Neural Circuits Current Events

Neural Circuits Current Events, Neural Circuits News Articles.
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Mouse brain rewires its neural circuits to recuperate from damaged neural function after stroke
Japanese research group led by Professor Junichi Nabekura in National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Japan, found that, after cerebral stroke in one side of the mouse brain, another side of the brain rewires its neural circuits to recuperate from damaged neural function. The Japan Science and Technology Agency supported this study. They report their finding in Journal of Neuroscience, on Aug. 12, 2009. (2009-08-21)

Restoring paretic hand function via an artificial neural connection bridging spinal cord injury
Yukio Nishimura, Associate Professor of the National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Japan, and Eberhard Fetz, Professor and Steve Perlmuter, Research Associate Professor at the University of Washington, United States investigated the effects of introducing a novel artificial neural connection which bridged a spinal cord lesion in a paretic monkey. This allowed the monkey to electrically stimulate the spinal cord through volitionally controlled brain activity and thereby to restore volitional control of the paretic hand. (2013-04-11)

Eve Marder to receive the $500,000 Gruber Neuroscience Prize
Eve Marder, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience at Brandeis University, is the recipient of the 2013 Neuroscience Prize of The Gruber Foundation. Marder is being honored with this prestigious international award for her pioneering contributions to the understanding of neural circuits, particularly how the properties and dynamics of neural circuits give rise to specific behaviors. (2013-06-10)

Brandeis biologist wins top award in neuroscience
Brandeis University biology professor Eve Marder has won the Ralph W. Gerard Prize in Neuroscience for her outstanding contributions to the field. (2005-11-23)

Vertebrates share ancient neural circuitry for complex social behaviors, biologists find
Humans, fish and frogs share neural circuits responsible for a diversity of social behavior, from flashy mating displays to aggression and monogamy, that have existed for more than 450 million years, biologists at the University of Texas at Austin found. (2012-05-31)

Mapping the mind of worms
Dr. Kevin Collins carefully places a petri dish with what looks like a blotch of yellowish slime under a microscope. Magnified, the slime comes alive as hundreds of translucent worms, known as Caenorhabditis elegans, slither to and fro. (2017-01-18)

Brain induces preference for caloric food for energy storage
Given the choice between eating something caloric with an unpleasant taste and more palatable food with no calories, some vertebrates may choose the former, prioritizing energy to assure their survival. This finding comes from a study performed by researchers at Yale University in the United States, in collaboration with colleagues at the University of São Paulo's Biomedical Science Institute and the Federal University of the ABC's Center for Mathematics, Computation & Cognition in Brazil. (2016-03-24)

Prestigious Sloan Fellowship awarded
Chen aims to provide an insight into how the brain's wiring diagram is encoded in the genome, and how this program can go awry in mental disorders and mental retardation. (2011-02-23)

Adult myelination -- Wrapping up neuronal plasticity
The adult CNS is remarkably adaptable -- it retains the ability to generate and integrate new cells, and remodel pre-existing circuits. Intense research over the last 25 years has provided critical insight into the cell generation and differentiation potential of endogenous neural stem and progenitor cells, and has described three core CNS plasticity mechanisms. (2014-08-06)

Our brain has switch board to guide behavior in response to external stimuli
How do our brains combine information from the external world (sensory stimulation) with information on our internal state such as hunger, fear or stress? NERF-scientists demonstrate that the habenula, a specific part in our brain consisting of neural circuits, acts as a gate for sensory information, thus regulating behavior in response to external stimuli. (2014-02-14)

Researchers link genes and motor skills development
Genes for many may be widely associated with determining certain traits and characteristics. Now a study co-led by John H. Martin of The CUNY School of Medicine at The City College of New York is demonstrating that they could also influence neural motor skills. This could lead to new insights in the treatment of motor skills impairments such as Cerebral Palsy. (2017-08-10)

Boosting natural brain opioids may be a better way to treat anxiety: Research
Boosting natural brain opioids may be a better way to treat disabling emotions, says new research revealing their role in regulating critical brain circuits affecting fear and anxiety. (2017-03-22)

