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Caveolin binding motif in Na/K-ATPase required for stem cell differentiation in animals
New findings reveal the importance of the Na/K-ATPase protein in stem cell differentiation and organogenesis, in a study led by scientists at Marshall University that involves the scaffolding function of the Na/K-ATPase. (2020-05-27)

SWI/SNF and erythropoiesis
A research team headed by Dr. Scott Bultman (University of North Carolina) has identified an essential role for the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in red blood cell formation, to be published online ahead of print in G&D. (2005-11-13)

Structure Of The Plasma Membrane Proton Pump Offers A First Glimpse Of The Mechanism Of Ion Pumping Across Membranes
A research team from the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics in Frankfurt/Germany, and the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill/NC, has determined the structure of the plasma membrane proton ATPase at a resolution of about 0.8 nm by electron cryomicroscopy of two-dimensional crystals (nature, vol. 392, 23 April 1998, 840). (1998-04-27)

Research reveals role of fat storage cells in anti-obesity intervention
New research from a team at the Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine establishes a role of adipocyte Na/K-ATPase signaling in worsening obesity and its companion diseases, including neurodegeneration and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), that was enhanced by specific targeting of NaKtide, an antagonist of Na/K-ATPase signaling, to the adipocyte. (2019-05-31)

Global first determination of crystal structure of gastric proton pump
Nagoya University-centered researchers determined the first crystal structure the gastric proton pump H+, K+-ATPase responsible for acidifying gastric juice down to pH1. The team presented crystal structures of the H+, K+-ATPase in complex with two blockers, vonoprazan and SCH28080, at 2.8 Å resolution. This provides important information for refinement of existing drugs and discovery of new drugs. It also reveals the underlying mechanisms of how the highly acidic environment in the stomach is created. (2018-04-17)

Spliceosomal fidelity
As published in the August 15th issue of G&D, Drs. Tommaso Villa and Christine Guthrie at UCSF have identified a novel splicing fidelity factor, as well as provide additional evidence for a two-step model of pre-mRNA splicing. (2005-08-14)

Study reveals insight into how key protein protects against viral infections
Scientists from the University of Utah School of Medicine have discovered that a mouse protein called IFITM3 contributes to the body's defense against some types of viral infections by binding to an enzyme responsible for regulating the pH of a cell's waste disposal system. (2012-03-30)

Molecular architecture and action of a proton pump
Proteins which transport ions in and out of cells are vital to every living organism. Based on the structure of a calcium pump, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics have deduced the structure and regulatory mechanism of a yeast proton pump. The mechanism has potential for new types of fungicides. (2002-08-09)

Neuroscientists find protein linked to cognitive deficits in Angelman syndrome
A team of neuroscientists has identified a protein in laboratory mice linked to impairments similar to those afflicted with Angelman syndrome -- a condition associated with symptoms that include autism, intellectual disability, and motor abnormalities. (2013-08-01)

Reversing aging now possible!
DGIST's research team identified the mechanism of reversible recovery of aging cells by inducing lysosomal activation. The team opened a new horizon of aging recovery research by changing the irreversibility paradigm of aging. (2017-04-03)

Heart drug may help treat ALS, mouse study shows
Digoxin, a medication used in the treatment of heart failure, may be adaptable for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a progressive, paralyzing disease, suggests new research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. (2014-10-26)

Biosensing nanodevice to revolutionize health screenings
One day soon a biosensing nanodevice developed by Arizona State University researcher Wayne Frasch may eliminate long lines at airport security checkpoints and revolutionize health screenings for diseases like anthrax, cancer and antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Even more incredible than the device itself, is that it is based on the world's tiniest rotary motor: a biological engine measured on the order of molecules. (2008-03-25)

UI researchers discover new activity in cystic fibrosis protein
Even well-studied proteins can reveal surprises. University of Iowa scientists have discovered a new enzyme activity for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The discovery helps solve a long-standing puzzle about how this important protein works. (2004-01-27)

RUB researchers decipher the molecular basis of blue-green algae
Under normal conditions, cyanobacteria, also termed blue-green algae, build up energy reserves that allow them to survive under stress such as long periods of darkness. They do this by means of a molecular switch in an enzyme. By removing this switch, it should be possible to use the excess energy of the bacteria for biotechnological purposes such as hydrogen production, without the bacteria suffering. This was found out by researchers at the Ruhr-Universität led by Prof. Dr. Matthias Rögner. (2011-07-31)

