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Celestial beauties
This is the story of a journey through space and time revealed by a telescope called Hubble. Already exceeding its original estimated lifetime of 15 years in orbit around the Earth, Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects of all time. Hubble: 15 Years of Discovery, published as part of the European Space Agency's 15th anniversary celebration, presents the exquisite color images for which the telescope has become famous. (2006-07-24)

Toddlers learn complex actions from picture-book reading, says new research
Parents who engage in the age-old tradition of picture-book reading are not only encouraging early reading development in their children but are also teaching their toddlers about the world around them, according to a study in the November issue of Developmental Psychology, published by the American Psychological Association (APA). This finding shows that interactions with life-like color pictures can aid in children's learning. (2006-11-05)

Water is surprisingly ordered on the nanoscale
Researchers from EPFL have shown that the surface of minuscule water drops with a 100 nm size is surprisingly ordered. At room temperature, the surface water molecules of these droplets have much stronger interactions than a normal water surface. The structural difference corresponds to a difference in temperature of -50°C, which may shed new light on a variety of atmospheric, biological and even geological processes. (2017-05-24)

Bringing the atomic world into full color
A French and Japanese research group has developed a new way of visualizing the atomic world by turning data scanned by an atomic force microscope into clear color images. The newly developed method, which enables observation of materials and substances like alloys, semiconductors, and chemical compounds in a relatively short time, holds promise of becoming widely used in the research and development of surfaces and devices. (2017-10-17)

Sweet insight: Discovery could speed drug development
In a new study, University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers have described a simple process to separate sugars from a carrier molecule, then attach them to a drug or other chemical. (2011-08-21)

Why some greens turn brown in historical paintings 
Enticed by the brilliant green hues of copper acetate and copper resinate, some painters in the Renaissance period incorporated these pigments into their masterpieces. However, by the 18th century, most artists had abandoned the colors because of their tendency to darken with time. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' journal Inorganic Chemistry have uncovered the chemistry behind the copper pigments' color change. (2019-10-02)

Making the 'irrelevant' relevant to understand memory and aging
Age alters memory. But in what ways, and why? These questions comprise a vast puzzle for neurologists and psychologists. A new study looked at one puzzle piece: how older and younger adults encode and recall distracting, or irrelevant, information. The results, published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association of Psychological Science, can help scientists better understand memory and aging. (2011-02-24)

Deep-sea crabs seek food using ultraviolet vision
Some deep-sea crabs have eyes sensitive to ultraviolet light, which they may use to snatch glowing plankton and stuff it in their mouths, a new Nova Southeastern University study suggests. (2012-09-06)

Give them a hand: Gesturing children perform well on cognitive tasks
Young children who use gestures outperform their peers in problem-solving tasks, says a study due to be published in the Aug., 2013 issue of Developmental Psychology. Children aged between two and five were asked to sort cards printed with colored shapes first by color, then by shape. Making this switch can be tricky but the study found that kids who gesture are more likely to make the mental switch and group the shapes accurately. (2013-07-26)

Shark and ray vision comes into focus
Until now, little has been known about the evolution of vision in cartilaginous fishes, particularly sharks and their genetic cousins, the rays. In a new study, it has been shown that all cartilaginous fishes, similar to the marine mammals, have lost the SWS1 and SWS2 opsin genes. Sharks and rays do contain both rod and cone photoreceptors; however rays possess two cone opsin genes whereas sharks have only one cone. Sharks therefore were found to have lost the ability to see colors. (2020-01-09)

High-security identification that cannot be counterfeited
Researchers from University of Tsukuba have used the principles that underpin the whispering-gallery effect to create an unbeatable anti-counterfeiting system. The researchers' system is a microchip consisting of two-step authentication. Step 1 is the visible pattern on the chip. Step 2 is the non-forgeable color fingerprint of the chip. These microchips will be useful for high-security authentication. (2020-05-26)

Sensor and detoxifier in one
Ozone is a problematic air pollutant that causes serious health problems. A newly developed material not only quickly and selectively indicates the presence of ozone, but also simultaneously renders the gas harmless. As reported by Chinese researchers in Angewandte Chemie, the porous '2-in-one systems' also function reliably in very humid air. (2021-02-05)

