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'Organs in a dish' pave the way for personalized medicine in gut and liver disease
One of the most exciting advancements in stem cell research has been the development of organoid systems, which are organ-like three-dimensional structures that mimic their corresponding organ in vivo. In this important review in Digestive and Liver Disease, published by Elsevier, scientists highlight some of the established and exciting novel uses for organoids or 'organs in a dish' in gastroenterology and hepatology and look towards the future in this exciting field. (2019-06-03)

New BioIVT research on botanical-drug interactions published in Applied In Vitro Toxicology
This study investigates the potential for clinically-relevant botanical-drug interactions (BDIs) with Boswellia serrata (Indian Frankincense), a botanical that is used as an anti-inflammatory supplement. The popularity of products containing B. serrata extract is growing. US retail sales of B. serrata reached $14.6 million in 2017 and it continues to move up the top 40 list of best-selling herbal supplements; it is currently ranked number 19. (2019-05-02)

Researchers discover key player in hepatitis A virus infection
University of North Carolina School of Medicine researchers designed experiments using gene-editing tools to discover how molecules called gangliosides serve as de facto gatekeepers to allow the virus entry into liver cells and trigger disease. (2020-05-26)

Chicken embryo development data obtained in FANTOM project
The work is a part of FANTOM and was funded by a Russian-Japanese grant provided by the Russian Science Foundation. The results were published in PLOS Biology. The third institution involved was Kumamoto University. (2017-09-30)

MiR-122 micromanages liver function
Emerging research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) they have diverse roles in normal physiology and disease. In this issue, two groups investigated the role of the predominant liver miRNA, miR-122, and determined that the molecule was critically involved in modulating fat and cholesterol metabolism, and may also have a tumor suppressive function in hepatocytes. (2012-07-23)

U of Minnesota study: Adult bone marrow stem cells can become liver cells
Researchers at the University of Minnesota Stem Cell Institute (SCI) have demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of adult bone marrow stem cells to differentiate in vitro as hepatocytes (liver cells) with hepatocyte phenotype and function. (2002-05-15)

Malaria against malaria: A pre-existing malaria infection can prevent a second infection
A team of researchers have found that pre-existing malaria prevents secondary infection by another Plasmodium strain, the parasite responsible for malaria, by restricting iron availability in the liver of the host. This discovery will be published this Sunday, May 15, in Nature Medicine and has important implications for the management and prevention of malaria, a condition which affects millions of individuals worldwide. (2011-05-15)

Stanford researchers demonstrate efficient method for converting fat cells to liver cells
In a feat of modern-day alchemy with huge potential for regenerative medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine scientists have developed a fast, efficient way to turn cells extracted from routine liposuction into liver cells. The advance is described in a study to be published Oct. 21 in Cell Transplantation. (2013-10-21)

Tracking a killer: Observing liver invasion by malarial parasites
Tiny parasites of the Plasmodium genus causes malaria. New details of the parasites' life cycle are uncovered through the use of intravital microscopy to observe the parasites' infiltration of the liver in an article published in the open-access journal PLoS Biology. (2005-05-23)

Modeling NAFLD with human pluripotent stem cell derived immature hepatocyte like cells
Researchers from the Institute for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine at the University Clinic of Düsseldorf have established an in vitro model system for investigating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study led by Professor James Adjaye has now been published in the journal Stem Cells and Development. (2016-06-29)

Clay supplements in dairy cows improve immune response to aflatoxin challenge, study says
In the fight against aflatoxin, dairy producers often turn to sequestering agents such as clay to reduce transference of the toxin into milk. It's an effective tactic, but a new study from the University of Illinois shows that clay has additional benefits for overall cow health. (2018-10-11)

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News reports on early ADMET use
Biotech and pharma companies are increasingly utilizing novel technologies to assess the druggability of test compounds early in the development cycle to avoid costly late clinical-stage attrition, according to Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News. By identifying absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity issues early, pharma also has the opportunity to increase the probability of success of its new drug development activities and reduce the time to market, reports the May 1 issue of GEN. (2008-05-05)

