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EARTH: 5 outstanding questions in Earth science
What are today's biggest unanswered questions in earth science? In the July issue of EARTH Magazine, experts from a variety of disciplines weigh in on what they consider to be the biggest unsolved mysteries across the geosciences and how they think we may solve them. (2012-06-27)

EARTH -- OPEC and oil: The next 50 years
Over the past five decades, OPEC has earned a reputation for being a powerful cartel that controls the world's oil production and prices -- but there are limits to OPEC's influence and wealth. In fact, many OPEC countries face grave problems, which are to some extent the result of their oil-income dependence. EARTH examines OPEC's past, current and future place in this world. Will OPEC continue to control the planet's oil for the next 50 years? (2011-01-05)

Baffin Island provides insights into origin of Earth's water
Analysis of lava from deep within Earth's mantle suggests that water-soaked dust grains present early in the solar system, as the planets were just beginning to form, are the source of our planet's water. (2015-11-12)

Did comets flood Earth's oceans?
Did the Earth form with water locked into its rocks, which then gradually leaked out over millions of years? Or did the occasional impacting comet provide the Earth's oceans? The Ptolemy experiment on Rosetta may just find out... (2004-06-16)

The Moon and Europe -- Rosetta OSIRIS images
As Rosetta closed in on Earth, swung by and then left on its course again, several instruments on the spacecraft were busy taking snaps. As it swung away, the OSIRIS camera also caught glimpses of the Moon. (2007-11-16)

NASA spacecraft capture an Earth directed coronal mass ejection
On Aug. 20, 2013 at 4:24 am EDT, the sun erupted with an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection or CME, a solar phenomenon which can send billions of tons of particles into space that can reach Earth one to three days later. (2013-08-20)

NASA spacecraft observe Nov. 20 solar eruption
On Nov. 20, 2012, at 7:09 a.m. EST, the sun erupted with a coronal mass ejection or CME. Not to be confused with a solar flare, a CME is a solar phenomenon that can send solar particles into space and can reach Earth one to three days later. When Earth-directed, CMEs can affect electronic systems in satellites and on Earth. (2012-11-20)

What everyone should know about Earth sciences summarized in free NSF-funded e-booklet
If you're clueless about petrology, paleobiology and plate tectonics, the National Science Foundation and the Earth Science Literacy Initiative have just released a free pamphlet offering a concise primer on what all Americans should know about the Earth sciences. (2009-06-04)

A speed gun for the Earth's insides
Researchers at the University of Bristol reveal today in the journal Nature that they have developed a seismological (2010-10-27)

U of M researchers unlock mystery of layer encircling the Earth's core
University of Minnesota associate professor of chemical engineering Renata Wentzcovitch and her team of researchers have confirmed the properties of a mineral (post-perovskite) that may form near the Earth's core in a layer called the D'' region. The work offers new insight for interpreting properties of this region. The D'' (Dee double prime) layer surrounds Earth's core and is between 0 and 186 miles thick. (2006-01-30)

Rosetta: Earth's true colors
True color images of Earth as seen by Rosetta's OSIRIS camera are now available. The pictures were taken on Nov. 13 during the swing-by, and on Nov. 15, as Rosetta left on its way to the outer solar system, after the swing-by. (2007-11-21)

EARTH: Still in a haze: Black carbon
Black carbon -- fine particles of soot in the atmosphere produced from the burning of fossil fuels or biomass -- a major contributor to the thick hazes of pollution hovering over cities around the world, has been known to be a health hazard for decades. But over the last decade, scientists have been examining in increasing detail the various ways in which these particles contribute to another hazard: heating up the planet. (2011-03-15)

NASA Earth system science meeting celebrates 20 years of discovery
Twenty years ago NASA embarked on a revolutionary new mission for its Earth science program: to study our home planet from space as an inter-related whole, rather than as individual parts. To acknowledge this milestone, NASA is holding a symposium June 22-24 to examine the accomplishments of 20 years of NASA's Earth system science program and discuss what discoveries and opportunities lay ahead. (2009-05-12)

