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Scientists model gene regulation with chromatin accessibility
Researchers from the Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science (AMSS) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have teamed up with Stanford University and Tsinghua University scientists to successfully model data on gene regulation with paired expression and chromatin accessibility (PECA) and have developed new tools to infer context-specific regulatory networks. (2017-06-06)

FSU-Cornell team defines meaningful part of maize genome
Using a genetic mapping technique developed at Florida State University, FSU and Cornell University researchers have shown that a small percentage of the entire maize genome is responsible for almost half of a plant's trait diversity. (2016-05-16)

At the crossroads
In the bone marrow, blood stem cells via precursor cells give rise to a variety of blood cell types with various functions: white blood cells, red blood cells, or blood platelets. In which cell type a cell develops depends on various factors. The correct dosage of the enzyme MOF at the right time triggers developmental programs in blood stem cells and precursor cells, and the cells differentiate into red blood cells. (2020-05-20)

'Acidic patch' regulates access to genetic information
Researchers at Princeton Universityhave uncovered new details about the way in which DNA, which is tightly packed into the cell's nucleus, is unwound so that it can be read and transcribed into proteins. (2017-08-14)

UC San Diego engineer provides insights to decades-old DNA squabble
A group of nanoengineers, biologists and physicists have used innovative approaches to deduce the internal structure of chromatin, a key player in DNA regulation, to reconcile a longstanding controversy in this field. This new finding could unlock the mystery behind the origin of many diseases such as cancer. (2009-07-31)

A common thread links multiple human cognitive disorders
A new study reveals that a common underlying mechanism is shared by a group of previously unrelated disorders which all cause complex defects in brain development and function. Now, research, published by Cell Press in the February 16th issue of the journal Developmental Cell, helps to explain why these different chromatin abnormalities all interfere with proper gene expression patterns necessary for normal development and mature brain function. (2010-02-15)

Nuclear architecture: What organizes the genome in the nucleus?
Spatial separation of active from inactive fractions of the genome in the cell nucleus is crucial for gene expression control. A new study uncovers leading mechanisms of such separation and turns our picture of the nucleus upside down. (2019-06-06)

Tracking genes' remote controls
Inside each cell's nucleus, genetic sequences known as enhancers act like remote controls, switching genes on and off. Scientists at EMBL Heidelberg can now see -- and predict -- exactly when each remote control is itself activated, in a real embryo. Their work is published today in Nature Genetics. (2012-01-09)

Scientists confirm that chromosomes are formed by stacked layers
A new study based on electron microscopy techniques at low temperatures demonstrates that, during mitosis, chromosome DNA is packed in stacked layers of chromatin. The research, published in EMBO Journal, confirms a surprising structure proposed by UAB researchers over a decade ago, but criticized due to the limitations of the technique used. (2019-01-08)

Unpacking condensins' function in embryonic stem cells
Regulatory proteins common to all eukaryotic cells can have additional, unique functions in embryonic stem cells, according to a study in the Feb. 22 issue of the Journal of Cell Biology. If cancer progenitor cells -- which function similarly to stem cells -- are shown to rely on these regulatory proteins in the same way, it may be possible to target them therapeutically without harming healthy neighboring cells. (2010-02-22)

Discovery finds a cellular building block acts as a gel, not liquid as previously believed
University of Alberta researchers have found an answer to a fundamental question in genomic biology that has eluded scientists since the discovery of DNA: Within the nucleus of our cells, is the complex package of DNA and proteins called chromatin a solid or a liquid? The team found that chromatin is actually more like a gel. This new understanding could lead to a more accurate understanding of how the genome is encoded and decoded. (2020-12-18)

Gene 'switch' may explain DiGeorge syndrome severity
The discovery of a 'switch' that modifies a gene known to be essential for normal heart development could explain variations in the severity of birth defects in children with DiGeorge syndrome. Researchers from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute made the discovery while investigating foetal development in an animal model of DiGeorge syndrome. DiGeorge syndrome affects approximately one in 4,000 babies. (2012-08-23)

The isoforms of the HP1 protein regulate the organization and structure of heterochromatin
Researchers from the Epigenetics and Cancer Biology Program of the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), led by Dr. Àlex Vaquero, have elucidated the role of HP1 proteins in relation to chromatin structure and genome stability, distinguishing different functions based on the presence of different variants of this protein. The work, published in Cell Reports, was carried out in collaboration with other research groups in Europe and the United States. (2017-11-21)

