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Uncontrolled asthma attacks during pregnancy increase health risks for mothers and babies
Women with asthma who suffer severe symptoms while they are pregnant face higher risks of health problems both for themselves and their babies compared to women with well-controlled asthma, according to research published in the European Respiratory Journal. (2019-11-26)

Drexel study shows mismatched cuisine could make your meal more enjoyable
Ordering an Italian main course? According to a Drexel University food science researcher, if you want to be certain you'll enjoy your meal, you should probably get the spring rolls to start. Jacob Lahne, Ph,D,, an assistant professor in the Center for Hospitality and Sport Management, recently found that a categorical mismatch of cuisine could result in an overall more enjoyable meal. (2016-10-20)

Surprise finding uncovers balancing act between birth defects and cancer
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute researchers have made a surprise discovery about how subtle changes in the way cell survival is regulated during embryonic development can have drastic health implications. (2018-09-20)

Cost-effective imaging can determine patients' OSA risk and severity
Researchers from the Center for Sleep & Circadian Neurobiology aimed to reproducibly quantify pharyngeal structures by using digital morphometrics based on a laser ruler, and to assess differences between subjects with OSA and control subjects and associations with apnea-hypopnea index. (2017-09-12)

Sense of smell, pollution and neurological disease connection explored
A consensus is building that air pollution can cause neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, but how fine, sooty particles cause problems in the brain is still an unanswered question. Now a team of Penn State researchers, using mice, have found a possible way, but more research is still needed. (2019-07-01)

USC human speech study
USC researchers - in linguistics and engineering - have developed a new tool which captures orchestration of normal speech. The researchers believe their new technique may help people learn a foreign language, teach machines to speak more naturally and possibly suggest therapy for those with speech problems due to stroke. (2004-04-20)

Robotic device appears useful for surgical removal of cancer involving the tonsils
A new robotic surgery technique appears promising for the removal of cancer involving the tonsil region, according to a report in the December issue of Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. (2007-12-17)

Pitt researcher to co-direct national consortium on facial birth defects
University of Pittsburgh and University of Iowa researchers will lead a $9 million, five-year initiative to study the cause of facial birth defects. The FaceBase Consortium will create an encyclopedic database of how the faces of children develop. The hope is that this database will provide researchers with the information needed to intervene when facial development starts to go wrong or prevent it from happening in the first place. (2009-11-17)

Gender, insurance type tied to HPV infection in laryngeal cancer patients
HPV is more likely to be found in tumors of laryngeal cancer patients who are male and those with private health insurance, according to a new study from researchers at Henry Ford Hospital. The study also reveals that laryngeal cancer patients with Medicare, who tend to be 65 and older, have a lower prevalence of HPV, suggesting that HPV infection may be closely tied to age and changes in sexual behavior with younger generations. (2011-09-14)

JCI online early table of contents: May 15, 2008
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, May 15, 2008, in the JCI, including: Look to the future: new drug reduces one cause of vision loss; Genetic mutation causes seizures and an irregular heartbeat; The protein NPC1 polices macrophage cholesterol traffic; Mouse model might help individuals with the genetic disorder Costello syndrome; Turn off gene regulators to tune in to development; and others. (2008-05-15)

New research shows pre-existing diabetes in pregnancy greatly increases the risk of death of the fetus or infant child
New research shows that pre-existing diabetes in pregnant women greatly increases the risk of death of their unborn fetus by around 4.5 times compared with pregnant women without diabetes, and also almost doubles the risk of death of infants after birth. The research is published in Diabetologia, the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. (2013-11-27)

The Spanish plant that was classified by mistake
Surprisingly, there are still plant species waiting to be discovered in the Iberian Peninsula. Some are detected thanks to the latest study methods, and others, such as Linaria becerrae, are described when reinterpreting species which are already known. This new Málaga plant had been classified by mistake for 176 years. (2017-06-01)

Pushing through brain barriers
A Case Western Reserve University researcher is continuing his work building smaller, more capable microelectronics. Funded with a National Science Foundation CAREER grant, Pedram Mohseni, assistant professor of electrical engineering and computer science, aims to make real-time monitoring of high-speed brain functions a reality. (2009-10-21)

New substance selectively blocks Alzheimer's enzyme
For the first time, an international team headed by scientists from the University of Zurich has found a way to specifically inhibit an enzyme that is partly responsible for Alzheimer's disease. The method involves blocking only harmful processes, while other important functions remain intact. This paves the way for new drugs to be developed that don't cause any severe side effects. (2016-02-25)

Revolutionary nanotechnology illuminates brain cells at work
Scientists at the Carnegie Institution's Department of Plant Biology and Stanford University are the first to accurately measure the levels of important chemicals in single brain cells in real time. They used a process known as fluorescence resonance energy transfer, or FRET, and introduced nanosensors into nerve cells to measure the release of the neurotransmitter glutamate -- the major brain chemical that increases nerve-cell activity in mammalian brains and contributes to diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. (2005-05-30)

Imaging technology solves 400-year-old mystery
Using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), scientists have confirmed that scurvy killed nearly half of America's first colonists on Saint Croix Island 400 years ago, according to research presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). (2004-11-29)

The Institute of Ecosystem Studies recognized by the Wildlife Society
The Wildlife Society recently presented the Institute of Ecosystem Studies with a Certificate of Recognition for its Deer Management Program. Dr. John McDonald, president of the Wildlife Society's Northeast Section, commented, (2007-05-16)