Stop on red! The effects of color may lie deep in evolution
Almost universally, red means stop. Red means danger. Red means hot. And analyzing the results in the 2004 Olympics, researchers have found that red also means dominance. Athletes wearing red prevailed more often than those wearing blue, especially in hand-to-hand sports like wrestling. (2011-06-08)

To improve dipstick diagnostic and environmental tests, just add tape
Simple paper-strip testing has the potential to tell us quickly what's in water, and other liquid samples from food, the environment and bodies -- but current tests don't handle solid samples well. Now researchers have developed a way to make these low-cost devices more versatile and reliable for analyzing both liquid and solid samples using adhesive tape. They report their approach in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. (2017-11-29)

Better than a hologram: Research produces 3-D images floating in 'thin air'
In the original Star Wars film, R2D2 projects an image of Princess Leia in distress. The iconic scene includes the line still famous 40 years later: 'Help me Obi Wan Kenobi, you're my only hope.' BYU electrical and computer engineering professor and holography expert Daniel Smalley has long had a goal to create the same type of 3-D image projection. In a paper published this week in Nature, Smalley details the method he has developed to do so. (2018-01-24)

Transparent, color solar cells fuse energy, beauty
Colorful, see-through solar cells invented at the University of Michigan could one day be used to make stained-glass windows, decorations and even shades that turn the sun's energy into electricity. (2014-03-03)

Tech increases microfluidic research data output 100-fold
Researchers have developed a technique that allows users to collect 100 times more spectrographic information per day from microfluidic devices, as compared to the previous industry standard. The novel technology has already led to a new discovery: the speed of mixing ingredients for quantum dots used in LEDs changes the color of light they emit -- even when all other variables are identical. (2017-11-07)

Staring contests are automatic: People lock eyes to establish dominance
Imagine that you're in a bar and you accidentally knock over your neighbor's beer. He turns around and stares at you, looking for confrontation. Do you buy him a new drink, or do you try to outstare him to make him back off? New research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, suggests that the dominance behavior exhibited by staring someone down can be reflexive. (2011-02-25)

Colistin-resistant gene detected in the US for the second time
For the second time, a clinical isolate of a bacterial pathogen has been detected in the US, which carries the colistin resistance gene, mcr-1. It may also be the first plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene to show up in the US. That would be concerning because plasmids, genetic elements that are independent of the host genome, often jump between different bacterial species, spreading any resistance genes they carry. The research is published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. (2016-07-11)

University of Pittsburgh scientists identify how brain 'gets ready' to perform
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine have identified the mechanism by which the brain prepares itself to solve a problem. Further, the research shows how different areas of the brain perform unique tasks in a team problem- solving effort. (2000-11-05)

Despite efforts, not all Latino immigrants accepted as 'white,' sociological study shows
While some Latino immigrants to the United States may be accepted as (2010-06-02)

A GPS from the chemistry set
Empa scientists teamed up with colleagues from Hungary, Japan and Scotland to develop a chemical 'processor' that reliably shows the fastest way through a City maze. As the method is basically faster than a satnav system, it could be useful in transport planning and logistics in the future, for instance, as the scientists report in the journal Langmuir. (2014-10-27)

Butterflies Help Reveal The Source Of Life's Little Luxuries
How the elephant got its trunk, the deer its antlers and the rattlesnake its rattles may seem like disparate questions of developmental biology, but the origins of these novelties, according to the genes of butterflies, may have much in common. (1999-01-21)

A guppy's spots formed by layers of color cells
At least three pigment cell types from multiple layers of skin contribute to the color patterns of male guppies. (2014-01-22)

Image or reality? Leaf research needs photos and lab analysis
Every picture tells a story, but the story digital photos tell about how forests respond to climate change could be incomplete, according to new research. A new study shows that the peak in forest greenness as captured by digital pictures does not necessarily correspond to direct measures of peak chlorophyll content in leaves, which is an indicator of photosynthesis. The research has significant implications for how scientists use digital photos to study forest canopies. (2014-01-22)

Why do animals, especially males, have so many different colors?
Why do so many animal species -- including fish, birds and insects -- display such rich diversity in coloration and other traits? In new research, Gregory Grether, UCLA professor of ecology and evolutionary biology, offers an answer. (2009-10-30)

