Chromatin Current Events

Chromatin Current Events, Chromatin News Articles.
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Function of nuclear ribosomal proteins
In a paper to be released online ahead of print in G&D, Dr. Fang-Lin Sun (Tsinghua University) and colleagues report on a heretofore unidentified link between ribosomal proteins and chromatin -- providing additional insight into the long-standing mystery as to why components of the translation machinery exist in the cell nucleus. (2006-06-29)

Biologists' discovery may force revision of biology textbooks
Basic biology textbooks may need a bit of revising now that biologists at UC San Diego have discovered a never-before-noticed component of our basic genetic material. (2011-08-18)

Hebrew University, American researchers show 'trigger' to stem cell differentiation
A gene which is essential for stem cells' capabilities to become any cell type has been identified by researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the University of California, San Francisco. (2009-12-10)

Chromatin remodeling proteins: New insights in human malignancy and targeted cancer therapy
Chromatin remodeling proteins (chromatin remodelers) are essential and powerful regulators for critical DNA-templated cellular processes, such as DNA replication, recombination, gene transcription/repression, and DNA damage repair. (2016-07-13)

SWI/SNF and erythropoiesis
A research team headed by Dr. Scott Bultman (University of North Carolina) has identified an essential role for the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in red blood cell formation, to be published online ahead of print in G&D. (2005-11-13)

New technology detect cellular memory
In 2009, two women at BRIC, the University of Copenhagen joined forces to develop a new technology that could elucidate the mystery behind cellular memory. With this technology, they have now identified 100 new molecular players that ensure cellular knowledge of own identity at cell division. This is crucial for fetal development, to maintain body functions throughout life and prevent disease. The results are published in Nature Cell Biology. (2014-02-23)

Chromatin organizes itself into 3D 'forests' in single cells
Scientists are increasingly interested in the function of chromatin -- a mix of DNA and protein within chromosomes -- and its role in disease. Using mathematical modeling and optical imaging they developed themselves, Northwestern University researchers now have discovered how chromatin folds at the single-cell level. They found it folds into a variety of tree-like domains spaced along a chromatin backbone. These small and large areas are like a mixed forest of trees growing from the forest floor. (2020-01-10)

Unraveling gene expression
EPFL chemists have uncovered the first steps in the process of gene expression by showing how the protein Rap1 pries open the tightly wound, compacted structure of DNA in the cell to gain access to specific genes. (2019-11-21)

Altered primary chromatin structures and their implications in cancer development
In this review Angelo Ferraro of Kazan Federal University focuses on recently published work dealing with alterations in the primary structure of chromatin resulting from imprecise arrangements of nucleosomes along DNA, and its functional implications for cancer development. (2016-04-25)

Chromatin remodeling may open up DNA to RNA-mediated silencing
In a finding that deepens our understanding of epigenetic regulation, researchers have identified a novel protein in Arabidopsis that may help so-called short guide RNAs and silencing effector proteins target specific DNA sequences for modification. (2004-05-03)

Argonaute proteins help fine-tune gene expression
A protein, with a name reminiscent of legendary Greek sailors, has an unexpected role inside the human nucleus. (2019-10-28)

Does rearranging chromosomes affect their function?
Molecular biologists long thought that domains in the genome's 3D organization control how genes are expressed. After studying highly rearranged chromosomes in fruit flies, EMBL researchers now reveal that while this is the case for some genes, their results challenge the generality of this for many others. Their results, published in Nature Genetics on July 15, 2019, reveal an uncoupling between the 3D genome organization -- also called chromatin topology -- and gene expression. (2019-07-15)

NYU chemists use computer simulation to enhance understanding of DNA transcription
New York University chemists have employed a computer simulation whose results have enhanced scientific understanding of the DNA transcription process. The study, funded by the National Institutes of Health, appears in the June 7 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (2005-06-03)