Most of Earth's water was likely present before the moon-forming giant impact
Based on an extensive collection of lunar and terrestrial samples, a new study probing the elusive origins of the moon -- now typically thought to have formed from a collision between a proto-Earth and a solid impactor -- supports theories of a collision with extremely high energy. So high, in fact, that it resulted in nearly complete mixing of materials between the impactor and proto-Earth. (2018-03-28)

Successful Huygens test: last before separation
ESA's Huygens probe, now orbiting Saturn on board the NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini spacecraft, is in good health and successfully passed its sixteenth 'In-Flight Checkout' on 23 November 2004. (2004-11-23)

Scientists make new estimates of the deep carbon cycle
Over billions of years, the total carbon content of the outer part of the Earth -- in its mantle lithosphere, crust, oceans, and atmospheres -- has gradually increased, scientists reported this month in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Scientists Craig Manning of UCLA and Peter Kelemen of Columbia University present new analyses that represent an important advance in refining our understanding of Earth's deep carbon cycle. (2015-06-18)

New insights into the formation of Earth's crust
New research from Mauricio Ibanez-Mejia at the University of Rochester gives scientists better insight into the geological processes responsible for the formation of Earth's crust. Ibanez-Mejia and his colleague Francois Tissot at the California Institute of Technology, studied the isotopes of the element zirconium. They developed a tool that can help researchers gain further insights into the changing chemistry of magmas as they crystallize within Earth's crust. (2019-12-18)

NASA sees another Earth-directed CME
On Aug. 21, 2013 at 1:24 am EDT, the sun erupted with an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection, or CME, a solar phenomenon that can send billions of tons of particles into space and reach Earth one to three days later. These particles cannot travel through the atmosphere to harm humans on Earth, but they can affect electronic systems in satellites and on the ground. (2013-08-21)

Parts of the Earth's original crust remain in place today
Analysis of rock samples harvested from the Canadian Shield suggests the samples contain components of Earth's crust that existed more than 4.2 billion year ago. (2017-03-16)

Man-made changes bring about new epoch in Earth's history
Geologists from the University of Leicester propose that humankind has so altered the Earth that it has brought about an end to one epoch of Earth's history and marked the start of a new epoch. (2008-01-25)

Earth Science Week 2012 theme announced: 'Discovering Careers in the Earth Sciences'
The American Geosciences Institute is pleased to announce that the theme of Earth Science Week 2012 will be (2012-01-24)

Sun spits out a coronal mass ejection
At 11:24 p.m. EDT on Oct. 4, 2012, the sun unleashed a coronal mass ejection (CME). Not to be confused with a solar flare, which is a burst of light and radiation, CMEs are a phenomenon that can send solar particles into space and can reach Earth one to three days later. Experimental NASA research models show the CME to be traveling at about 400 miles per second. (2012-10-05)

'Super-deep' diamonds may hold new information about Earth's interior
Researchers believe that it is possible for natural diamonds to form at the base of the Earth's mantle. (2017-03-02)

Liverpool scientists awarded £1 million Leverhulme grant to explore Earth's deep interior
Scientists from the University of Liverpool are seeking to answer unsolved questions about Earth's core and mantle with a major research project supported by the Leverhulme Trust. (2017-03-21)

NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory catches lunar freeze frame
On March 6, NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory watched a lunar transit in space -- one in which the satellite's path made the Moon appear to stand still, then backtrack. (2019-03-07)

Super-Earths have long-lasting oceans
For life as we know it to develop on other planets, those planets would need liquid water, or oceans. Geologic evidence suggests that Earth's oceans have existed for nearly the entire history of our world. But would that be true of other planets, particularly super-Earths? New research suggests the answer is yes and that oceans on super-Earths, once established, can last for billions of years. (2015-01-05)

Earth's magnetic field really did reverse itself
NWO researchers have developed an improved method of identifying the magnetic signals in old geological strata. The researchers used the new method to show that the earth's magnetic field really did reverse itself ten million years ago. (2001-11-26)

