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NIH researchers identify genetic elements influencing the risk of type 2 diabetes
A team led by researchers at the National Human Genome Research Institute has captured the most comprehensive snapshot to date of DNA regions that regulate genes in human pancreatic islet cells. The study highlights the importance of genome regulatory sequences in human health and disease, particularly type 2 diabetes. The findings appear Nov. 3 in Cell Metabolism. (2010-11-02)

Scientists provide new insights into gene regulation
Researchers at the University of Leicester have solved the three-dimensional structure of a gene repression complex that is known to play a role in cancer. (2016-04-26)

A Freiburg research team deciphers how stem cells decide their identity
Several hundred different cell types of the adult human body are formed during embryonic development, starting from just a few identical stem cells. The differentiation potential of the cells is progressively restricted in the course of this process, causing changes in their morphology and functions. (2019-12-03)

Study characterizes epigenetic signatures of autism in brain tissue
Neurons in the prefrontal cortex of individuals with autism show changes at numerous sites across the genome, according to a study being published Online First by the Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. (2011-11-07)

Rett syndrome drug shows promise in clinical trial
MIT neuroscientists report more detail on how the disease arises. (2014-06-23)

A new therapeutic target for metastatic and resistant prostate cancers
Researchers from IDIBELL and ICO showed that the most aggressive prostate tumors generate increasing levels of the NSD2 protein, which are related to tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. NSD2 inhibition could lead to the re-sensitization of those prostate tumors resistant to conventional antiandrogenic treatments. The study suggests an innovative, combined therapeutic approach that would include the administration of a NSD2 inhibitor drug together with conventional antiandrogenic drugs. (2018-12-05)

Once overlooked cellular messengers could combat antibiotic resistance
Children's National Hospital researchers for the first time have isolated bacterial extracellular vesicles from the blood of healthy donors, a critical step to better understanding the way gut bacteria communicate with the rest of the body via the bloodstream. (2020-03-18)

Researchers look into components of RNA silencing machinery
Up to 95 percent of a person's DNA is believed to be junk DNA. In order to prevent these relics of evolution from rearranging chromosomes and causing disease, natural mechanisms exist to silence them, according to contemporary theories of chromosome biology. (2004-07-27)

The ENCODE Project publishes new genomic insights in special issue of Genome Research
Genome Research publishes online and in print today a special issue dedicated to The ENCODE (ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements) Project, whose goal is to characterize all functional elements in the human genome. The entire issue will be freely available online on Sept. 6 to coordinate with additional ENCODE Consortium publications in Nature, Genome Biology, and other journals. (2012-09-05)

Vitamin D promotes fatty acid oxidation in zebrafish adipose tissue
1α,25(OH)2D3 is the principal active hormonal form of vitamin D3 and is responsible for most of VD's biological actions. a Chinese research team led by Professor Yin Zhan at the Institute of Hydrobiology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences discovered an inverse correlation between the plasma levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 and body lipid content during zebrafish development and aging. (2017-05-16)

USC researchers identify DNA mutation that occurs at beginning point of T-cell lymphoma
Researchers at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California (USC) have identified a key mechanism that causes chromosomes within blood cells to break -- an occurrence that marks the first step in the development of human lymphoma. (2009-06-11)

How the circadian clock regulates liver genes in time and space
EPFL scientists have carried out the first comprehensive study of how genes in the liver perform their metabolic functions in both space and time of day. Monitoring almost 5000 genes at the level of the individual cell across a 24-hour period, the researchers have modelled how the circadian clock and liver functions crosstalk throughout the day in sync with the feeding-fasting cycle. (2021-01-11)

Innovative mechanobiology research expands understanding of cells
Researchers have developed a new technology that allows them to probe cell changes without disturbing the cell's physiology -- a major advancement that helps scientists look more closely at cell changes to solve human health problems, according to a new paper in Cell Reports. This technology, known as deformation microscopy, allows scientists to more accurately assess the interplay between biological systems and the mechanical environment in treating musculoskeletal, cardiac and neural diseases. (2019-05-08)

Spinning-disk microscope offers window into the center of a cell
A new method of imaging cells is allowing scientists to see tiny structures inside the (2013-10-09)

Study validates Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome as a true representation of aging
Vision Genomics in collaboration with Insilico Medicine, and Howard University show that fibroblasts from Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome patients and normal aging individuals strongly resemble each other in their signaling pathway activation states, and establish Progeria as a true accelerated aging disease. (2015-01-26)

Plant Genetics 2003: Mechanisms of Genetic Variation
This conference on Plant Genetics will be the first of an annual series of specialist meetings sponsored by the American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB). The focus of this meeting will be on the nature and mechanisms of genetic variation and their effects on evolution of plant form and function, as well as on plant speciation and crop domestication. (2002-06-28)

WSU study may lead to greater understanding of human genome regulation
Victoria Meller, Ph.D., associate professor of biological sciences at Wayne State University, received $301,392 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health to investigate the role of a type of RNA in the X chromosome dosage compensation of Drosophila, or fruit flies. The findings are likely to improve the understanding of gene regulation in humans, which employ similar cellular tools to regulate their complex genome. (2011-03-04)

Study sheds more light on genes' 'on/off' switches
Regulation of genes by noncoding DNA might help explain the complex interplay between our environment and genetic expression. (2019-02-26)

Study points to possible treatment target for aggressive liver cancer in kids
A protein in the cell nucleus already targeted therapeutically for several types of cancer has now been linked to an aggressive form of pediatric liver cancer called hepatoblastoma (HBL), according to a study published in the Nature journal Communications Biology. Scientists at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center report that laboratory testing indicates the protein, PARP1, may be an effective treatment target for the cancer, but emphasize additional research is needed to verify this. (2018-06-11)

New insights into DNA repair process may spur better cancer therapies
By detailing a process required for repairing DNA breakage, scientists at the Duke Cancer Institute have gained a better understanding of how cells deal with the barrage of damage that can contribute to cancer and other diseases. (2013-09-30)

Messenger RNA with FLASH
A study from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has identified a key player in a molecular process essential for DNA replication within cells. (2009-10-22)

UNC researchers discover gene that suppresses herpesviruses
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus hide within the worldwide human population. While dormant in the vast majority of those infected, these active herpesviruses can develop into several forms of cancer. In an effort to understand and eventually develop treatments for these viruses, researchers at the University of North Carolina have identified a family of human genes known as Tousled-like kinases that play a key role in the suppression and activation of these viruses. (2013-02-13)

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