Supercoiling pushes molecular handcuffs along chromatin fibers
As it squeezes down the chromatin fiber, the cohesin protein complex extrudes a growing loop of DNA -- a bit like the quick-lacing system of trail-running shoes. But what is powering the movement of the protein? A team of SIB scientists has found that the driving force could be the supercoiling of upstream DNA. Their research, published in Nucleic Acids Research, is thereby adding a key piece to the puzzle of gene expression regulation. (2017-12-14)

Mapping the chromatin landscape of human cancer
By mapping the largely uncharted chromatin landscape of primary human cancers, researchers have revealed new insights into the regulation of different cancer-related genes. (2018-10-25)

UBC geneticist reveals molecular view of key epigenetic regulator
In a paper published this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Dr. Michael Kobor reported the structure and function of a key player in regulating chromatin in yeast and humans. (2009-12-09)

Physical reason for chromosome shape discovered
Researchers from the UAB have determined why metaphase chromosomes have their characteristic elongated cylindrical shape. The results show that this morphology is related to the chromosome's self-organizing structure. (2014-01-14)

NIH awards WSU researcher $1.39M to study chromatin's role in cell division
The National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health recently awarded Lori A. Pile, Ph.D., assistant professor of molecular cell biology in Wayne State University's College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, $1.39 million to research how the alteration of chromatin regulates cellular division and growth. The study is intended to support the development of cancer treatments currently undergoing clinical trials. (2011-08-16)

A moderate dose of novel form of stress promotes longevity
A newly described form of stress called chromatin architectural defect, or chromatin stress, triggers in cells a response that leads to a longer life. (2019-07-10)

Single-molecule magnetic tweezers reveal dual function of FACT in gene regulation
Professors LI Wei and LI Ming from the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently improved the temporal and spatial resolution of their self-developed magnetic tweezers. (2018-07-19)

USC researchers discover key aspect of process that activates breast cancer genes
Researchers at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California have discovered key processes by which estrogen, the female sex hormone, activates genes in breast-cancer cells. Greater understanding of how this occurs is expected to eventually lead to new treatments for the disease. (2011-11-14)

Understanding chromatin's cancer connection
New live-cell imaging technique allows Northwestern University researchers to study chromatin's dynamic processes, including its role in cancer and disease. (2016-10-04)

The large-scale stability of chromosomes
A new study led by the SISSA of Trieste and published in PLOS Computational Biology adds detail to the theoretical models used in chromatin simulations and demonstrates that even when made up of a mixture of fibres with different properties chromatin does not alter its three-dimensional structure above a certain spatial resolution. This finding points to a need to improve on current techniques for experimental observation, which are characterized by a resolution that is still too low. (2016-06-29)

Regulating DNA methylation
A recent discovery has shed light on the illusive mechanism whereby the addition of DNA modifications is regulated during development. Control over the addition of methyl groups is an actively pursued research topic because aberrations in DNA methylation been implicated in the process of aging and the development of various diseases, including cancer. Published in Genes & Development, scientists have discovered that a protein called Lsh is required for normal genome-wide methylation during development. (2001-11-14)

Researchers identify mechanisms that allow embryonic stem cells to become any cell in the human body
New research at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem sheds light on pluripotency -- the ability of embryonic stem cells to renew themselves indefinitely and differentiate into all types of mature cells. Solving this problem could expedite the use of embryonic stem cells in cell therapy and regenerative medicine via the creation of cells in the laboratory that could be implanted in humans to cure degenerative diseases characterized by cell death. (2012-07-18)

Plant seeds protect their genetic material against dehydration
When seeds from the thale cress, Arabidopsis thaliana, mature, their cell nuclei reduce in size and the chromatin condenses. (2011-12-02)

Dock and harbor: A novel mechanism for controlling genes
In a recent study published in Molecular Cell, researchers at Kanazawa University report the role of cellular structures called PML bodies in regulating gene function. (2020-05-12)