Bile acids, receptor key in regenerating livers
Bile must have been the most important thing in medicine for the physicians of ancient Greece and Rome. Yellow bile and black bile are half of the four humors that they believed made up the body, along with blood and phlegm. In their view, restoring health required correcting imbalances in these four components. Studies by researchers from Baylor College of Medicine in a report that appears in today's issue of the journal Science suggest that they may have been on the right track. (2006-04-13)

Scientists found out how nanoparticles kill cancer cells
Because of their unique properties, magnetic nanoparticles can be used for therapeutic diagnostics and personalized treatment of cancer diseases, as well as be an effective contrast agent for MRI examination and imaging of tumors. (2020-06-25)

JCI early table of contents for October 1, 2012
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, October 1, 2012, in the JCI: Sphingolipid metabolism contributes to diabetes-associated heart disease; Altered triglyceride metabolism in mice causes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Researchers identify inflammatory mediators in pancreatic cancer; Putting a (2012-10-01)

Lack of plasmodium surface-protein blocks mosquito infection
A previously unknown feature of the malaria parasite development has just been published in the journal Cell Host&Microbe. (2016-11-09)

Kazan researchers compare direct gene vs blood cell-mediated therapy of spinal cord injury
Compared with direct gene injection, cell-mediated GDNF gene delivery led to considerably more pronounced preservation of myelinated fibers in the remote segments of the spinal cord (5 vs 3 mm from the epicenter), and this might depend on the expansion of the therapeutic influence in cell-mediated therapy over long distances as a result of the migration of the transplanted cells. (2015-10-08)

Could the biological clock be a key ally in the fight against inflammatory disease?
What if the symptoms and seriousness of certain inflammatory diseases were linked to time of day? Researchers from Inserm have been working on this hypothesis, after noting that the seriousness and mortality associated with fulminant hepatitis were dependent on the time at which the disease was induced. Their study, conducted on human cells and mice, shows that the anti-inflammatory action of a biological clock protein could prevent the onset of fulminant hepatitis, by alleviating symptoms and increasing survival rates. (2018-01-26)

New vaccine for nicotine addiction
Researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College have developed and successfully tested in mice an innovative vaccine to treat nicotine addiction. (2012-06-27)

ESTEVE and UAB advance in their program to develop a cure for Sanfilippo A syndrome
ESTEVE has announced the signing of two agreements that will enable it to progress the development of its gene therapy for the treatment of Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPSIIIA or Sanfilippo A Syndrome) and begin a phase I/II clinical trial in 2015. This gene therapy program is being developed in a public-private partnership between ESTEVE and the research team of Fatima Bosch at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona CBATEG center. (2014-03-11)

What is the role of the omentum in regenerating the liver?
Although the liver is a unique tissue which can regenerate after an acute injury it has been a challenge to induce such regeneration after chronic liver disease. It is therefore important to study mechanisms of liver regeneration in order to devise new approaches to regenerate the liver following damage from chronic disease. Dr. Singh and his group from Chicago recently reported a novel methodology that can potentially induce new liver growth. (2009-03-07)

New device shows potential to enhance the viability of donor livers
A new device has demonstrated it has the potential to enhance the viability of donor livers for transplantation. Results revealed today at The International Liver Congress™ 2015 show that the transportable machine perfusion Airdrive® is able to effectively maintain the quality of livers derived from donation after circulatory death. (2015-04-23)

Bone marrow stem cells may one day help treat damaged livers
Research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis suggests that stem cells from bone marrow or umbilical cord blood may be useful for treating people with liver damage due to cirrhosis, viral infection, trauma, chemotherapy or radiation therapy. (2003-05-14)

Mass. General-based research center will investigate why immune system fails to control hepatitis C
A research consortium based at Massachusetts General Hospital has been awarded $15 million from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to investigate how the hepatitis C virus resists suppression and clearance by the immune system. (2009-07-22)

MicroRNAs grease the cell's circadian clockwork
In the June 1 issue of G&D, Dr. Ueli Schibler and colleagues reveal a role for the liver-specific microRNA, miR-122, in the circadian regulation of lipid metabolism. (2009-05-31)

Is 31P MRS a useful tool for evaluating early acute hepatic radiation injury?
31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been widely used to detect liver metabolism in vivo for decades. A research group from China investigated whether changes of 31P MRS in the liver with early acute radiation injury were related to the liver damage score (LDS) and pathologic changes. They found that 31P MRS is a useful method to evaluate early acute hepatic radiation injury. The relative quantification of hepatic ATP levels is correlated with LDS. (2009-06-23)

