Macrophages Current Events

Macrophages Current Events, Macrophages News Articles.
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Immune cells play a role in early pregnancy
In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Sarah Robertson and colleagues at the University of Adelaide investigated the role of macrophages in early pregnancy. (2013-07-08)

Tuning macrophages a 'breakthrough' in cancer immunotherapy
A University of Colorado Cancer Center article in the journal Cancer Research describes 'tuning' macrophages from ones that repair wounds (and contribute to tumor growth) to ones that sterilize wounds (and contribute to the immune system's attack of tumor tissue). (2016-02-04)

Silence is golden -- Suppressing host response to Ebola virus may help to control infection
The Ebola virus causes a severe, often fatal illness when it infects the human body. Initially targeting cells of the immune system called macrophages, white blood cells that absorb and clear away pathogens, a new study has found a way to potentially 'silence' these Ebola virus-infected macrophages. The findings, which appear in the Journal of Virology, could lead to new treatment options for Ebola virus disease. (2017-03-22)

Retraining immune cells to kill tumors
Tumors escape destruction by immune cells by turning off their tumor killing functions. A team of scientists in the UK have now found a way to retrain the impotent cells into potent tumor destroyers. Their study will be published online May 19 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine. (2008-05-19)

Drug targeting technique could aid therapies for immune diseases
A new technique that targets drugs to specific cells could lead to improved therapies for diseases caused by an overactive immune response. The research from the University of Edinburgh could help people affected by conditions such as arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases, where the body's own immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues. (2017-09-25)

UCalgary researchers discover how to capture images of cells at work inside our lungs
University of Calgary scientists have discovered how to capture ''live'' images of immune cells inside the lungs. The group at the Cumming School of Medicine is the first in the world to find a way to record, in real time, how the immune system battles bacteria impacting the alveoli, or air sacs, in the lungs of mice. The discovery has already provided new insights about the immune systems' cleaners, called alveolar macrophages. (2020-09-03)

Scientists shed new light on the fight against cancer
The Leuven-based VIB researchers have revealed a mechanism that explains why the anti-tumor activity of specific immune cells called macrophages is suppressed during tumor growth. They have also demonstrated that blocking the protein Nrp1 can restore this anti-tumor immune response. This is a first. Nrp1 may provide an important hub for the development of new therapies against cancer. (2013-12-10)

Key immune system protein reduced in HIV-associated dementia patients
Researchers at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center and UCSF have discovered that an important protein normally secreted by macrophages, the scavenger cells of the immune system, is secreted at significantly reduced levels in patients with HIV-related dementia. (2004-05-19)

Why macrophages rest in healthy tissue
ETH scientists have shown that the immune system's macrophages are regulated not only biochemically, but mechanically as well. This could explain why the cells are less active in healthy tissue. (2018-11-20)

New path of origin for macrophages
Macrophages play a key role in the immune response. They differ depending on where they are located and which tasks they perform. A scientist at TUM has been investigating whether these different types of cells have the same origin. The study has revealed that there are two distinct macrophage cell lines that continue into adult life and that they have different origins. The research was recently published in Science magazine. (2012-05-02)

Late invasion of infected cells into the brain causes HIV dementia say Temple researchers
Dementia in AIDS patients is caused by a large, late invasion of HIV-infected macrophages into the brain, debunking a longstanding (2004-06-04)

Boosting the anti-inflammatory action of the immune system
Researchers have identified a molecular switch that causes macrophages to clean up cellular debris caused by infections instead of contributing to inflammation and tissue injury. (2019-07-30)

Researchers characterize important regulators of tissue inflammation, fibrosis and regeneration
Although macrophages (cells involved in the detection and destruction of bacteria and other harmful organisms as well as dead cells) are classified as immune cells functioning in the activation and resolution of tissue inflammation, it is now clear that they are critically involved in a variety of disease processes, such as chronic inflammatory diseases, tumor growth and metastasis and tissue fibrosis. (2020-08-10)

New Finding Underscores Importance Of Controlling Opportunistic Infection
One of the many questions surrounding AIDS has been where HIV comes from in the latter stages of the disease, when the patients have low CD4 T cell counts. This report identifies a source as tissues macrophages, and points to opportunistic infections as a trigger that sets off a wave of HIV production. (1997-06-19)

