver cirrhosis than men, demonstrating that this liver disease affects men and women similarly. (2020-06-04)

Kidney transplantations: Better results with larger case volumes
Kidney transplantations: better results with larger case volumes. Survival probabilities increase in hospitals where kidneys are transplanted more frequently. (2020-05-25)

Kidney transplants: Better results can be inferred from a larger number of cases
Kidney transplants: Better results can be derived with larger numbers of cases. In clinics where kidneys are transplanted more frequently, the chances of survival are greater. (2020-05-22)

Critical window for re-infection with HIV after stem cell transplantation
So far, allogeneic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of severe blood cancers has been the only medical intervention to have cured at least three people infected with the HI virus. It is still unclear why this procedure was unable to cure other HIV-infected patients successfully. In a study with 16 HIV infected people, scientists identified a critical time window after an allogeneic stem cell transplantation, during which the donor cells could be particularly vulnerable. (2020-05-14)

Immune system discovery paves way to lengthen organ transplant survival
A new discovery in mice shows the innate immune system has 'memory,' previously thought to be a unique feature of the adaptive immune system. Blocking this memory prevented transplanted organs from being rejected, providing a way to more specific drugs that could lengthen organ transplant survival. (2020-05-08)

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