Laser technique examines movement in nucleus of living cell
By colliding two laser beams head-on, scientists at the University of Illinois can measure the movement of chromatin (tiny packets of DNA) in the nucleus of a living cell. (2001-08-29)

Andalusian experts indicate new elements responsible for instability in chromosomes
The researchers state that RNA joins with DNA by chance or because of a disease, the structure of the chromatin, the protein envelope of the chromosomes is altered, causing breaks in the DNA. Gene mutations involved in the transcription and transport of RNA also cause damage in DNA, which they have shown is caused by changes in the chromatin. In these circumstances, the DNA cannot replicate itself naturally, generating replication stress, mutations and chromosome mutations. (2017-06-30)

TERRAs, the non-coding RNAs that protect telomeres, are important epigenetic regulators
Researchers at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) have taken an important step forward by discovering that TERRAs play a decisive role in the assembly of telomeric heterochromatin by interacting with components of the Polycomb complex 2 (PRC), an important epigenetic regulator of gene expression. (2018-04-25)

From happiness on Twitter to DNA organization
Twitter users who are happy tend to be more connected with other happy users. This is the confirmation of a property of social networks known as assortativity: a measure of to what extent people who tend to connect with each other share certain characteristics. A study conceived by researchers from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre has redefined this measure in order to better understand the 3-D organization of DNA inside the cell nucleus. (2016-08-03)

Mechanism identified behind enzyme involved in liver and other human cancers
To understand what has gone wrong when cancer occurs and to create new possibilities for treatment, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms behind what is happening at the cellular level. New research, which is now published in the journal Molecular Cell, explains how the motor of an enzyme in DNA damage repair is switched on and off and how these processes might go awry in cancer. (2017-12-07)

Understanding the molecular origin of epigenetic markers
The study published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society reveals the effect of lysine acetylation in histone tails. (2015-07-28)

In potentially important discovery, scientists find two forms of genetic material chromatin
Biologists have discovered what appear to be fundamental differences in the physical properties of the genetic material known as chromatin. Chromatin packages DNA into cells, and the scientists found the differences between chromatin that packages genes and the chromatin that packages DNA with regulatory or unknown functions. Made in yeast, the discovery offers broad potential uses, said Dr. Jason D. Lieb, a University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill biologist and a report author. (2003-05-13)

NCCS scientists discover gene regulation is dependent on protein ANP32E
A team of scientists from the National Cancer Centre Singapore, the Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire (Strassbourg France), and the Institut Albert Bonniot (Grenoble, France) have made an important finding on how genes are regulated. The discovery used a genetically modified mouse to demonstrate that the architecture of DNA in the living cell is maintained in part by a protein called ANP32E. (2014-01-23)

DNA-altering enzyme is essential for blood cell development
In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Scott Hiebert and colleagues at Vanderbilt University examined the role of HDAC3 in the development of blood cells by disrupting its expression in mice. (2013-06-10)

Dynamic DNA helps ward off gene damage, study reveals
Researchers have identified properties in DNA's protective structure that could transform the way scientists think about the human genome. Experts say the findings -- published in the journal Cell -- are crucial to understanding genome damage and could impact current thinking on DNA-linked diseases, including cancers. (2017-06-15)

The importance of keeping silent...in breast cancer cells
Researchers at the Centre for Genomic Regulation describe a repression mechanism active in hormone-dependent breast cancer cells for the first time. The repression complex of these cells silences genes related with cell proliferation and death, two key processes in cancer. The discovery contributes new knowledge on gene-silencing mechanisms and will help identify new targets for possible future treatments. (2016-07-07)

Active deformations of cell nuclei contribute to intra-nuclear architecture formations
A Japanese researcher has investigated the contributions of active deformation dynamics of cell nuclei using the Brownian motion theory. (2015-10-18)

Biochemistry: Unspooling DNA from nucleosomal disks
The tight wrapping of genomic DNA around nucleosomes in the cell nucleus makes it unavailable for gene expression. A team of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet in Munich now describes a mechanism that allows chromosomal DNA to be locally displaced from nucleosomes for transcription. (2013-05-23)

Crystal structure of archael chromatin clarified in new study
Researchers at the RIKEN SPring-8 Center in Harima, Japan have clarified for the first time how chromatin in archaea, one of the three evolutionary branches of organisms in nature, binds to DNA. The results offer valuable clues into the evolution of chromatin structure in multi-cellular organisms and promise insights into how abnormalities in such structure can contribute to cancers and gene disorders. (2012-03-07)