Quintet of proteins forms new, early-warning blood test before heart attack strikes
A team of Johns Hopkins biochemists has identified a mixed bag of five key proteins out of thousands secreted into blood draining from the heart's blood vessels that may together or in certain quantities form the basis of a far more accurate early warning test than currently in use of impending heart attack in people with severely reduced blood flow, or ischemia. (2008-11-09)

More fast food means greater BMI
Americans are less willing to pay more for healthy dishes, less knowledgeable about healthy menu items, and more likely to consider healthy items bland tasting, finds a Temple University analysis. (2007-10-22)

Birth factors may predict schizophrenia in genetic subtype of schizophrenia
Low birth weight and preterm birth appear to increase the risk of schizophrenia among individuals with a genetic condition called the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, a new study from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health shows. (2015-08-13)

Mayo Clinic study finds complications in postoperative patients with sleep apnea
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome experienced a greater number of serious medical complications following elective knee or hip replacement surgery than patients without the syndrome, Mayo Clinic researchers report. (2001-09-11)

Research describes characteristics of young red Rioja Alavesa wine
Purple tones and an intense color in appearance while, on the palate, it has medium acidity and it is dry, balanced and with a hint of bitterness. Thus is the young red wine from the Rioja Alavesa, concluded Mr Iñaki Etaio, researcher at the Pharmacy Faculty of the University of the Basque Country, in his Ph.D.. (2010-02-15)

Chicago surgeon and dentist team up to pioneer bone-lengthening treatment in severe craniofacial patients--Bold new treatment improves facial symmetry
Co-directors of the Rush Craniofacial Center Dr. John W. Polley, chairman of plastic and reconstructive surgery, and Dr. Alvaro A. Figueroa, a dentist with extensive training in craniofacial anomalies and orthodontics, have pioneered a bone-lengthening treatment, known as distraction osteogenesis, for patients with congenital facial disorders. (2001-05-06)

A backup copy in the central brain: How fruit flies form orientation memory
Insects have a spatial orientation memory that helps them remember the location of their destination if they are briefly deflected from their route. Researchers at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz have examined how this working memory functions on the biochemical level in the case of Drosophila melanogaster. (2017-03-07)

3-D printing helps surgeons sharpen their craft
Surgical training is one more way University of Michigan researchers are using 3-D printing to advance the quality of care. (2017-04-11)

New study finds increased prevalence of left-handedness in children with facial development disorder
A new study by physician researchers from Hasbro Children's Hospital and Children's Hospital Boston has identified an increased prevalence in left-handedness in children with a congenital disorder known as hemifacial microsomia. The study was published in the March 2009 edition of the Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. (2009-03-02)

Chili-shaped device could reveal just how hot that pepper is
Some people love spicy food -- the hotter, the better. Others go out of their way to avoid the palate-singeing burn of capsaicin, the compound that gives chili peppers their kick. Now, researchers have developed a portable device (whimsically shaped like a chili pepper) that can reveal how much capsaicin a pepper contains, before biting into it. They report their results in ACS Applied Nano Materials. (2020-10-21)

New details on how a viral protein puts the brakes on virus replication
Researchers used computational chemistry, biochemistry and virology to uncover new information on how viruses such as West Nile, dengue and Zika replicate. (2020-02-07)

Identification of the first gene in posttraumatic stress disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common chronic anxiety disorder that follows exposure to traumatic events. A large twin study of Vietnam veterans had demonstrated a significant genetic contribution to chronic PTSD. The underlying genes, however, have not been described. Researchers at the Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center in Jerusalem now report that a dopamine transporter (DAT) gene may increase risk for PTSD. If replicated, findings suggest that genetically-determined changes in brain dopamine reactivity may contribute to the occurrence of PTSD among trauma survivors. (2002-09-23)

Molecular biology: Designer of protein factories exposed
For 10 years, Patrick Cramer and his colleagues at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet in Munich have probed the structure of RNA polymerase I, a crucial cog in the machinery of all cells. Now they unveil the full three-dimensional conformation of the enzyme -- at atomic resolution. (2013-10-24)

Loud and lazy but didn't chew gum: Ancient koalas
Skull fragments of prehistoric koalas from the Riversleigh rainforests of millions of year ago suggest they shared the modern koala's (2009-12-19)

Yale researchers find potential target for treatment and prevention of osteoporosis
By identifying a genetic mutation that causes extremely high bone density in people, Yale researchers have found a potential target for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis, it was reported Thursday in the New England Journal of Medicine. (2002-05-15)

Massive fangs and a death crush: How a 370 million year old tetrapod hunted and killed
The habits of a needle-toothed tetrapod which lived more than 370 million years ago have filled in a piece of the evolutionary puzzle after an international team of palaeontologists pieced together fossilised skeletons and found unusual characteristics such as a crocodile-like skull with high positioned eyes would have been used to 'keep an eye' on prey before it used its slender needle-like teeth and elastic jaw to snatch its kill and crush it to death. (2019-10-24)

The best way to market fine wine: Teach and learn or wine and dine?
According to new research, wine promoters may want to spend more money on brochures and fliers and less money on wine tastings as they market to novice wine drinkers. A recent study published in Cornell Hospitality Quarterly (a SAGE journal) finds that without teaching about the background and process of wine production, new wine drinkers can be more easily influenced by advertising to make their purchases than their experienced counterparts. (2011-11-22)

Brand preference may be in the drink, not in the head
Scientists are reporting the first identification of a chemical basis for people's preference for certain brands of vodka, which outsells rum, gin, whiskey and tequila. They found that vodka differs from simple water-ethanol solutions in ways that could alter vodka's perceived taste. Their findings appear in the American Chemical Society's biweekly Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. (2010-06-07)

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