Neuron Current Events

Neuron Current Events, Neuron News Articles.
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Scientist awarded $2 million to study role of single neurons in memory and aging
A scientist from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) has been awarded approximately $2 million from the National Institutes of Health to study the impact of aging and age-related disease on the inner workings of a single type of nerve cell. Ronald Davis, chair of the Department of Neuroscience at TSRI, is the principal investigator for the five-year grant. (2015-12-16)

Yale scientists discover new technique for studying living cells, furthering knowledge of diseases like Parkinson's
Yale researchers have developed a new method for recording the electrical activities within living cells, which could lead to better treatment for diseases like Parkinson's, and provide clues to how learning occurs. (1999-11-10)

Inducing non-REM sleep in mice by novel optogenetical control technique
Associate Professor Akihiro YAMANAKA from National Institute for Physiological Sciences (NIPS), succeeded in suppressing only the activity of the orexin neurons in the mice's brains (hypothalamus) when the optical switch was on, using the light-activated protein, halorhodopsin (eNpHR). Those mice fell into non-REM sleep (slow-wave sleep) only when the halorhodopsin-expressed orexin neurons were exposed to the light. It is reported in the Journal of Neuroscience published by the Society for Neuroscience. (2011-07-20)

A turbo engine for tracing neurons
Putting a turbo engine into an old car gives it an entirely new life -- suddenly it can go further, faster. That same idea is now being applied to neuroscience, with a software wrapper that can be used on existing neuron tracing algorithms to boost their ability to handle not just big, but enormous sets of data. The wrapper, called UltraTracer, is highlighted this month in Nature Methods. (2017-04-27)

Lobachevsky University scientists create a neurochip for replacing damaged areas of the brain
Lobachevsky University researchers are working to create a neurochip capable of transmitting a signal to healthy brain cells. The neurochip can be used in devices intended to replace damaged parts of the brain. First experiments have been conducted to transmit signals from an artificial neuron to living cells of the brain slice, demonstrating the possibility of interfacing between them. (2017-12-05)

Researchers have identified a gene with a key role in neuronal survival
Researchers at the Institute of Neurosciences at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona identified the fundamental role played by the Nurr1 gene in neuron survival associated with synaptic activity. The discovery, published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, allows scientists to study a new target that could help to understand the relationship between alterations in neural connections, which are known to cause early cognitive deficit, and the neurodegeneration characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. (2012-04-16)

Investigating the most common genetic contributor to Parkinson's disease
LRRK2 gene mutations are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the normal physiological role of this gene in the brain remains unclear. In a paper published in Neuron, Brigham and Women's Hospital principal investigator, Jie Shen, Ph.D., of the Department of Neurology, and her team describe an essential role of LRRK in the brain during aging that may help to shed light on the causes of PD in human patients. (2017-10-19)

Noveau neurons are better than no neurons at all
An artificial neuron built by researchers at U.C. San Diego may be the first step toward restoring brain function in patients suffering from stroke, Alzheimer's and other neurological dysfunction. (1999-10-31)

Neurons use chemical 'chords' to shape signaling
Researchers have discovered that neurons can use two different neurotransmitters that target the same receptor on a receiving neuron to shape the transmission of a nerve impulse. (2008-02-27)

Mouse model of neuromuscular disease identifies key player in motor neuron death
Scientists have created a new mouse model for SBMA. This study examines the pathology and points to a possible therapeutic strategy for this and other motor neuron diseases. The researchers determined that the abnormal androgen receptor in transgenic mice interfered with production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that is important for the health and survival of motor neurons. Interestingly, VEGF could rescue SBMA-like motor neurons grown in the laboratory. (2004-03-03)

Communication breakdown: Early defects in sensory synapses in motor neuron disease
New research using a mouse model of the motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) reveals an abnormality in the way that sensory information is relayed to motor neurons in the spinal cord. Importantly, this disruption in communication occurs very early in disease progression and precedes the neuronal death and muscle weakness that are the hallmark of the disease. (2011-02-09)

Zebrafish study offers insights into nerve cell repair mechanisms
Scientists at the University of Edinburgh have discovered that a hormone called serotonin -- better known for its role as a mood booster -- can help zebrafish to recover from a spinal cord injury. The findings could aid research into motor neuron disease and paralysis caused by spinal cord injury. (2015-10-22)

Alzheimer's infects from neuron to neuron
The inexorable spread of Alzheimer's disease through the brain leaves dead neurons and forgotten thoughts in its wake. Researchers at Linköping University in Sweden are the first to show how toxic proteins are transferred from neuron to neuron. (2012-06-26)