Uncovering the mechanisms that support the spread of ovarian cancer
In this issue of the JCI, research led by Wang Min at Yale University describes how a subtype of macrophages communicate with and support tumor cell growth to drive metastasis in ovarian cancer. (2016-10-10)

'Cells-soldiers' turned to be more resistant than 'cells-combat medics'
Researchers from Sechenov University (Russia) and University of Pittsburgh (USA) discovered that the resistance of innate immune cells, macrophages, to ferroptosis -- a type of programmed cell death -- depends on the type of their activation. It turned out that cells helping tissues to recover from inflammation were more vulnerable. The researchers identified the mechanisms underlying the cells' resistance and explained how this research would help regulate inflammation in a paper published in Nature Chemical Biology. (2020-05-16)

UNC researchers identify a new HIV reservoir
A UNC research team has identified a new cell in the body where HIV persists despite treatment. This discovery has major implications for cure research. (2017-04-17)

Temple virologist receives NIH grant to continue investigation of HIV dementia complex
Temple University virologist Jay Rappaport has been awarded a five-year, $2 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to continue his research into how AIDS patients develop dementia. (2004-06-02)

Immune cells proposed as HIV hideout don't last in primate model
New research from Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, sheds light on the question of which cells support viral replication and persistence, and the answers have implications for future efforts to eliminate HIV from the body in human patients. (2014-10-31)

Immune cells essential to establishing pregnancy
New research from the University of Adelaide shows for the first time that immune cells known as macrophages are critical to fertility by creating a healthy hormone environment in the uterus. (2013-07-08)

How the tuberculosis bacterium tricks the immune system
Scientists at EPFL have discovered how the tuberculosis bacterium can trick the patient's immune cells to lower their defenses. (2015-06-02)

Scientists reveal link between cell metabolism and the spread of cancer
A team led by Massimiliano Mazzone has demonstrated that the metabolism of macrophages, a particular type of white blood cell, can be attuned to prevent the spread of cancer. The key is in making these macrophages more prone to 'steal' sugar from the cells forming the tumor's blood vessels. As a result, these blood vessels will be structured more tightly, which can prevent cancer cells from spreading to other organs. (2016-10-20)

Macrophages from human lymphoma patients cause mouse lymphoma in mice, UCSF study finds
UCSF researchers have found that macrophages when taken from HIV-infected lymphoma patients and injected into mice, induced aggressive mouse T-cell lymphomas in the mice. Macrophages from healthy donors did not. (2002-09-30)

Air pollution thickens the blood
Air pollution, and especially particulate matter, thickens the blood and boosts inflammation, finds experimental research in Occupational and Environmental Medicine. (2005-02-20)

Discovery of long-lived macrophages in the intestine
Macrophages are specialised immune cells that destroy bacteria and other harmful organisms. KU Leuven scientists, Belgium, have come to the surprising conclusion that some macrophages in the intestines of mice can survive for quite some time. Most importantly, these long-lived macrophages are vital for the survival of the nerve cells of the gastrointestinal tract. This sheds new light on neurodegenerative conditions of the intestine, but also of the brain. (2018-08-30)

Funding for animal testing alternative
A researcher from Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry has received an award of £ 94,365 (Sterling) from the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research, for a pilot study to develop the lab-based creation of a type of mouse cell which could be used in place of the live animals for research related to infectious and allergic lung conditions. (2013-08-23)

Insights into how TB tricks the immune system could help combat the disease
Researchers have identified a potential way to manipulate the immune system to improve its ability to fight off tuberculosis (TB). TB is a major problem for both humans and cattle and the new findings could help scientists to create better drugs to combat the disease in both. (2013-10-23)

Genetic factor controls health-harming inflammation in obese
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have discovered a genetic factor that can regulate obesity-induced inflammation that contributes to chronic health problems. If they learn to control levels of the factor, (2011-06-13)