Faster, not stronger: How a protein regulates gene expression
By measuring the motion of single molecules, EPFL scientists have discovered how specialized proteins control gene expression by binding and compacting discrete parts of DNA inside the cell. The findings have significant implications for genetics and cancer research. (2015-06-18)

Scientists unwind mystery behind DNA replication
The molecules of life are twisted. But how those familiar strands in DNA's double helix manage to replicate without being tangled up has been hard to decipher. A new perspective from Cornell physicists is helping unravel the mystery. (2019-10-17)

More detailed analysis of how cells react to stress
Stress in the body's cells is both the cause and consequence of inflammatory diseases or cancer. The cells react to stress to protect themselves. Researchers at the University of Zurich have now developed a new technique that allows studying a fundamental response to stress in much more detail than previously possible: the ADP-ribosylation of chromatin. In the long term, this method could help finding ways of blocking disease-causing processes. (2016-02-08)

A new energy source within the cells
Scientists at the Centre for Genomic Regulation in Barcelona, Spain, find evidence of a new energy source within cell nucleus. Their results, which are published in Science, shed light on how in exceptional situations cells can reprogram gene expression and point at a new player for targeted cancer medicine. (2016-06-02)

Mechanism for stress-induced epigenetic inheritance uncovered in new study
Researchers at RIKEN have uncovered a mechanism by which the effects of stress in the fly species Drosophila are inherited epigenetically over many generations through changes to the structure of chromatin, the material that makes up the cell nucleus. Published in the journal Cell, the results highlight the role of the transcription factor dATF-2 in chromatin assembly, marking a major advance in our understanding of non-Mendelian inheritance. (2011-06-23)

A multilaminar model explains the structure of chromosomal aberrations in cancer cells
The organization of DNA packaged in chromosomes during cell division has been very difficult to study experimentally. Researchers from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona have found that the structure of translocations in cancer cells shows that chromosomes are formed by thin plates of chromatin. (2015-10-08)

Sleep duration may affect the integrity of sperm DNA
A new study found a link between sleep duration and a measure of chromosomal health in sperm. The findings are published in the Journal of Sleep Research. (2017-10-16)

Opening up DNA to delete disease
Protein editorial assistants are clearing the way for cut-and-paste DNA editors, like CRISPR, to access previously inaccessible genes of interest. Opening up these areas of the genetic code is critical to improving CRISPR efficiency and moving toward futuristic, genetic-based assaults on disease. The DNA-binding editorial assistants were devised by a US-based team of bioengineers, who describe their design in APL Bioengineering. (2020-01-14)

Immune cells deploy traps to catch and kill pathogens
A new study reveals that two enzymes help immune cells deploy pathogen-killing traps by unraveling and using the chromatin (DNA and its associated proteins) contained in the cells' nuclei to form defensive webs. The study appears online on Oct. 25 in the Journal of Cell Biology. (2010-10-25)

FloChiP, a new tool optimizing gene-regulation studies
EPFL scientists have developed FloChip, a new microfluidic take on the widely used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technique. By automating and cutting the cost of ChIP and sequential-ChIP, FloChIP has the potential to become a widely used tool for the study of chromatin biology and gene regulation. (2020-06-01)

New journal explores the environment in which our genes live
The composition of our DNA is not the only thing that determines how our genes behave. A new journal launched today by the open access publisher BioMed Central, Epigenetics & Chromatin, will enable researchers at all levels to discuss the heritable changes that do not alter DNA sequence, but rather involve stable modifications of chromatin, DNA or protein conformation. (2008-10-30)

Single-molecule dissection of developmental gene control
Scientists at EPFL and Max Plank have made significant discoveries on how developmental genes are controlled by the methyltransferase enzyme PRC2. The study is published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. (2017-10-23)

Chromatin changes rapidly in response to low oxygen, study finds
A study by the University of Liverpool reveals new insights into how cells respond to oxygen deprivation. Published in the prestigious journal Science, the researchers found that chromatin, the complex of DNA and proteins where all genes reside, quickly changes in response to low oxygen. (2019-03-20)

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