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High frequency of potential entrapment gaps in hospital beds
A survey of beds within a large teaching hospital in Ireland has shown than many of them did not comply with dimensional standards put in place to minimize the risk of entrapment. The report, published online in the journal Age and Ageing, therefore emphasizes the need for careful selection of patients for whom bedrails are to be used, as well as the need for monitoring and maintenance of hospital bed systems. (2014-07-30)

Engineers elucidate why skin is resistant to tearing
A team of researchers from the University of California, San Diego and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have shown why skin is remarkably resistant to tearing. Using X-ray beams and electron microscopy, researchers made the first direct observations of the micro-scale mechanisms that allow skin to resist tearing. They identified four specific mechanisms in collagen, the main structural protein in skin tissue, that act together to diminish the effects of stress: rotation, straightening, stretching, and sliding. (2015-04-13)

Chinese scientists unlock structural secrets of whale baleen
Chinese scientists working with other researchers have for the first time uncovered the underlying mechanisms of the hierarchical structure of baleen, with an eye toward developing advanced engineered materials. (2018-11-21)

X-33 Liquid Oxygen Test Tank Ready For Stress Tests At NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center
A duplicate of a major component of the experimental X-33 technology demonstrator -- its liquid oxygen tank -- soon will undergo a series of stress tests at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. (1999-04-08)

Research indicates Alaska's Columbia Glacier will retreat 10 miles in next decade
New University of Colorado at Boulder research indicates the massive Columbia Glacier in Alaska will continue to increase its rate of recession over the next decade, possibly retreating as much as 10 miles in that time and creating a new fjord. (2001-12-11)

West Antarctic ice shelves tearing apart at the seams
A new study examining nearly 40 years of satellite imagery has revealed that the floating ice shelves of a critical portion of West Antarctica are steadily losing their grip on adjacent bay walls, potentially amplifying an already accelerating loss of ice to the sea. (2012-03-27)

New method for determining age of artifacts fills chronological gap for scientists
A UC Irvine archaeological scientist has created a new method for determining the approximate age of many artifacts between 50,000 to 100,000 years old - a period for which other dating methods are less effective. (2004-04-12)

'Robot blood' powers machines for lengthy tasks
Researchers at Cornell University have created a system of circulating liquid -- 'robot blood' -- within robotic structures, to store energy and power robotic applications for sophisticated, long-duration tasks. (2019-06-20)

Small is beautiful in hydroelectric power plant design, and good for the environment
Imagine a hydroelectric power plant barely visible above water that eases the passage of fish in both directions; so simple and cost-efficient that it makes economic sense in sites with a one- or two-meter drop in water height; that could therefore subsidize ecologically motivated dam modifications with local, renewable energy; and which could bring economical, ecological hydroelectric power to developing regions. Researchers at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen did, and developed it: the shaft power plant. (2010-10-20)

Trial shows that sand playground surfaces reduce risk of arm fractures from falls
School playgrounds fitted with granite sand surfacing significantly reduce the risk of children fracturing arms in comparison with wood fiber surfaces, according to a randomized trial published this week in the open-access journal PLoS Medicine. (2009-12-14)

Australian fossil forces rethink on our ancestors' emergence onto land
The fossil's age raises the possibility that the first animals to emerge from the water to live on land were large tetrapods in Gondwana in the southern hemisphere, rather than smaller species in Europe. (2015-06-04)

Super-small needle technology for the brain
A research team at Toyohashi University of Technology has developed a methodology for brain penetration using sub-5 μm diameter flexible needles. This should further reduce invasiveness and provide tissue penetrations hardly broken than conventional approaches. (2015-08-10)

Hydrothermal vent systems could have persisted for millions of years, incubated early life
The staying power of sea-floor hydrothermal vent systems like the bizarre Lost City vent field is one reason they also may have been incubators of Earth's earliest life, scientists report in a paper published in the July 25 issue of Science. (2003-07-24)

Wastewater injection spurred biggest earthquake yet, says study
A new study is the latest to tie a string of unusual earthquakes, in this case, in central Oklahoma, to injection of wastewater underground. Researchers now say that the magnitude 5.7 earthquake near Prague, Okla., on Nov. 6, 2011, may also be the largest ever linked to wastewater injection. Felt more than 800 miles away, the quake--the biggest ever recorded in Oklahoma--destroyed 14 homes, buckled a highway and left two people injured. Earthquakes continue to be recorded in the area. (2013-03-26)