Hair surface engineering to be advanced by nano vehicles
'Hair surface engineering: modification of fibrous materials of biological origin using functional ceramic nano containers', a project headed by Rawil Fakhrullin, is supported by the Russian Science Foundation. (2020-04-10)

Dartmouth researchers develop molecular switch that changes liquid crystal colors
Dartmouth researchers have developed a molecular switch that changes a liquid crystal's readout color based on a chemical input. This new development may open the way for using liquid crystals in detecting harmful gases, pathogens, explosives and other chemical substances. (2013-08-26)

Researchers publish Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map
Institute of Arctic Biology researcher Donald Walker and an international team of Arctic vegetation scientists have published the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM). The 11-year CAVM project, directed by Walker, who also heads IAB's Alaska Geobotany Center, involved vegetation scientists representing the six countries of the Arctic - Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, and the United States - to map the vegetation and associated characteristics of the circumpolar region, using a common base map. (2003-12-08)

Color-changing 'blast badge' detects exposure to explosive shock waves
Mimicking the reflective iridescence of a butterfly's wing, investigators have developed a color-changing patch that could be worn on soldiers' helmets and uniforms to indicate the strength of exposure to blasts from explosives in the field. Future studies aim to calibrate the color change to the intensity of exposure to provide an immediate read on the potential harm to the brain and the subsequent need for medical intervention. (2010-11-29)

One-of-a-kind? Or not. USU geneticist studies formation of new species
Using stick insects of the Timema genus, a multi-institution research team combined field experiments with genomics, including sequencing of more than 1,000 genomes, to study speciation. (2017-02-17)

Winged dinosaur Archaeopteryx dressed for flight
The iconic, winged dinosaur Archaeopteryx was dressed for flight, an international team of researchers led by Brown University has concluded. The group identified the color of the raven-sized creature's fossilized wing feather, determining it was black. The color and the structures that supplied the pigment suggest that Archaeopteryx's feathers were rigid and durable, which would have helped it to fly. Results appear in Nature Communications. (2012-01-24)

Engineers design color-changing compression bandage
Engineers at MIT have developed pressure-sensing photonic fibers that they have woven into a typical compression bandage. As the bandage is stretched, the fibers change color. Using a color chart, a caregiver can stretch a bandage until it matches the color for a desired pressure, before, say, wrapping it around a patient's leg. (2018-05-29)

Colorful, rare-patterned male guppies have survival advantage in the wild
Any owner of a freshwater aquarium likely has had guppies, those small brightly colored fish with a propensity for breeding. Now guppy populations manipulated in natural habitats in Trinidad have taught researchers an evolutionary lesson on the survival of a rare genetic trait. Males with rarest color patterns are more likely to survive predators. (2006-05-31)

Dismantling structural racism in nursing
Confronting the uncomfortable reality of systemic racism - the system that creates and maintains racial inequality in every facet of life for people of color - is having a national heyday. But calling out this injustice and doing something about it are two different things. (2020-09-09)

The making of mysterious mazes: how animals got their complex colorations
A researcher at Osaka University uncovered a simple mechanism underlying the intricate skin patterns of animals through comprehensive analyses of the diversity of fish colorations. (2020-12-02)

Vision: how perceptions survive in the face of ambiguity
Because we live in a visually complex world, one of the major tasks of vision is to resolve ambiguous information into a stable image of our surroundings. By presenting subjects with differing versions of visually ambiguous images, researchers have identified the factors that are important for perceptual stabilization, a process that allows the visual system to overcome conflicting information and maintain a steady perception of an image. (2004-06-07)

NASA celebrates a decade observing climate impacts on health of world's oceans
The NASA-managed Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor instrument settled into orbit around Earth in 1997 and took its first measurements of ocean color. A decade later, the satellite's data has proved instrumental in countless applications and helped researchers paint a picture of a changing climate. (2007-09-19)

Amazing light emission properties of gold lead to many applications
The discovery of unexpected light emission properties of gold by a Texas A&M University chemist is leading to a wide range of applications in medicine, genetics, and chemistry. (2000-11-30)

Evolution: Shifts in mating preference
In their efforts to identify the genetic basis for differences in mate choice that keep two co-existing species of butterfly separate, evolutionary biologists at Ludwig-Maximlians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have identified five candidate genes that are associated with divergence in visual mating preferences. (2020-10-06)

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