Experiments cast doubt on how the Earth was formed
New geochemical research indicates that existing theories of the formation of the Earth may be mistaken. The work is presented at the Goldschmidt geochemistry conference in Paris. (2017-08-13)

McGill researchers find oldest rocks on Earth
McGill University researchers have discovered the oldest rocks on Earth -- a discovery which sheds more light on our planet's mysterious beginnings. These rocks, known as (2008-09-25)

A new look at the emerging earth system processes paradigm
Geoscientists and their colleagues in the natural sciences will soon discuss and debate a variety of controversies relating to earth system science as the Geological Society of America (GSA) and Geological Association of Canada (GAC) co-convene Earth System Processes 2, 8-11 August 2005, in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Support for the meeting is provided by NASA's Astrobiology Institute and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, with participation by the European Geosciences Union. (2005-03-14)

Observing the onset of a magnetic substorm
Magnetic substorms, the disruptions in geomagnetic activity that cause brightening of aurora, may sometimes be driven by a different process than generally thought, a new study in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics shows. (2014-09-02)

Earth: Finding new oil and gas frontiers
Where to next in the search for oil and gas? 'Earth' examines several possible new frontiers -- including the Arctic, the Falkland Islands, the Levant, Trinidad and Tobago and Sudan -- where oil and gas exploration are starting to take hold. One of those places, Sudan, is in the news for other reasons: South Sudan voted yesterday on whether to secede from North Sudan. (2011-01-10)

A rocky relationship: A history of Earth's continents breaking up and getting back together
A new study of rocks that formed billions of years ago lends fresh insight into how Earth's plate tectonics, or the movement of large pieces of Earth's outer shell, evolved over the planet's 4.56-billion-year history. (2019-08-07)

NASA sees sun emit an M6.5 flare
The M6.5 flare on the morning of April 11, 2013, was also associated with an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection (CME), another solar phenomenon that can send billions of tons of solar particles into space and can reach Earth one to three days later. CMEs can affect electronic systems in satellites and on the ground. Experimental NASA research models show that the CME began at 3:36 a.m. EDT on April 11, leaving the sun at over 600 miles per second. (2013-04-11)

Answer three questions and save half the world's biodiversity
A growing international movement called 'Half Earth' calls for preserving 50 percent of the world's biodiversity. In today's Nature News and Views, conservationists James Watson of WCS and the University of Queensland and Oscar Venter of the University of Northern British Columbia pose three questions that need to be answered to make this bold vision a reality. The authors say the answers should provide an effective framework for reaching Half-Earth by 2050. (2017-09-27)

The patchy weather in the center of the Earth
The temperature 3,000 kilometers below the surface of the Earth is much more varied than previously thought, scientists have found. The discovery of the regional variations in the lower mantle where it meets the core, which are up to three times greater than expected, will help scientists explain the structure of the Earth and how it formed. (2015-12-17)

Core work: Iron vapor gives clues to formation of Earth and moon
One of the world's most powerful radiation sources provides scientists clues about Earth's formation and how iron vaporizes. (2015-03-02)

Magma is the key to the moon's makeup
For more than a century, scientists have squabbled over how the Earth's moon formed. But researchers at Yale and in Japan say they may have the answer. (2019-04-29)

Magma-limestone interaction can trigger explosive volcanic eruptions -- and affect the global carbon cycle
In a new study researchers from Sweden and Italy show what happens when magma meets limestone on its way up to the surface. Magma-limestone interaction might help explain why volcanoes like Vesuvius in Italy and Merapi in Indonesia are particularly explosive and, moreover, it helps us to understand another source of natural carbon released to the atmosphere by volcanoes. (2016-08-08)

The days are getting longer
Scientists are studying past changes in sea level in order to make accurate future predictions of this consequence of climate change, and they're looking down to Earth's core to do so. 'In order to fully understand the sea-level change that has occurred in the past century, we need to understand the dynamics of the flow in Earth's core' says Mathieu Dumberry, a professor in physics at the University of Alberta. (2015-12-11)

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