Cytokines Current Events | Page 22

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Myocarditis: Overshooting the mark
Researchers from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have shown that a protein called midkine, a member of the class of signaling molecules known as cytokines, is a key driver of inflammation in the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure in patients with myocarditis. (2019-01-28)

ILCregs play an important role in regulation of intestinal inflammation
Researchers from FAN Zusen's group at the Institute of Biophysics (IBP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have identified a regulatory subpopulation of ILCs (called ILCregs) that exist in the gut and harbor a unique genetic identity distinct from ILCs or regulatory T cells (Tregs). (2017-08-24)

International award honors discoveries in cellular and molecular immunology
Tadatsugu Taniguchi, PhD, professor and chairman of the Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan, is the recipient of the 10th annual Pezcoller Foundation American Association for Cancer Research International Award for Cancer Research, for his pioneering work in elucidating the complex genetic structure of the immune system, which has had a profound impact on cancer research and molecular immunology. (2006-03-20)

How our immune system detects broken DNA
Our immune system can detect when our own cells are damaged. This DNA damage can come from a variety of sources, such as the sun's UV rays, chemical agents like cigarette smoke, or from genotoxic drugs used in chemotherapy. The study found that DNA damage can lead to an immune response similar to that observed during viral infection. (2018-09-06)

Immune study offers treatment hope for arthritis patients
Arthritis and other inflammatory conditions could be helped by new insights into how the immune response is switched off. Scientists at the University of Edinburgh have discovered how compounds produced by the body's immune system help to dampen inflammation and prevent damage to healthy tissues. (2016-04-18)

Lack of a key enzyme dramatically increases resistance to sepsis
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute, The La Jolla Institute of Allergy and Immunology, and Merck Research Laboratories have uncovered a (2006-04-21)

Study finds differences in energy use by immune cells in ME/CFS
New findings published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation suggest that specific immune T cells from people with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) show disruptions in the way they produce energy. The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health. (2019-12-12)

Jefferson scientists discover a key protein regulator of inflammation and cell death
Researchers from the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson reported in Nature the discovery of a key protein component involved in inflammation. (2009-01-22)

Duke-NUS study uncovers why bats excel as viral reservoirs without getting sick
Study confirms bats adopt multiple strategies to reduce pro-inflammatory responses, thus mitigating potential immune-mediated tissue damage and disease. Findings provide important insights for medical research on human diseases. (2020-10-26)

Adenosine deaminase may help the immune system fight HIV on its own
New research findings published in the February 2016 issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology, suggest that a new therapeutic strategy for HIV may already be available by repurposing an existing prescription drug. The drug, an enzyme called adenosine deaminase, or ADA, ultimately may be able to activate the immune system against HIV and to help the immune system 'remember' the virus to prevent or quickly eliminate future infection. (2016-02-02)

Rodent study shows that chronic drinking can lead to severe pneumonia after surgery
Consistent alcohol consumption can impair immunity functions following surgery. A new rodent study has found that chronic drinking can result in a severe form of pneumonia following surgery. Study authors recommend that patients considering surgery control their drinking habits, and also be very honest with their doctors about their drinking habits, prior to surgery. (2008-02-03)

Air pollution may directly cause those year-round runny noses, according to a mouse study
Although human population studies have linked air pollution to chronic inflammation of nasal and sinus tissues, direct biological and molecular evidence for cause and effect has been scant. Now, Johns Hopkins researchers report that experiments in mice continually exposed to dirty air have revealed that direct biological effect. (2017-04-18)

Reducing inflammation protects stem cells during wound repair
Scientists have found a new way to protect stem cells from harsh inflammation during wound repair. In a study recently published in the journal Cytotherapy, researchers in India discovered that treating mice with a common anti-inflammatory drug called celecoxib promoted stem cell survival and healing when they injected the cells into wounds. (2017-07-20)

Weak immune response critical to disease that causes most infant hospitalizations
For the past four decades, medical science thought it knew how severe RSV infections arose. Scientists blamed an overreaction in the lungs by specific immune-system cells, T lymphocytes (also known as (2007-04-05)

Benefits of fish in moderation while pregnant outweigh risks for child
To eat or not to eat fish is a question that has long concerned pregnant women. Now, a new USC study shows that children whose mothers ate moderate amounts of fish during pregnancy were more likely to have a better metabolic profile -- despite the risk of exposure to mercury -- than children whose mothers ate fish rarely. (2020-03-16)

Peregrine's PS-targeting antibodies highlighted in AACR Annual Meeting studies
Preclinical studies presented at AACR further elucidate the unique immunomodulatory mechanisms contributing to the observed anti-tumor activity of phosphatidylserine (PS)-targeting antibodies in preclinical and clinical studies, providing insight into the multiple mechanisms that selectively destroy the blood vessels supporting tumor growth and spread and also act to reverse the ability of tumors to suppress the body's natural immune response, resulting in the mobilization of important inflammatory and other anti-tumor components of the immune system. (2009-04-21)

Monoclonal antibody appears effective and safe in asthma Phase IIa trial
A novel approach to obstructing the runaway inflammatory response implicated in some types of asthma has shown promise in a Phase IIa clinical trial, according to US researchers. (2013-05-21)

Novel role for spleen B cells in inflammatory response to bacterial toxins
University of Tsukuba-led researchers have identified a new role for marginal zone B lymphocytes in enhancing inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Marginal zone B cells were shown to produce pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Interleukin-6 production requires TLR4 signaling in relation to the antibody receptor Fcα/μR. These findings broaden understanding of marginal zone B cell function and interleukin-6 signaling in the immune system, which could be exploited to treat sepsis. (2016-05-09)