Novel methods for analyzing neural circuits for innate behaviors in insects
We established a method for activity-dependent visualization of neural circuits in the fruit fly brain. An optogenetic method for reactivation of those visualized neural circuits upon illumination was also established for their manipulation. With these methods, we identified a neural cluster important for behavioral motivation. It is expected that these methods and findings would contribute to elucidation of the neural basis of innate behaviors of insects and regulation of their behaviors. (2019-03-14)

Vanderbilt finding may aid recovery from spinal cord injury
Researchers in the Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science have achieved the first conclusive non-invasive measurement of neural signaling in the spinal cords of healthy human volunteers. (2014-08-05)

Training with states of matter search algorithm enables neuron model pruning
The approximate logic neuron model (ALNM) is a single neural model with a dynamic dendritic structure. The ALNM uses a neural pruning function to eliminate unnecessary dendrite branches and synapses during training, but use of the backpropagation algorithm restricted the ALMN. A team including a researcher from Kanazawa University implemented a heuristic optimization method called the states of matter search (SMS) algorithm to train the ALMN, and produced superior performance in six benchmark classification problems. (2018-11-02)

Georgia State neuroscientists rewire brain of 1 species to have connectivity of another
Scientists at Georgia State University have rewired the neural circuit of one species and given it the connections of another species to test a hypothesis about the evolution of neural circuits and behavior. (2017-06-01)

Immune cells sculpt circuits in the brain
Brain immune cells, called microglia, protect the brain from infection and inflammation. It turns out that they also sculpt circuits in the developing brain in response to sensory cues. (2020-09-14)

Scientists find that neurological changes can happen due to social status
Researchers at Georgia State University have discovered that in one species of freshwater crustaceans, social status can affect the configuration of neural circuitry. (2012-04-19)

Researchers optimize methods to study neurons during motor activity
Researchers have optimized the techniques for studying motor learning in order to repeatedly assess the activity of neurons for days, weeks, or even months. These sophisticated approaches allow the further characterization of the neurons that are continuously engaged during motor activity and normal behavior. (2016-03-09)

Catherine Dulac, Cori Bargmann are co-recipients of 11th Perl-UNC Neuroscience Prize
The Perl prize carries a $10,000 award and is given to recognize a seminal achievement in neuroscience. Past recipients have included four subsequent winners of the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine. (2011-04-12)

Spinal cord findings could help explain origins of limb control
Northwestern University researchers have found that the spinal cord circuits that produce body bending in swimming fish are more complicated than previously thought. In a study of zebrafish, they report that differential control of an animal's musculature -- the basic template for controlling more complex limbs, such as in humans -- is already in place in the spinal networks of simple fish. The data could help clarify how vertebrates made the transition from water to land. (2014-01-09)

A new genetic marker for schizophrenia
Japanese scientists find a rare genetic variant that shows strong association with schizophrenia. (2017-09-11)

Transplanting human nerve cells into a mouse brain reveals how they wire into brain circuits
A team of researchers led by Pierre Vanderhaeghen and Vincent Bonin (VIB-KU Leuven, Université libre de Bruxelles and NERF) showed how human nerve cells can develop at their own pace, and form highly precise connections with the surrounding mouse brain cells. These findings shed new light on the unique features of the human brain and open new perspectives for brain repair and the study of brain diseases. (2019-11-21)

Neural circuits underlying fly larval locomotion
In recent decades, larval fruit flies have generally been considered as a promising model to examine neural locomotor circuits. Drosophila larval locomotion offers a valuable opportunity to link genes to behavior, and also link sensory inputs to motor outputs in cellular and molecular resolution. This review article will provide a brief introduction to Drosophila larval locomotion for researchers who are new to the field and curious about what tiny maggots tell us. (2016-12-15)

Follow the genes: Yale team finds clues to origin of autism
Finding major new clues to the origins of autism, a Yale-led team of researchers has pinpointed which cell types and regions of the developing human brain are affected by gene mutations linked to autism. (2013-11-21)

