Autophagy Current Events

Autophagy Current Events, Autophagy News Articles.
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Role of autophagy in tumorigenesis
In the June 1 issue of G&D, Dr. Eileen White and colleagues at Rutgers University/University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey/Cancer Institute of New Jersey, report, for the first time, that the cellular self-digesting process of autophagy can protect genome integrity -- lending new insight into the seemingly contradictory roles of autophagy as both a cell survival and tumor suppressor pathway. (2007-05-17)

Cell degradation is topic of science review
Autophagy, the process of self-digestion of cell components through the action of enzymes within a cell, plays a vital role in cell maintenance and development, but in recent years has also been linked to a growing number of human diseases, including neurodegenerative conditions, cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. (2000-11-30)

Cellular self-eating promotes pancreatitis
To survive tough times, cells sometimes resort to a form of self-cannibalism called autophagy. But as Hashimoto et al. reveal, autophagy can have a down side, destroying the pancreas by prematurely activating a digestive enzyme. The report is to be published in the June 30 issue of the Journal of Cell Biology. (2008-06-30)

Autophagy: Scientists discover novel role for self-recycling process in the brain
Proteins classically associated with autophagy regulate the speed of intracellular transport. (2020-03-31)

AACR news: Autophagy-addicted breast cancers killed by anti-malaria drug, chloroquine
Research presented at the AACR Annual Meeting 2013 shows that some breast cancer subtypes depend on autophagy more than others -- and that inhibiting autophagy in breast cancers that depend on it may be enough alone to kill the disease. (2013-04-08)

Study suggests that autophagy inhibitors could improve efficacy of chemotherapies
This week in the JCI, research led by Jayanta Debnath at UCSF has shown that inhibiting autophagy does not impair the immune response to tumors during chemotherapy, providing support for the idea that combining autophagy inhibitors with certain chemotherapies may aid cancer treatment. (2016-10-24)

Zombie cancer cells eat themselves to live
A University of Colorado Cancer Center study recently published in the journal Cell Reports and presented today at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Conference 2014 shows that the cellular process of autophagy in which cells 'eat' parts of themselves in times of stress may allow cancer cells to recover and divide rather than die when faced with chemotherapies. (2014-04-05)

Autophagy in dendritic cells helps anticancer activity
Autophagy contributes to the homeostasis of a cell and recently another function of autophagy has been reported. A KAIST research team found that the autophagy of dendritic cells supports T-cell anticancer activity. (2019-05-12)

Small molecules can starve cancer cells
Researchers from BRIC at University of Copenhagen have found that a small molecule in our cells can block autophagy in cancer cells making them more sensitive for treatment. (2011-10-09)

Role for autophagic cellular degradation process in maintaining genomic stability
Tokyo Medical and Dental University-led researchers identified a role for the cellular degradation process autophagy in controlling centrosome number and ensuring genomic stability. This autophagic regulation was found to be dependent on the Cep63 protein, a centrosome component, which interacts with the p62 protein prior to degradation. (2016-11-24)

Identification of autophagy-dependent secretion machinery
A group of researchers identified a molecular machinery by which autophagy*1 mediates secretion. These results underscore an important role of autophagy other than degradation, and will bring us to future translational research of medicine. (2017-01-10)

Deregulated mTOR is responsible for autophagy defects exacerbating kidney stone formation
Kidney stone disease is a lifestyle-related disease prevalent; however, effective medical treatment for the disease is not yet well established. As cellular damage in renal tubular cells is responsible for the disease, here, we focused on the role of autophagy. We found that autophagy compromised by mTOR deregulation is a fundamental feature in the pathology of kidney stone formation, and propose that chemical inhibition of mTOR could be a prospective strategy for disease suppression. (2019-08-06)

Cell recycling protects tumor cells from anti-cancer therapy
Autophagy is a process by which a cell degrades its own components. In tumor cells, this mechanism is frequently initiated by anti-cancer therapy. It is not known why the cells respond by activating the catabolic process of autophagy. Researchers at the German Cancer Research Center have now been able to show that blocking of autophagy makes cancer cells more sensitive to radiation therapy. (2008-03-06)

Mechanism of autophagy initiation has just been revealed
Researchers revealed that Atg13 links autophagy initiation factors to each other using a string-like conformation, thereby promoting the association of diverse elements of the autophagy initiation machinery, initiating autophagosome formation through the recruitment of Atg9 vesicles and phosphorylation of various Atg factors. (2016-07-11)

