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Directional control of self-propelled protocells
Synthetic protocells can be made to move toward and away from chemical signals, an important step for the development of new drug-delivery systems that could target specific locations in the body. (2019-11-18)

U-M Researcher Addresses Changes In The Heart As It Ages
The study examine the normal changes the heart goes through in the aging process. (1998-12-01)

AgriLife scientists uncover a new face of a famous protein, SWI2/SNF2 ATPase
A team of Texas A&M and Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientists now have a deeper understanding of a large switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) protein complex that plays a pivotal role in plant and human gene expression that causes life-threatening diseases such as cancer. (2018-05-17)

Fluid equilibrium in prehistoric organisms sheds light on a turning point in evolution
Maintaining fluid balance in the body is essential to survival. By researching recent genomic data, researchers have found genetic evidence that links this intricate process to a turning point in evolution. (2011-09-22)

Marquis receives major research award
At the Opening Ceremonies of the 84th General Session of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), convening here today, Professor Robert Marquis will receive the 2006 Distinguished Scientist Award for Research in Dental Caries. (2006-06-28)

UF scientists discover novel mechanism underlying bone destruction
University of Florida researchers have discovered a new way bone-destroying cells function in the body that could pave the way for the development of new drugs to treat osteoporosis as well as some of the most deadly forms of cancer. (2000-11-14)

Earth's daily rotation period encoded in an atomic-level protein structure
A collaborative group of Japanese researchers has demonstrated that the Earth's daily rotation period (24 hours) is encoded in the KaiC protein at the atomic level, a small, 10 nm-diameter biomolecule expressed in cyanobacterial cells.The results of this joint research will help elucidate a longstanding question in chronobiology: How is the circadian period of biological clocks determined? (2015-06-25)

Compound that helps rice grow reduces nerve, vascular damage from diabetes
Researchers have found that a compound that helps rice seed grow, springs back into action when brown rice is placed in water overnight before cooking, significantly reducing the nerve and vascular damage that often result from diabetes. (2008-07-28)

A long-standing mystery in membrane traffic was solved
In a recent issue of Science, published on March 27, 2015, a research team, led by Tae-Young Yoon of the Department of Physics at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and Reinhard Jahn of the Department of Neurobiology of the Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, reports that NSF/╬▒-SNAP disassemble a single SNARE complex using various single-molecule biophysical methods that allow them to monitor and manipulate individual protein complexes. (2015-03-27)

Chikashi Toyoshima to present National Lecture at the Biophysical Society 51st Annual Meeting
The 7,800-member Biophysical Society is pleased to announce that Chikashi Toyoshima will deliver the National Lecture at the Biophysical Society 51st Annual Meeting in Baltimore, Md., March 3-7, 2007. Being named the National Lecturer is the society's highest honor. Dr. Toyoshima is a professor at the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences at the University of Tokyo in Japan and was elected a Foreign Associate to the National Academy of Sciences in 2005. (2006-12-12)

Marshall University research team publishes study in prestigious Science Advances
Researchers with the Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine and the Marshall University Institute for Interdisciplinary Research have identified a mechanism for blocking the signal by which the cellular sodium-potassium pump amplifies oxidants (reactive oxygen species). These oxidants lead to obesity and metabolic syndrome. (2015-10-16)

The role of calcium handling mechanisms in reperfusion injury
Cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) remain the major cause of death and disability worldwide.The overall goal of this review is to describe the different pathways that lead to I/R injury via Ca2+ overload, focus on recent discoveries and highlight prospects for therapeutic strategies for clinical benefit. (2018-12-19)

First detailed look at how molecular Ferris wheel delivers protons to cellular factories
All cells with nuclei, from yeast to humans, use molecular machines called proton pumps to regulate the acidity of organelles - compartments where various types of work are done. A new study reveals a key step in how these Ferris wheel-like pumps operate. (2020-10-07)

Scientists decode dynamics of the largest protein-degrading machine in atomic detail
Seven cryo-EM structures at atomic-level resolution revealed the inner working of human proteasome and its dynamic substrate-processing steps of ubiquitin recognition, deubiquitylation, translocation initiation and processive substrate degradation. (2019-02-24)

Detector of DNA damage: Structure of a repair factor revealed
Double-stranded breaks in cellular DNA can trigger tumorigenesis. Researchers from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet in Munich have now determined the structure of a protein involved in the repair and signaling of DNA double-strand breaks. The work throws new light on the origins of neurodegenerative diseases and certain tumor types. (2012-06-19)