Macrophage-derived mediators may have potential as biomarkers for urinary stone risk
A balance between the activation of the inflammatory macrophages and suppression of the anti-inflammatory macrophages in the kidney may play a pivotal role in kidney stone formation. These macrophage-derived mediators may have potential as biomarkers to reflect the urinary stone risk, according to a new study from Japan, which was recently presented at the recent 2nd Meeting of the EAU Section of Urolithiasis and received Clinical Research Award. (2013-10-01)

Arthritis drugs could help prevent memory loss after surgery
Anti-inflammatory drugs currently used to treat diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis may also help prevent cognitive decline after surgery, according to a new study led by researchers at UCSF and colleagues at Imperial College, London. (2010-11-01)

Study: Brain's immune system could be harnessed to fight Alzheimer's
A new study appearing in the Journal of Neuroinflammation suggests that the brain's immune system could potentially be harnessed to help clear the amyloid plaques that are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. (2015-11-04)

Boston University engineer to use $2.5 million NIH grant to cells' reaction to physical force
A team led by Boston University Biomedical Engineer Bela Suki will use a $2.5 million NIH grant to study how stretching cells in a way that mimics natural forces affects their function. If preliminary indications are verified, scientists and medical researchers may have to re-think their approach to mechano-biology. (2009-09-24)

Scientists find key driver for treatment of deadly brain cancer
A factor in how malignant tumors spread may also be a key to treatment. (2016-01-08)

A skin graft for bad burns
To get a head start on healing burn wounds, biomedical engineers at Michigan Technological University turn to the body's natural network. They combine engineered stem cell sheets with split thickness skin grafts to do so. (2016-10-27)

Researchers seek clues to healing radiation scars
Cancer patients who suffer from a progressive, deep scarring of tissue following radiation treatment might benefit from a drug that's FDA-approved to treat vascular disease, according to a University of Rochester study published in this month's Journal of Clinical Oncology. (2004-06-08)

New biomarkers of multiple sclerosis pathogenesis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic debilitating inflammatory disease targeting the brain. The pathogenesis of MS remains largely unknown. It is believed that brain tissue damage is due to immune cells targeting and breaking up the myelin basic protein (MBP), which is essential for nerve cells function. (2017-05-19)

$10 million grant to support research on inflammation's role in heart disease
The Cardiovascular Research Institute (CVRI) of the University of Rochester Medical Center has received a $10 million Program Project grant to study how inflammatory processes increase heart attack risk. The grant, from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), will fund four projects chosen for their potential to result in new treatment approaches. (2005-08-17)

Breakthrough in managing yellow fever disease
Found in South America and sub-Saharan Africa, each year yellow fever results in 200,000 new cases and kills 30,000 people. About 900 million people are at risk of contracting the disease. Now a research team led by a biomedical scientist at UC Riverside has determined that the yellow fever virus, a hemorrhagic fever virus, replicates primarily in the liver; other organ failures that often follow in people with the disease are due to secondary effects. (2014-11-20)

Keck Medicine of USC scientists uncover 2 micro mechanisms that regulate immune system
A Keck Medicine of USC-led team of microbiologists has identified previously unknown interactions between critical proteins in the human immune response system, uncovering two independent regulatory mechanisms that keep the body's immune response in check. Their findings appear in the February 2014 edition of Cell Host & Microbe, the top peer-reviewed scientific journal that focuses on the study of cell-pathogen interaction. (2014-02-25)

Contradictory immune responses explain different therapeutic effects in rheumatoid arthritis
Using a humanized mouse model that mimics the effects of human rheumatoid arthritis (RA), researchers have discovered that cytokines in the immune system have both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses to RA that help explain why some patients respond to current therapy and others don't. By pinpointing the unique immune mechanisms involved in different forms of RA, the scientists hope to guide physicians toward more precise individualized diagnosis of RA patients and more effective therapies that target specific forms of the disease. (2005-11-04)

Glutamine supplements show promise in treating stomach ulcers
A study led by scientists at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology demonstrates that the amino acid glutamine, found in many foods as well as in dietary supplements, may prove beneficial in offsetting gastric damage caused by H. pylori infection. (2009-05-15)

Pathological mechanisms in congenital myotonic dystrophy unveiled
Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM) is a severe form of myotonic dystrophy characterized by muscle fiber immaturity not observed in adult DM, suggesting specific pathological mechanisms. However, the disease process of CDM has yet to be elucidated. A team of Osaka University-centered researchers recently found that the interleukin-6 (IL-6) myokine signaling pathway is upregulated in CDM muscles, indicating that enhanced RNA toxicity contributes to severe CDM phenotypes through aberrant IL-6 signaling. (2017-12-11)

More than a living syringe: Mosquito saliva alone triggers unexpected immune response
Mosquito saliva alone can trigger an unexpected variety of immune responses in an animal model of the human immune system. (2018-05-17)

Yoga can lower fatigue, inflammation in breast cancer survivors
Practicing yoga for as little as three months can reduce fatigue and lower inflammation in breast cancer survivors, according to new research. The more the women in the study practiced yoga, the better their results. (2014-01-27)

HPV infections in women eradicated by AHCC, Japanese mushroom extract
New research presented at the Society for Integrative Oncology Conference in Houston, showed for the first time that it's possible to eliminate HPV infection in women using AHCC, a readily available nutritional supplement. Results, presented by Dr. Judith A. Smith, Pharm.D., associate professor, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, was selected for special research platform presentation as 'Best of SIO.' HPV is associated with 99 percent of cervical cancers. (2014-10-29)

New molecular mechanism of neuropathic pain in mice
A research group from Hiroshima University demonstrated that the downregulation of spinal astrocyte connexin43 expression causes sustained neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. Controlling the Cx43 expression using pharmacological approaches or gene therapy might serve as novel therapeutic strategies ameliorate neurological disorders in general and neuropathic pain in particular. (2015-07-14)

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