We must accelerate transitions for sustainability and climate change, experts say
We must move faster towards a low-carbon world if we are to limit global warming to 2 degrees C this century, experts have warned. (2017-09-21)

A 40-year-old catalyst unveils its secrets
Activity of the industrial catalyst TS-1 relies on titanium pairs / important discovery for catalyst development (2020-11-02)

Trading farmland for nitrogen protection
Excess nitrogen from agricultural runoff can enter surface waters with devastating effects. Algal blooms and fish kills are a just a couple of possible consequences. But riparian buffer zones -- areas of grasses, perennials, or trees -- between farmlands and streams or rivers can help. (2016-08-03)

Ben-Gurion U. researchers reveal that organic agriculture can pollute groundwater
According to the paper intensive organic matter using composted manure prior to planting resulted in significantly higher groundwater pollution rates compared with liquid fertilization techniques. The study used Vadose Zone Monitoring System technology developed at BGU and commercialized by Sensoil Innovations Ltd. to compare the water quality across the entire unsaturated zone under organic and conventional greenhouses in Israel. (2014-02-17)

Revealing a novel mode of action for an osteoporosis drug
Raloxifene is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for decreasing fracture risk in osteoporosis. While raloxifene is as effective at reducing fracture risk as other current treatments, this works only partially by suppressing bone loss. X-ray studies revealed an additional mechanism underlying raloxifene action, providing an explanation for how this drug can achieve equivalent clinical benefit. (2014-08-29)

Drought-induced tree mortality accelerating in forests
Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have found that drought and heat-induced tree mortality is accelerating in many forest biomes as a consequence of a warming climate in their paper 'Darcy's law predicts widespread forest mortality under climate warming,' published in the journal Nature Climate Change. (2015-05-19)

Dr. Thomas Rossby receives Walter Munk Award for research Related to Sound and the Sea
Dr. Thomas Rossby of the University of Rhode Island will receive the Walter Munk Award for distinguished research in oceanography related to sound and the sea. The presentation will take place June 4, 2003, at The Oceanography Society-Oceanology International Americas Ocean Conference in New Orleans. (2003-06-02)

New pilot safety system could save lives
The skills of two heroic pilots who crash-landed a plane in 1989, saving many lives, have inspired the development of an American system that could one day let a plane's autopilot fly and land the plane using only engine power. (2000-10-17)

New water-quality data on impact of corn, soybeans on nitrate in Iowa streams
As Iowa farmers have planted more acres of corn to meet the demand driven by the corn-based ethanol industry, many models predicted that nitrate concentrations in Iowa streams would increase accordingly. However, recent University of Iowa research based on water monitoring and published in the Journal of Soil and Water Conservation casts doubt on these predictions. (2016-05-24)

Radar images show large swath of Texas oil patch is heaving and sinking at alarming rates
Radar satellite images show a large swath of Texas oil patch is heaving and sinking at alarming rates, according to a geophysical team from Southern Methodist University. Analysis of the images with oil activity data from the Texas Railroad Commission suggests decades of oil activity have destabilized localities of the 4,000-square-mile area, which is populated by small towns, roadways and a vast network of oil and gas pipelines and storage tanks. (2018-03-21)

NIST finds that ethanol-loving bacteria accelerate cracking of pipeline steels
US production of ethanol for fuel has been rising quickly. NIST researchers caution that ethanol, and especially the bacteria sometimes found in it, can dramatically degrade pipelines. (2011-08-03)

Ice loss accelerating in Greenland's coastal glaciers, Dartmouth study finds
Surface meltwater draining through and underneath Greenland's tidewater glaciers is accelerating their loss of ice mass, according to a Dartmouth study that sheds light on the relationship between meltwater and subglacial discharge. (2016-04-28)

Artificial 'muscles' achieve powerful pulling force
As a cucumber plant grows, it sprouts tightly coiled tendrils that seek out supports in order to pull the plant upward. This ensures the plant receives as much sunlight exposure as possible. Now, researchers at MIT have found a way to imitate this coiling-and-pulling mechanism to produce contracting fibers that could be used as artificial muscles for robots, prosthetic limbs, or other mechanical and biomedical applications. (2019-07-11)