Toxic toad invasion puts Madagascar's predators at risk, genetic evidence confirms
The recent introduction of the common Asian toad to Madagascar has led to fears that the toxic amphibian could wreak havoc on the island's already severely threatened fauna. Now, researchers report genetic evidence in the journal Current Biology on June 4 showing that those fears are well founded: virtually all predators native to Madagascar are highly sensitive to toad toxins. If they should eat the toads, it would be a potentially fatal mistake. (2018-06-04)

Scientists discover genetic key to growing hardier, more productive plants
A team of plant biologists has discovered an overlooked genetic key to growing plants that are more productive, more drought-resistant and better able to grow in soils low in nutrients. Their findings may prompt biology textbook changes and have implications for increased world food production and global reforestation efforts. The findings are particularly relevant for farmers in areas prone to drought and in developing countries that lack irrigation systems and money for expensive fertilizers. (2005-10-06)

Is there any alternative to control multisteps of ulcers?
Ulcers are a worldwide challenging disease, and researchers have long been seeking effective antiulcer alternatives. A research group in India has revealed that a bioactive polysaccharide from an edible root, Decalepis hamiltonii, commonly called swallow root, could offer protection at all critical steps of gastric ulcer. (2007-10-23)

Structure of DNA repair complex reveals workings of powerful cell motor
Over the last years, two teams of researchers at the Scripps Research Institute have steadily built a model of how a powerful DNA repair complex works. Now, their latest discovery provides revolutionary insights into the way the molecular motor inside the complex functions -- findings they say may have implications for treatment of disorders ranging from cancer to cystic fibrosis. (2011-03-27)

Researchers from Aarhus solve the mystery of the acid pump
Researchers at Aarhus University in Denmark have succeeded in identifying the mechanisms involved in what is known as the acid pump, which at the cellular level pumps acid into the stomach -- in some cases leading to gastric ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease. The research results emanate from Jens Chr. Skou's sodium-potassium pump, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize twenty years ago. (2017-03-07)

Biomolecular motors with propellers can live inside cells
Nanobiotechnologists at Cornell University have built and pilot-tested the first biomolecular motors the size of virus particles with tiny metal propellers. (Science Nov. 24, 2000) (2000-11-22)

APS awards more than $200,000 to its 2001 Postdoctoral Fellowship winners
The American Physiological Society has announced the winners of its 2001 Postdoctoral Fellowships in Physiological Genomics. The two-year award will provide funds totaling $69,000 to each of the three winning scientists including stipend and a mini research grant for each year. (2001-07-09)

How sperm find their way
Researchers have found that a protein in the cell membranes of sperm plays a key role in how they find their way to eggs. The PMCA protein may also help explain how egg cells only interact with sperm from the same species. PMCA may even be a target of drug discovery. (2018-11-15)

Monitoring epithelial plasticity, one cell at a time
The kidneys maintain plasma volume and composition by adapting to shifts in the concentration of ions and other solutes. Some years ago, Schwartz and colleagues identified one such homeostatic mechanism, in which acidosis alters the cellular population within the cortical collecting duct (CCD) of the kidney. Over a period of days, acidosis induces one epithelial cell type in the CCD, the b-intercalated cells, to adopt the characteristics of another cell type, the a-intercalated cells (2002-01-02)

Biophysics: Making patterns robust
Correct protein localization is crucial for many fundamental cellular processes. LMU physicists have now asked how to confer robustness against variations in protein concentrations on pattern formation mechanisms. (2018-04-17)

Hormone might cause dangerous pregnancy complication
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) Academic Health Center have found evidence of a hormone they say is responsible for certain types of high blood pressure (hypertension), and could also cause preeclampsia, a potentially dangerous condition that occurs during pregnancy. (2005-10-17)

Scientists discover possible way to turn fungus from foe to friend
Candida albicans is a double agent: In most of us, it lives peacefully, but for people whose immune systems are compromised by HIV or other severe illnesses, it is frequently deadly. Now a new study from Johns Hopkins and Harvard Medical School shows how targeting a specific fungal component might turn the fungus from a lion back into a kitten. Study results were reported this month in The Journal of Biological Chemistry. (2013-09-24)