HIV/tuberculosis co-infection: Tunneling towards better diagnosis
1.2 million people in the world are co-infected by the bacteria which causes tuberculosis and AIDS. This combination is deadly: it makes patient diagnosis and treatment difficult, and increases the pathogenicity of these two infectious agents. A team led by researchers at the CNRS and Inserm have revealed that in the presence of tuberculosis, HIV-1 moves from one cell to the next via nanotubes which form between macrophages, drastically increasing the percentage of infected cells. (2019-03-26)

Testicular macrophages are guardians of fertility
The origin, development, and characteristics of two types of testicular macrophage have been described by a CNRS team at the Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy. To elucidate the nature of these immune cells, the researchers used a novel cell tracing method. Their findings were published on Aug. 7, 2017, in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, and are of fundamental importance. They may help understand certain kinds of infertility in men and find new treatments for them. (2017-08-11)

Steering cancer inflammation to inhibit tumor growth and spread
Most cancer tissues are invaded by inflammatory cells that either stimulate or inhibit the growth of the tumor, depending on what immune cells are involved. Now a Swedish-Belgian research team has shown that a protein that naturally occurs in the body, HRG, inhibits tumor growth and metastasis into secondary organs by activating specific immune cells. The study is being published today in the online edition of the prestigious journal Cancer Cell. (2011-01-06)

UNC School of Medicine researchers prove HIV targets tissue macrophages
Investigators in the Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine have clearly demonstrated that HIV infects and reproduces in macrophages, large white blood cells found in the liver, brain and connective tissues of the body. This discovery has significant implications for HIV cure research. (2016-03-08)

Zika infection of placental macrophages in culture
In this issue of JCI Insight, Erol Fikrig and colleagues at Yale University examined Zika virus infection of different cell types of the placenta, including cytotrophoblasts, placental macrophages, and fibroblasts. (2016-08-18)

Study shows how HIV breaches macrophage defenses, could be step towards cure
A team led by UCL researchers has identified how HIV is able to infect macrophages, a type of white blood cell integral to the immune system, despite the presence of a protective protein. They discovered a treatment that can maintain macrophage defenses which could be a key part of the puzzle of reaching a complete cure for HIV/AIDS. (2017-01-25)

Neuron guidance factor found to play a key role in immune cell function
Macrophages are white blood cells that perform different functions with different energy needs. M2-type macrophages have anti-inflammatory properties that may protect against inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the molecular pathways driving M2 formation are not fully understood. Researchers identified a protein commonly involved in nervous system development that plays a key role in metabolism of M2 macrophages and protecting against colitis symptoms in mice. The findings may lead to new therapeutic targets for inflammatory diseases. (2018-05-20)

Macrophage population activates repair in murine heart attack model
In this month's issue of the JCI, a team led by Ken Suzuki at the William Harvey Research Institute determined that tissue reparation after a heart attack depends on the production of a type of white blood cell called M2 macrophages. (2016-05-03)

Growing lymph vessels with macrophages? Surprisingly, yes!
When the cornea is inflamed, blood and lymphatic vessels grow into this normally avascular area. In a JCI study scientists find that innate immune cells, in particular macrophages, contribute to this vessel formation during abnormal corneal conditions. This suggests a new mechanism of the formation of lymph vessels, where macrophages are responsible during inflammation. A related commentary says, (2005-09-01)

Macrophage accumulation of triglycerides yields insights into atherosclerosis
A research report appearing in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology (http://www.jleukbio.org) helps explain how specific immune cells, called macrophages, accumulate triglycerides to support their function. Because a characteristic finding in atherosclerosis is the accumulation of fat in macrophages in the arterial wall, understanding how macrophages accumulate triglycerides may lead to new approaches toward slowing or stopping the development of atherosclerosis. (2012-10-01)

UCSB researchers discover shape matters to macrophages
Researchers at UC Santa Barbara have made a surprising discovery: phagocytosis depends more on particle shape than size. The research, which has far-reaching implications for immunology, vaccine development and drug delivery, is published today online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by Samir Mitragotri, a UCSB professor of chemical engineering, and a graduate student Julie A. Champion. The paper will be published in print on March 28. (2006-03-21)

New test can predict death in patients with serious liver disease
Researchers from Aarhus University Hospital and Aarhus University in Denmark have found that the biomarker CD163 can predict mortality in blood samples from patients with acute on chronic liver failure. (2016-04-01)

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