How mitochondria get their membranes bent
Underneath their smooth surface mitochondria harbor an elaborately folded inner membrane. It holds a multitude of bottleneck like invaginations, which expand into elongated cavities. Now researchers have identified two proteins linked in an antagonistic manner that are relevant for governing inner membrane structure. (2009-06-24)

Glucose: Potential new target for combating annual seasonal influenza
In lab cultures of mammalian cells, researchers showed that influenza A infection could be controlled by targeting viruses' dependence on cellular glucose. Boosting glucose concentrations concomitantly increased influenza infection rate, and treating viral cells with glucose metabolism inhibitor significantly decreased viral replication. Researchers also demonstrated that infection could be restored to high levels simply by adding ATP, major source of energy for cellular reactions, bypassing the need for glucose. (2013-12-15)

Energy-saving chaperon Hsp90
A special group of proteins, the so-called chaperons, helps other proteins to obtain their correct conformation. Until now scientists supposed that hydrolyzing ATP provides the energy for the large conformational changes of chaperon Hsp90. Now a research team from the Nanosystems Initiative Munich could prove that Hsp90 utilizes thermal fluctuations as the driving force for its conformational changes. The renowned journal PNAS reports on their findings. (2012-01-13)

Electrical signals in plants affect photosynthetic activity
Plants are constantly exposed to various stressors, including drought, fluctuations in temperature and light intensity, attacks by insects, etc. Since plants have an attached lifestyle, the only way to survive the impact of the stress factor is to quickly adapt their metabolism to the changing conditions. In the case when stressors (for example, strong light or mechanical damage) only act on certain parts of the plant organism, special stress signals propagate in the plant. (2018-05-03)

Mechanisms help pancreatic cancer cells avert starvation
A new study reveals the mechanism that helps pancreatic cancer cells avoid starvation within dense tumors by hijacking a process that pulls nutrients in from their surroundings. (2019-12-11)

Study explores 'garbage disposal' role of VCP and implications for degenerative disease
It's important to finish what you start, say Jeong-Sun Ju and researchers from Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis. In the Dec. 14, 2009, issue of the Journal of Cell Biology, Ju et al. reveal how a mutant ATPase blocks autophagy partway through to cause a multi-tissue degenerative disease. (2009-12-14)

Promising new compound protects neurons and vision in mice with glaucoma
Early tests of a novel compound in mice with glaucoma should come as welcome news to millions of people around the world now suffering with this leading cause of vision loss. Researchers reporting in the journal Heliyon have shown that a compound they've developed might help to prevent the nerve damage that leads people with glaucoma to lose their sight. (2016-04-19)

A calcium pump caught in the act
Researchers at Aarhus University have described one of the cell's key enzymes, the calcium pump, in its decisive moment -- a so-called transition state. These findings provide a very detailed picture of how one of the most energy-consuming processes in the body takes place. Calcium pumps are intimately involved in the activity of muscle, such as the heart, and therefore they are considered important targets for development of new drugs for cardiovascular diseases. (2016-05-09)

Same adaptations evolve across different insects
For years, scientists have questioned whether evolution is predictable, or whether chance events make such predictability unlikely. A study published online July 23 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences finds that in the case of insects that developed resistance to a powerful plant toxin, the same adaptations have occurred independently, in separate species in different places and times. (2012-07-24)

Anticancer mechanism revealed in yeast experiments
Scientists uncover how important enzymes in both fission yeast and human cancer cells interact to boost cell proliferation. (2019-02-05)

Journal issue honors 20th anniversary of Marshall University researcher's discovery
Twenty years ago, Zijian Xie, Ph.D., director of the Marshall Institute for Interdisciplinary Research and professor at Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, discovered the scaffolding/signaling function of the Na/K-ATPase sodium pump. In honor of this milestone and the impact of Xie's discovery on cell biology, the International Journal of Molecular Sciences released a special issue featuring articles related to this scaffolding/signaling function. (2018-10-02)

Artificial cells act more like the real thing
Protocells -- artificial cells -- that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. (2019-12-05)