New evidence on lightning strikes: Mountains a lot less stable than we think
Lightning strikes causing rocks to explode have for the first time been shown to play a huge role in shaping mountain landscapes in southern Africa, debunking previous assumptions that angular rock formations were necessarily caused by cold temperatures, and proving that mountains are a lot less stable than we think. (2013-10-15)

ONR-funded researchers examine new approaches for aircraft operations aboard carriers
An Office of Naval Research-sponsored effort to examine how aircraft carrier flight deck crews will manage manned and unmanned air vehicles completed a successful live demonstration, ONR announced July 13. The Deck operations Course of Action Planner (DCAP) demonstration was performed at the Humans and Automation Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. DCAP is a software tool designed to aid in planning on aircraft carrier flight decks -- a congested and often times chaotic environment. (2011-07-13)

Made-to-measure silicon building blocks
Silicones are synthetic materials used in a broad range of applications. Thanks to the stability of the silicon-oxygen bond, they are resistant to chemicals and environmental influences and also harmless from a physiological point of view. As a result, silicones contribute to making everyday life easier in almost all areas. In the Journal of the American Chemical Society, chemists at Goethe University Frankfurt have now described a new way to produce long-awaited silicon building blocks in a simple and efficient way. (2018-07-24)

More than 31 freshwater species have 'moved' to Galicia over past century
Galician researchers have studied the evolution in the introduction of non-native fresh water species in Galicia over the past century, and have compared this with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula. The results show that 31 exotic aquatic species out of the 88 recorded for the entire Iberian Peninsula have become established in the region over the past century. (2011-01-13)

Mathematical analysis explains transpiration-driven sap flow in coniferous trees
The exact science of tree sap transport has puzzled plant physiologists for many years. Sap's migration throughout tree trunks and branches is linked heavily to transpiration, the movement and subsequent evaporation of moisture from plants. In an article publishing this week in the SIAM Journal of Applied Mathematics, Bebart M. Janbek and John M. Stockie present a multidimensional porous medium model that measures sap flow within a tree stem. (2018-07-26)

Low concentrations of oxygen and nutrients slowing biodegradation of Exxon Valdez oil
The combination of low concentrations of oxygen and nutrients in the lower layers of the beaches of Alaska's Prince William Sound is slowing the aerobic biodegradation of oil remaining from the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill, according to researchers at Temple University. (2010-01-17)

Tailored methane measurement services are to be developed for shale gas extraction, municipal waste
Climate-KIC, Europe's largest public-private innovation partnership working to address the challenge of climate change, has awarded 1.266 million euros to FuME (Fugitive Methane Emissions), a new project that will help to identify fugitive methane emissions. (2013-12-16)

Antarctic ice shelf collapses in largest event of last 30 years
Recent satellite imagery analyzed at the National Snow and Ice Data Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder has revealed that the northern section of the Larsen B ice shelf, a large floating ice mass on the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula, has shattered and separated from the continent in the largest single event in a 30-year series of ice shelf retreats in the peninsula. (2002-03-18)

Massive Ocean Current May Provide Clues To Global Warming
Scientists aboard the world's largest scientific drill ship, the JOIDES Resolution, will soon study a cold-water current that today is 100 times the size of the mighty Amazon River. The geologists will set sail from Sydney, Australia, August 16 on an expedition supported in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF), a major contributor to the international Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), under the aegis of which the research will take place. (1998-08-04)

Thousands of meltwater lakes mapped on the east Antarctic ice sheet
The number of meltwater lakes on the surface of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is more significant than previously thought, according to new research. (2019-09-26)

Startup earns commercialization grant for new technology
GuidaBot, a joint venture between the University of Houston and Fannin Innovation Studio, has received a one-year, $225,000 grant from the National Science Foundation to develop and commercialize a robotic manipulator designed to work within the powerful magnetic field of an MRI machine. (2016-10-02)

'Smart' shock absorbers for quake-prone structures
Rice University structural engineering researchers are leading a new $1.6 million research program funded by the National Science Foundation to design a new generation of adaptive, (2008-09-09)

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