Enzyme controls transport of genomic building blocks
Our DNA and its architecture are duplicated every time our cells divide. Histone proteins are key building blocks of this architecture and contain gene regulatory information. Danish researchers show how an enzyme controls reliable and high-speed delivery of histones to DNA copying hubs in our cells. This shuttling mechanism is crucial to maintain normal function of our genes and prevent diseases as cancer. The results are published in the journal Nature Communications. (2014-03-06)

Dynamics of DNA replication revealed at the nanoscale
Using super-resolution technology a University of Technology Sydney led team has directly visualised the process of DNA replication in single human cells. (2020-06-25)

Raising the alarm when DNA goes bad
Scientists have known for a long time that when DNA is damaged, a key enzyme sets off a cellular (2009-08-13)

Decoding a new sign in chromatin maze:
A research team led by Dr Xiang David Li, Associate Professor from the Department of Chemistry revealed a new fundamental mechanism by which a cell can make necessary changes in its chromatin structure in response to different DNA-associated processes such as gene expression and DNA damage repair. The findings were recently published in the prestigious scientific journal Molecular Cell. (2019-09-24)

New RNA mapping technique shows how RNA interacts with chromatin in the genome
A group led by scientists from the RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS) in Japan have developed a new method, RADICL-seq, which allows scientists to better understand how RNA interacts with the genome through chromatin--the structure in which the genome is organized. (2020-02-25)

Gene transcription machinery constrains DNA movements, study suggests
Researchers in Japan have discovered that the DNA inside human cells moves around less when its genes are active. The study, which will be published March 1 in the Journal of Cell Biology, suggests that RNA polymerase II -- the key enzyme required to produce messenger RNA molecules from active genes -- restricts the movement of DNA by organizing it into a network of interconnected domains. (2019-03-01)

Open chromatin profiling key to identifying leukemia cells of origin
Researchers have found a precise and reliable way -- whole-genome profiling of open chromatin -- to identify the kind of cell that leads to a given case of leukemia, a valuable key to cancer prognosis and outcome. (2016-07-11)

Potential new treatment for Fragile X targets one gene to affect many
Scientists found that inhibiting a regulatory protein alters the intricate signaling chemistry that is responsible for many of the disease's symptoms. The findings provide a path to possible therapeutics for disorders associated with Fragile X. (2017-11-03)

Tracking the molecular pathway to mixed-lineage leukemia
The MLL-AF4 fusion protein, which causes the blood cancer called mixed-lineage leukemia, binds to several genes responsible for early blood cell development. MLL-AF4 also alters the chromatin proteins associated with these genes, a state that is associated with cancer and leukemia progression. Patients with mixed-lineage leukemia have a very poor prognosis. Understanding the molecular pathway for how the MLL-AF4 protein interacts with genes may lead to future gene-targeted therapies. (2008-12-15)

Putting the squeeze on sperm DNA
Scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg and Grenoble, the Institut de Biologie Structurale and the Institut Albert Bonniot, both also in Grenoble, have been studying the secrets of speedy sperm. Their work, published today in Nature, shows how a protein only found in developing sperm cells, Brdt, directs tight re-packaging of sperm DNA. (2009-09-30)

U. Va. scientists find new piece of gene expression puzzle
Scientists at the University of Virginia Health System have identified another step in the mysterious process of gene regulation -- what turns genes on or off, making them cause or suppress disease and other physical developments in humans. As reported in this week's issue of the scientific journal Nature, a chemical group called ubiquitin has been shown to lie upstream of a switch that seems to control whether a gene is on or off. (2002-06-27)

Selective protection of genetic information by epigenetic system
DNA is replicated to pass genetic information to the daughter cells during cell proliferation. Replication errors, if not repaired, can lead to genetic mutations. For an individual organism, some DNA mutations may cause disease, even lethality. Robust DNA repair system exists in cells to ensure efficient correction of replication errors, to safeguard genetic fidelity. However, a small percentage of replication errors escapes from DNA repair, and provides an important basis for evolution. (2016-08-26)

University of Colorado Cancer Center genetically sequences most common bladder cancer
University of Colorado Cancer Center conducts first ever genetic sequencing of most common bladder cancer. (2011-08-11)

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