Direct visualization of dynamic structures of protein disaggregation molecular machines
ClpB, an ATP-fueled protein molecular machine, disentangles and reactivates aggregated proteins. By using high-speed atomic force microscopy, conformational dynamics of ClpB was visualized for the first time. ClpB forms open- and closed-ring, and the closed-ring was further classified into three forms; round, spiral, and twisted-half-spiral. These structures transformed each other during ATPase-cycle to perform protein disaggregation. This research will help to treat protein aggregations, which are related to various diseases and cause problems in industry. (2018-06-01)

Marshall School of Medicine research team defines possible anti-aging intervention
New research demonstrates that Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification loop (NAKL) is intimately involved in the aging process and may serve as a target for anti-aging interventions. (2018-06-26)

Examining cardiac performance of tunas at the cellular level
A study of cold and warm water tuna indicates distinct cellular differences in a key protein associated with the beat-to-beat contraction of their hearts. (2004-02-04)

Mechanism of new 'sudden-death' arrhythmia detailed
Researchers have now determined the molecular mechanism underlying a cardiac arrhythmia syndrome they discovered that can lead to sudden death in young, seemingly healthy people. (2005-11-15)

Structure of protein nano turbine revealed
IST Austria scientists determine the first structure of a cell's rotary engine using state-of-art microscopy. (2019-08-22)

Grant helps researchers study 'turbocharger effect' in skeletal muscle
University of Cincinnati researchers have been awarded a five-year, $2.1 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to study an isoform that plays a critical role in human resistance to fatigue. (2013-10-15)

Team learns how cellular protein detects viruses and sparks immune response
A study led by researchers at the University of Illinois reveals how a cellular protein recognizes an invading virus and alerts the body to the infection. (2009-02-19)

Silencing cholera's social media
Bacteria use a form of 'social media' communication, quorum sensing, to monitor how many of their species are in the neighborhood. This is important in the pathogenicity of Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera. In a new study, researchers led by Frederick Hughson and Bonnie Bassler at Princeton University, publishing in the open access journal PLOS Biology this week, explore the molecular mechanism whereby the quorum sensing response regulator LuxO regulates V. cholerae's pathogenicity. (2016-05-24)

Biologists learn structure of enzyme needed to power 'molecular motor'
Researchers at Purdue University and the Catholic University of America have discovered the structure of an enzyme essential for the operation of (2007-03-22)

Forsyth scientists gain greater understanding of how embryos differentiate left from right
Forsyth Institute researchers have discovered a new mechanism responsible for early left/right patterning. The discovery of this novel mechanism, garnered through the study of three different vertebrates, marks the first time that a single common mechanism has been identified in left-right patterning in three distinct species. Such a discovery may have far-reaching implications for the understanding of craniofacial development, right-left hand preference, right/left brain dominance and a variety of birth defects in humans. (2006-04-18)

To grow or not to grow: a step forward in adult vertebrate tissue regeneration
The reason why some animals can regenerate tissues after severe organ loss or amputation while others, such as humans, cannot renew some structures has always intrigued scientists. In a study now published in PLOS ONE, researchers from Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência show, for the first time, that zebrafish regenerates its caudal fin by a process that involves a specific channel in the cell membrane, called V-ATPase, that pumps hydrogen ions, generating an electrical current. (2014-03-27)

Discovery at UCSB may lead to new drugs to treat cancer, control fertility
A recent discovery in cellular biology at UC Santa Barbara may allow scientists to enhance organ regeneration by stem cells, prevent the progression of cancer, and control fertility. It was described in a paper published in the May issue of the journal Developmental Cell, the most widely cited journal in developmental biology. (2005-05-20)

High-resolution pH imaging elucidates energy mechanisms in creating bacterial flagella
Osaka University researchers established a state-of-the-art high-resolution imaging systems to measure pH-related variations in signal intensities of fluorescent pH probe pHluorin in live bacteria. Flagellar type III export proteins power the efficient translocation of flagellar constituents, instrumental for bacterial movement. The study demonstrated that ATP and protons were intricately linked energy sources in channeling protein transport outside the cell alongside reverse proton streams. Cutting edge pH detection tools provide insights into energy transduction in medicine. (2017-01-12)

Flipping lipids for cell transport-tubules
An enzyme that flips lipids from the outer to the inner layer of the cell membrane launches the process that permits cells to engulf external substances. (2018-03-29)

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