Mechanism of nicotine's learning effects explored
While nicotine is highly addictive, researchers have also shown the drug to enhance learning and memory -- a property that has launched efforts to develop nicotine-like drugs to treat cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (2007-04-04)

Mirror neuron system functions normally in autism
New research suggests that a brain system called the mirror neuron system, previously implicated as being dysfunctional in autism appears to function normally in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study, published by Cell Press in the May 13 issue of the journal Neuron, argues that difficulties in social communication experienced by individuals with ASD are caused by neural abnormalities other than a mirror neuron system dysfunction. (2010-05-12)

Pain neuron may protect fungal inflammation and bone destruction
Scientists discovered unexpected functions of pain neuron. Pain neuron may inhibit fungi-induced osteo-inflammation via CGRP-Jdp2 axis. (2017-06-29)

Yale scientists decipher odor code
Yale scientists, working with the fruit fly as a model, have discovered how odors are encoded by the olfactory system into the complex messages that are sent to the brain. Elissa Hallem and John Carlson individually substituted each of the 32 odor receptor into flies with an (2004-06-25)

Brain encodes complex plumes of odors with a simple code
In the real world, odors don't happen one puff at a time. Animals move through, and subsequently distort, plumes of odor molecules that constantly drift, changing direction as the wind disperses them. Now, by exploring how animals smell odors under naturalistic conditions, Rockefeller University scientist Maria Neimark Geffen and her colleagues reveal that the brain encodes these swirling, and complex patterns of molecules using surprisingly little neural machinery. The findings suggest a new theory of how animals smell. (2009-02-25)

What gives bees their sweet tooth?
Scientists have discovered bees linger on a flower, emptying it of nectar, because they have sugar-sensing taste neurons which work together to prolong the pleasure of the sweetness. (2018-05-10)

Athleticism and body weight tied to ALS and other motor neuron diseases
Patients with motor neuron disease, including ALS, were significantly more likely to been slim and to have been varsity athletes, according to a new study conducted by Nikolaos Scarmeas and a team of epidemiologists from Columbia University. The study is published in the latest issue of Neurology, the American Academy of Neurology's scientific journal. (2002-09-09)

Full detonation in the hippocampus
Altering synaptic plasticity leads to a computational switch in a hippocampal synapse: the presynaptic neuron turns into 'detonator' mode, causing its postsynaptic partner to fire more readily. This new insight into information processing in the brain by Nicholas Vyleta, previously a postdoc at IST Austria and now at Oregon Health & Science University, Carolina Borges-Merjane, postdoc at IST Austria, and Peter Jonas, professor at IST Austria, was published in the open-access journal eLife on Oct. 25. (2016-11-09)

Tau disrupts neural communication prior to neurodegeneration
A new study is unraveling the earliest events associated with neurodegenerative diseases characterized by abnormal accumulation of tau protein. The research, published by Cell Press in the Dec. 22 issue of the journal Neuron, reveals how tau disrupts neuronal communication at synapses and may help to guide development of therapeutic strategies that precede irreversible neuronal degeneration. (2010-12-22)

Blame your noisy brain for misses and fumbles
No matter how much we practice a given movement, it will still be imperfect. The reason for this frustration, according to a new study by neuroscientists at Duke University, is in how we sense the world. A given individual neuron varies in its activity even when we see exactly the same scene, producing a certain kind of brain noise that affects our responding movements. (2016-03-10)

Molecular mechanism links stress with predisposition for depression
A new study provides insight into how stress impacts the brain and may help to explain why some individuals are predisposed to depression when they experience chronic stress. The research, published by Cell Press in the Jan. 27 issue of the journal Neuron, reveals complex molecular mechanisms associated with chronic stress and may help to guide new treatment strategies for depression. (2011-01-26)

Preserving nerve cells in motor neuron disease
A team of researchers, reporting in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, has identified a way to prevent symptom onset, weight loss and paralysis, and extend survival in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease), providing a new avenue of research for the development of therapeutics for ALS and other motor neuron diseases. (2010-09-20)

Changing size of neurons could shed light on new treatments for motor neurone disease
New research published in The Journal of Physiology improves our understanding of how motor nerve cells (neurons) respond to motor neurone disease, which could help us identify new treatment options. (2018-03-04)