Study: Autophagy predicts which cancer cells live and die when faced with anti-cancer drugs
When a tumor is treated with an anti-cancer drug, some cells die and, unfortunately, some cells tend to live. A University of Colorado Cancer Center study published in the journal Nature Cell Biology details a possible difference between the susceptible and resistant cells: the rate at which cells are able to cleanse themselves via the process known as autophagy. (2014-01-10)

Clearing damaged cells out of the body helps heal diabetics' blood vessels
Research published today in Experimental Physiology shows that ramping up one of the body's waste disposal system, called autophagy, helps heal the blood vessels of diabetics. (2019-11-17)

Autophagy active in tumor suppression
Autophagy is a pathway whereby long-lived cellular proteins are degraded. The beclin 1 autophagy gene is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of cases of human sporadic breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in cancer biology. Researchers from Columbia University demonstrate that disruption of beclin 1 increases the frequency of spontaneous malignancies and that autophagy is a novel mechanism in the regulation of cell growth and tumor suppression. (2003-12-15)

You are what you eat: New insight into autophagy
Somewhere between cannibalism and recycling, the process known as autophagy plays a key role in regulating cell growth, metabolism and survival. Now, adding to information about autophagy in single-celled organisms, two research papers published in the August issue of Developmental Cell shed new light on the molecular mechanisms of autophagy in the fruit fly, Drosophila. (2004-08-09)

Strengthening immune defense may be solution for treating tuberculosis
Researchers at Linköping University have made a discovery that could contribute to developing new vaccines and treatment alternatives for tuberculosis in the future. The results have been published in Scientific Reports, a sister journal to the highly respected periodical Nature. (2016-06-27)

Autophagy and mitochondria: Targets in neurodegenerative disorders
Cellular homeostasis depends on the timely clearance of damaged cellular organelles and proteins via pathways including autophagy. Mitochondria and mitochondrial autophagy play a vital role in cellular health and failure of these pathways can have a devastating effect on cellular homeostasis. Here, the researchers review the involvement of mitochondrial and autophagy dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders specifically focusing on Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. (2018-12-26)

How the cellular recycling system is put on hold while cells divide
Research involving several teams at the Babraham Institute, Cambridge, UK, has shown that cellular recycling (autophagy) is repressed during the process of cell division, and how repression of autophagy during mitosis utilises a different master regulator. The findings address a long-standing point of contention in biology. (2019-11-13)

Next steps towards preventing cancer and Alzheimer's
A new generation of drugs that prevent cancer and Alzheimer's could be developed, thanks to a new database of the proteins needed for autophagy, from the University of Warwick. (2016-08-03)

Acidic tumor pH inhibits drug effect
Low pH in tumors counteracts the desired effect of the drug chloroquine, according to a new study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. The results, which are published in the journal Autophagy, might explain possible lack of efficacy of chloroquine in clinical studies. (2014-02-11)

Turning off autophagy helps chemotherapy stress cancer cells to death
A University of Colorado Cancer Center study published March 12 in the journal Developmental Cell suggests inhibiting molecule FOXO3a could increase effectiveness of autophagy-inhibitors, which have shown promise but little success in clinical practice. (2018-03-12)

How cells decide the way they want to recycle their content
Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) identified a new phosphorylation site of Ulk1 as a novel regulating mechanism of alternative autophagy. By inducing DNA damage in MEFs using etoposide, the researchers found that Ulk1 became phosphorylated at the serine 746 site by RIPK3 in alternative autophagy, but not canonical autophagy (see Figure). These findings could help to understand the role of alternative autophagy in normal biology and disease. (2020-05-14)

Autophagy: A double-edged sword for neuronal survival after cerebral ischemia
A research team from the Sixth People's Hospital Affliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China and Zhoupu Hospital, Pudong New District, Shanghai, China, summarizes the potential role and possible signaling pathway of autophagy in neuronal survival after cerebral ischemia and proposes that autophagy has dual effects. (2014-07-25)

Autophagy is a new target for treatment of neuronal injury in the hippocampus of VD rats
Professor Bin Liu and co-workers from the Affiliated Hospital of Hebei United University, China intraperitoneally injected wortmannin into a rat model of vascular dementia. They found that wortmannin could inhibit hippocampal CA1 neuronal injury, elevate expression of the autophagy-related proteins beclin-1, cathepsin B and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3. These results confirmed that autophagy is activated in the hippocampus of vascular dementia model rats, suggesting its involvement in the onset of vascular dementia, and that inhibition of autophagy has neuroprotective effects, indicating a novel pathway and target for drug treatment of vascular dementia. (2014-08-10)