Max Planck Florida study reveals cortical circuits that encode black and white
While some things may be 'as simple as black and white', this has not been the case for the circuits in the brain that make it possible to distinguish black from white. The patterns of light and dark that fall on the retina provide a wealth of information about the world around us, yet scientists still don't understand how this information is encoded by neural circuits. But things just got a lot clearer. (2015-11-18)

Wonder what drives protein cravings? This study will satiate your curiosity
Researchers have identified the neural circuit that drives protein cravings in fruit flies. (2017-05-04)

Silencing brain cells with yellow and blue light
Neuroscientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have developed a powerful new class of tools to reversibly shut down brain activity using different colors of light. When targeted to specific neurons, they could potentially lead to new treatments for abnormal brain activity associated with disorders including chronic pain, epilepsy, brain injury and Parkinson's disease. (2010-01-06)

Birth gets the brain ready to sense the world
Neurons that process sensory information are arranged in precise, well-characterized maps that are crucial for translating perception into understanding. A study reveals that the actual act of birth in mice causes a reduction in a brain chemical called serotonin in the newborn mice, triggering sensory maps to form. The findings shed light on the role of a dramatic environmental event in the development of neural circuits and reveal that birth prepares newborns for survival. (2013-10-14)

New technique reveals limb control in flies -- and maybe robots
A new neural recording technique developed by EPFL bioengineers enables for the first time the comprehensive measurement of neural circuits that control limb movement. Tested on the fruit fly, results from the technique may inspire the development of more sophisticated robotic control approaches. (2018-10-22)

Cracking the Neural Code: Third Annual Aspen Brain Forum
One of the greatest challenges in neuroscience today is deciphering how the activity of individual neurons and neuronal circuits gives rise to higher order cognition and behavior. This meeting will bring together leading researchers working at the forefront of systems and computational neuroscience to discuss cutting-edge developments in our quest to crack the neural code. Plenary talks will include advances in tools, technologies, imaging, informatics, and computational models for mapping neural networks. (2012-05-01)

Competition between brain cells spurs memory circuit development
Scientists at the University of Michigan Health System have for the first time demonstrated how memory circuits in the brain refine themselves in a living organism through two distinct types of competition between cells. (2011-06-23)

Sea slug provides new way of analyzing brain data
Scientists say our brains may not be as complicated as we once thought -- and they're using sea slugs to prove it. (2015-03-26)

Scientists use light to map neurons' effects on one another
Scientists at Harvard University have used light and genetic trickery to trace out neurons' ability to excite or inhibit one another, literally shedding new light on the question of how neurons interact with one another in live animals. (2009-12-17)

Developing neural circuits linked to hunting behavior
Researchers demonstrated the relationship between improvements in zebrafish's hunting skills and the development of sensory coding in a part of the brain which responds to visual stimuli. (2020-07-23)

Brain plasticity: Changes and resets in homeostasis
In an article published in the June 25 edition of the journal Neuron, researchers at the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, have found that synaptic plasticity, long implicated as a device for (2009-06-25)

New research sheds light on neural circuit development
Using multiphoton imaging, researchers are now able to move beyond characterizing the properties of individual cells to investigate how communication among neurons changes over the course of development. In their paper published in Nature Neuroscience in January, researchers at Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience and Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies report substantial developmental changes in communication among cells that significantly improve the information processing capabilities of the brain. (2015-02-03)

Controlling brain circuits with light
F1000 Biology Reports, the open-access, peer-reviewed journal from Faculty of 1000, today published a historical account of the beginnings of the optogenetic revolution by Edward Boyden. (2011-05-03)

Changing behavior through synaptic engineering
Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Medical School are the first to show that it's possible to reverse the behavior of an animal by flipping a switch in neuronal communication. (2015-09-08)

Refining optogenetic methods to map synaptic connections in the brain
A fundamental question in neuroscience is how neuronal circuits give rise to brain function, as disruptions in these connections can lead to brain disorders. Translating the rules governing the functional organization of neural circuits requires knowledge of the synaptic connections among identified classes of neurons as well as the strength and dynamics of these connections. Researchers from MPFI optimized optogenetics to map the neural circuits of the brain of rodents with single neuron resolution. (2016-08-19)

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