Sex matters ... even for liver cells
Female liver cells, and in particular those in menopaused women, are more susceptible to adverse effects of drugs than their male counterparts, according to new research carried out by the JRC. It is well known that women are more vulnerable when it comes to drug-induced liver effects, but it's the first time it has been shown that there are differences at cellular level. (2015-04-21)

Liver metabolism study could help patients awaiting transplants
In a new study that could help doctors extend the lives of patients awaiting liver transplants, a Rice University-led team of researchers examined the metabolic breakdown that takes place in liver cells during late-stage cirrhosis and found clues that suggest new treatments to delay liver failure. (2014-03-03)

New biotechnology for high efficiency purification of live human cells
Cell therapies require a purification step that isolates the desired cell types from contaminating cells. Normally cell surface receptors are used as markers to distinguish cell types, but undesired cell types also show these receptors, compromising purification. Evidence suggests microRNA may be a better marker. New biotechnology, miRNA switches, purifies different cell types based on miRNA markers at levels suggesting applicability to patient care. (2015-05-21)

Mechanisms in reversible infantile liver failure illuminated
Researchers in Japan have used a novel murine model to show that a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme MTU1 has strong effects on the liver and on embryonic development in general. (2016-12-26)

Induced liver regeneration enhances CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene repair
Use of thyroid hormone to boost hepatocyte proliferation enhanced the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene correction in the mouse liver. This dietary induction of hepatocyte regeneration may be a viable clinical strategy to enhance gene repair in the liver. (2020-11-10)

Scientists uncover mechanism that propels liver development after birth
Internal organs continue to develop for months and years after birth. This critical period is full of cellular changes that transform the organization and function of most tissues. But the exact mechanisms underlying postnatal organ maturation are still a mystery. Now researchers report that liver cells utilize a mechanism called 'alternative splicing,' which alters how genes are translated into the proteins that guide this critical period of development. (2015-11-04)

Mature liver cells generated from bone marrow study in mice turns embryology on its head; implications are multifold
New research shows that mature liver cells are found in bone marrow turning embryology on its head. The possibilities include generating artificial livers. (1999-12-21)

Scientists create most sophisticated human liver model yet
Scientists have developed the most sophisticated mini-livers to date. These organoids can potentially help scientists better understand certain congenital liver diseases as well as speed up efforts to create liver tissue in the lab for transplantation into patients. (2018-02-13)

New progress in developing an animal model of hepatitis C
Researchers studying hepatitis C virus have introduced small mutations into mouse liver cells to make the animals more susceptible to the virus, a step toward using mice in hepatitis C vaccine research. (2019-05-10)

Study: Damaged liver cells undergo reprogramming to regenerate
New research conducted by biochemists at the University of Illinois has determined how damaged liver cells repair and restore themselves through a signal to return to an early stage of postnatal organ development. (2018-09-26)

Study introduces mRNA-LNP as a safe therapeutic intervention for liver regeneration
When severely or chronically injured, the liver loses its ability to regenerate. A new study led by researchers at the Center for Regenerative Medicine at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) and Boston Medical Center (BMC) now describes a safe new potential therapeutic tool for the recovery of liver function in chronic and acute liver diseases. (2021-01-27)

JCI table of contents: Aug. 25, 2010
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for papers to be published Aug. 25, 2010, in the JCI: Applying stem cell technology to liver diseases; Antifreeze molecule enhances survival of bacteria-carrying ticks; Immune interference, an explanation for vaccine failure?; New cystic fibrosis models teach us about disease; and Long standing question in sperm biology answered. (2010-08-25)

Adult stem cells take root in livers and repair damage
Johns Hopkins researchers have demonstrated that human liver cells derived from adult cells coaxed into an embryonic state can engraft and begin regenerating liver tissue in mice with chronic liver damage. (2011-05-11)

Revealing the molecular mystery of human liver cells
A map of the cells in the human liver has been created by University Health Network Transplant Program and University of Toronto researchers, revealing for the first time differences between individual cells at the molecular level which can have a profound impact on their behaviour in tissue, tumours and disease. (2018-10-22)

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