Functional motor neuron subtypes generated from embryonic stem cells
Scientists have devised a method for coaxing mouse embryonic stem cells into forming a highly specific motor neuron subtype. The research, published by Cell Press in the Sept. 3 issue of the journal Cell Stem Cell, provides new insight into motor neuron differentiation and may prove useful for devising and testing future therapies for motor neuron diseases. (2010-09-02)

Decreased levels of binding gene affect memory and behavior
Reducing the activity of a gene called FKBP12 in the brains of mice affected neuron-to-neuron communication (synapse) and increased both fearful memory and obsessive behavior, indicating the gene could provide a target for drugs to treat diseases such as autism spectrum disorder, obsessive-compulsive disease and others, said researchers from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston in a report in the current issue of the journal Neuron. (2008-12-10)

New Understanding About Process of Learning and Memory
The discovery of a protein's role in the process of memory and learning could lead to the development of new treatments for people with Alzheimer's disease and learning disorders, according to a study in the Feb. 27 issue of Science. (1998-02-27)

Fruit fly neuron can reprogram itself after injury
Studies with fruit flies have shown that the specialized nerve cells called neurons can rebuild themselves after injury. These results, potentially relevant to research efforts to improve the treatment of patients with traumatic nerve damage or neurodegenerative disease, will be presented at the American Society for Cell Biology 49th Annual Meeting, Dec. 5-9, 2009, in San Diego. (2009-12-06)

Neurons show distinct styles as they interact with the same muscle partner
A study in the Journal of Neuroscience shows a newfound diversity in how cells talk to the muscle they innervate, revealing that the subclasses of neurons have distinct propensities for change, or 'plasticity'. (2020-07-07)

Decoding the causes of motor neuron disease: A new study shows the impact of genetics
Researchers from Trinity College Dublin have conducted the largest ever study involving 1117 people diagnosed with motor neurone disease to address the question of ''nature versus nurture'' in the causes of MND. The team from the Trinity MND Research Group found that one in 347 men and one in 436 women can be expected to develop motor neurone disease (MND) during their lifetime. Their research has been published in the American medical journal JAMA Neurology. (2019-07-24)

Stabilizing force for good communication between neurons and muscle cells found
Stabilizing force for good communication between neurons and muscle cells found You can't raise a finger without your brain directing muscle cells, and scientists have figured out another reason that usually works so well. (2008-10-09)

Artifical neuron mimicks function of human cells
Scientists at Sweden's Karolinska Institutet have managed to build a fully functional neuron by using organic bioelectronics. This artificial neuron contain no 'living' parts, but is capable of mimicking the function of a human nerve cell and communicate in the same way as our own neurons do. (2015-06-24)

Silicon 'neurons' may add a new dimension to computer processors
Research from the McKelvey School of Engineering shows that energy constraints on a system, coupled with an intrinsic property of systems, push silicon neurons to create a dynamic, at-a-distance communication that is more robust and efficient than traditional computer processors. And it may teach us something about biological brains. (2020-06-04)

Spinal cord axon injury location determines neuron's regenerative fate
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report a previously unappreciated phenomenon in which the location of injury to a neuron's communication wire in the spinal cord -- the axon -- determines whether the neuron simply stabilizes or attempts to regenerate. The study, published April 30 by Neuron, demonstrates how advances in live-imaging techniques are revealing new insights into the body's ability to respond to spinal cord injuries. (2015-04-30)

Zeroing in on the brain's speech 'receiver'
A particular resonance pattern in the brain's auditory processing region appears to be key to its ability to discriminate speech, researchers have found. They found that the inherent rhythm of neural activity called (2007-06-20)

Physicists negate century-old assumption regarding neurons and brain activity
Neurons are the basic computational building blocks that compose our brain. According to the neuronal computational scheme used for over a century, each neuron functions as a centralized excitable element. Using new types of experiments on neuronal cultures, scientists have demonstrated that this assumption regarding brain activity is mistaken. Their results call for a re-examination of neuronal functionalities beyond the traditional framework and, in particular, for an examination into the origin of degenerative diseases. (2017-12-21)

Can viral infections cause ALS? AIDS virus causes treatable form of ALS
The AIDS virus can cause a form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease, that can improve or even resolve with treatment, according to articles published in the September 25 issue of Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Acdemy of Neurology. (2001-09-24)

Brain's inertial navigation system pinpointed
Researchers have discovered a sophisticated neural computer, buried deep in the cerebellum, that performs inertial navigation calculations to figure out a person's movement through space. (2007-06-20)

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