How does insulin-like growth factor I protect liver function?
A team led by Dra. Castilla de Cortázar Larrea from the University San Pablo-CEU has characterized some beneficial effects promoted by Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) therapy on mitochondrial dysfunction associated to experimental cirrhosis, increasing the membrane potential and ATPase activity and reducing the intramitochondrial free radicals production and caspase-3 activity. (2008-05-07)

Discovery of compounds that keep plants fresh
A team of scientists at Nagoya University has discovered new compounds that can control stomatal movements in plants. Some of the compounds have shown to prevent leaves from drying up and suppress withering when sprayed onto rose and oat leaves. (2018-04-08)

Biophysics: Self-centered
Rod-shaped bacterial cells normally divide by constriction midway along their long axis. LMU physicists have developed a theoretical model to explain how Myxococcus xanthus localizes the plane of division to mid-cell. (2018-08-31)

Molecular motors: Power much less than expected?
An innovative measurement method was used at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw for estimating power generated by motors of single molecule in size, comprising a few dozens of atoms only. The findings of the study are of crucial importance for construction of future nanometer machines -- and they do not instill optimism. (2013-08-28)

A chaperone system guides tail-anchored membrane proteins to their destined membrane
Newly synthesized proteins can only fold into their correct three dimensional structure thanks to chaperones. In case of membrane proteins chaperones do not only prevent their aggregation, but also escort them to their destination and aid in membrane insertion. The underlying molecular mechanism has now been resolved for tail-anchored membrane proteins. (2011-07-05)

Targeting protein homeostasis holds potential to treat solid tumors and blood cancers
In data published in two journals as well as to be presented at the American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting & Exposition, scientists identified an orally available molecule, CB-5083, that targeting protein homeostasis has the potential to treat solid tumors and blood cancers. (2015-12-03)

Model of a migraine indicates increased neuronal excitability as a possible cause
Familial hemiplegic migraine is a rare and severe subtype of migraine with aura, an unusual sensory experience preceding the migraine attack. Researchers from the San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan, and CNR Institute of Neuroscience in Pisa, Italy, have developed a mouse model of Familial Hemiplegic Migraine type 2 and used it to investigate the migraine's cause. The study will be published on June 23 in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics. (2011-06-23)

Punctured cell membranes lead to high blood pressure
Researchers from the University of Southern Denmark have identified how a mutated protein can lead to holes in a protein sitting in a cell's membrane. Such holes cause high blood pressure, and the discovery can now lead to new and better medication for high blood pressure. (2014-01-27)

Pump failure implicated in a form of dystonia
Tiny genetic flaws in a protein that pumps sodium and potassium across the membranes of neurons have been implicated in a rare but devastating form of dystonia. Scientists have pinpointed for the first time genetic mutations that underlie the disorder known as rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. (2004-07-21)

NTU and EMBL remote X-ray scattering experiment a success
Nanyang Technological University's School of Biological Science (SBS) has partnered the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Hamburg to conduct successfully a remotely controlled Solution X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) experiment. The experiment was initiated from SBS in Singapore at 4.10pm - 6pm on 26 May 2009 and conducted at EMBL in Hamnburg, Germany. The remote experimental set-up was developed by EMBL, Hamburg, SAXS group. The success of this unconventional experiment paves the way to how SAXS experiments will be conducted in future. (2009-05-26)

Discovery of a host mRNA that inhibits immune functions of antiviral protein RIG-I
This study shows that, upon HCV infection, mRNA of selenoprotein P (SeP), a secretory protein produced primarily in the liver, binds to and inhibits the action of RIG-I, an antiviral protein, thus regulating innate immunity. RIG-I-mediated induction of interferon production is repressed by SeP mRNA, a host mRNA, affecting its antiviral activity. These results should lead to further elucidation of mechanisms underlying the association between metabolic disorders and virus-induced innate immunity dysfunction. (2019-04-10)

The importance of keeping silent...in breast cancer cells
Researchers at the Centre for Genomic Regulation describe a repression mechanism active in hormone-dependent breast cancer cells for the first time. The repression complex of these cells silences genes related with cell proliferation and death, two key processes in cancer. The discovery contributes new knowledge on gene-silencing mechanisms and will help identify new targets for possible future treatments. (2016-07-07)

Molecular biophysics -- the ABC of ribosome recycling
Ribosomes, the essential machinery used for protein synthesis is recycled after each one round of translation. An enzyme called ABCE1 is responsible for this process and turns out to be remarkably plastic as Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich biophysicists report. (2019-07-25)

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