Tumor cells evade death through autophagy
Autophagy (a process that enables cells to turnover their contents) is initiated in tumor cells by chemotherapy and radiation, but it is not known if this causes tumor cell death or helps tumor cells survive. A new mouse study now indicates that autophagy is a survival mechanism for tumor cells treated with agents that initiate tumor cell death, suggesting that adjunct treatment with autophagy inhibitors might increase the efficacy of some chemotherapeutics in cancer patients. (2007-01-18)

Taking out the trash is essential for brain health
Researchers at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) have identified a protein called Wipi3 that is essential for cellular waste disposal via the alternative autophagy system. Deletion of Wipi3 in the brains of mice causes growth and motor defects attributed to neuronal accumulation of iron, resulting in neurodegeneration. However, over-expression of another alternative autophagy protein, Dram1, reverses the effects in Wipi3 deficiency, and may represent a novel treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. (2020-11-19)

New study sheds light on disease-busting 'recycling bins' in our cells
Scientists have made an important step in understanding how cells keep themselves clean and healthy -- a finding that may have implications for combating neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. (2017-07-13)

New insights on how pathogens escape the immune system
The bacterium Salmonella enterica causes gastroenteritis in humans and is one of the leading causes of food-borne infectious diseases. During the infection, the germ is able to trick the immune system. Researchers led by Nirmal Robinson from the Cluster of Excellence for Aging Research CECAD found a mechanism the pathogen uses. They hope to use the gained knowledge in the fight against cancer and other aging-associated diseases. The results are published in the journal PLoS Pathogens. (2017-03-03)

Plants overcome hunger with the aid of autophagy
Researchers at Tohoku University have found that plants activate autophagy in their leaf cells to derive amino acids that are used for survival under energy-starved 'hunger' conditions. The findings show that amino acid utilization in plants can be controlled by the manipulation of autophagy. (2018-03-12)

Autophagy degrades liquid droplets, but not aggregates, of proteins
Autophagy is a mechanism through which cellular protein is degraded. Selective autophagy had been thought to prevent the onset of diseases, but the state of proteins in which they could be efficiently degraded had been unclear. A team of Japanese scientists have discovered that autophagy is effective for selectively degrading protein in a state of liquid droplet that is formed through liquid-liquid phase separation but does poorly with the degradation of protein in aggregation. (2020-02-13)

Researchers identify a new gene involved in autophagy, the cellular recycling program
Researchers at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine led by Antonio Zorzano, head of the Molecular Medicine Program and senior professor of the University of Barcelona, have identified a new gene that favors cell autophagy. The article has been published in EMBO Reports, which highlights it in the section (2010-01-21)

Cellular self-digestion process triggers autoimmune disease
Autophagy allows cells to degrade and recycle their cellular components. Researchers at UZH have now demonstrated that the autophagy machinery in certain immune cells leads to the immune system attacking the central nervous system. The researchers are using these findings as a basis to look into new approaches to treating autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. (2017-12-13)

Identification of autophagy gene regulation mechanism related to dementia and Lou Gehrig's disease
An international Research Team led by Dr. Jeong Yoon-ha at Korea Brain Research Institute has published the results of its research in 'Autophagy'. Expected to develop the treatment for neurodegenerative disease utilizing TDP-43 protein. (2019-07-18)

Therapeutic effect of imatinib improved with addition of chloroquine
The therapeutic effects of the blockbuster leukemia drug imatinib may be enhanced when given along with a drug that inhibits a cell process called autophagy, researchers from the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson reported in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. (2009-04-13)

The molecule that can AUTAC bad proteins
Tohoku University researchers have developed a strategy that could help cells get rid of disease-related debris. Further research could lead to treatments for neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, Down syndrome, and maybe even aging-related diseases. The findings were published in the journal Molecular Cell. (2019-11-27)

The key to survival and virulence for a fungal pathogen is autophagy
Autophagy is a process whereby cells recycle material during stress situations, such as when nutrients are scarce. Some cells also use this process as an immune defense mechanism to eliminate pathogens. However, new data, generated in mice, have identified autophagy as a new virulence-associated trait and survival mechanism for Cryptococcus neoformans -- a fungal pathogen that commonly infects immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV. (2008-02-07)

Mechanism of controlling autophagy by liquid-liquid phase separation revealed
Japanese scientists elucidated characteristics of PAS through observing the Atg protein using a fluorescence microscope and successfully reconstituted PAS in vitro. The team revealed, for the first time, that PAS is in the state of liquid droplets formed by liquid-liquid phase separation of Atg13 together with other Atg proteins and that this liquid droplet is responsible for autophagy. (2020-02-13)

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