Olfactory Current Events

Olfactory Current Events, Olfactory News Articles.
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Neurons that fire alike are connected in the olfactory map
Filling a notable gap in scientists' understanding of how cells respond to 'smells' and signal to underlying neurons, researchers report that the activated cell receptors cause their cells not simply to fire, but to fire in specific patterns. (2019-06-06)

NanoCAGE reveals transcriptional landscape of the mouse main olfactory epithelium
The problem in biology of how to identify the promoters of olfactory receptor genes has remained unsolved due to the difficulty of purifying sufficient material from the olfactory epithelium. Researchers at the RIKEN Omics Science Center, collaborating with scientists from Italy, Norway, the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany, have now solved this problem using nanoCAGE technology, which enables comprehensive analysis of transcription start sites from tiny biological samples. (2012-01-05)

Study reports patient-reported loss of smell in 86% of mild COVID-19 cases
A reduced sense of smell, or olfactory dysfunction, is one of the most common symptoms of COVID-19. A recent study published the Journal of Internal Medicine has examined it prevalence and recovery in patients with varying degrees of severity of COVID-19. (2021-01-06)

Sensory deprivation reduces new cell size in the olfactory system
Sensory deprivation causes changes in new cell size and excitability in the olfactory system, giving new insight into how stem cells in the olfactory system may be used to restore function. (2005-04-06)

Olfactory bulb size may change as sense of smell changes
The olfactory bulb in the brain appears to change in size in a way that corresponds to individual alterations in sense of smell, according to a report in the June issue of Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. (2008-06-16)

SARS-CoV-2 infection of non-neuronal cells, not neurons, may drive loss of smell in patients with COVID-19
A new study of human olfactory cells has revealed that viral invasion of supportive cells in the nasal cavity might be driving the loss of smell seen in some patients with COVID-19. The findings show that non- (2020-07-24)

Mechanism elucidated: How smell perception influences food intake
A research team led by Giovanni Marsicano, a Inserm Research Director at Unit 862 (NeuroCentre Magendie, Bordeaux), has succeeded in elucidating how the endocannabinoid system controls food intake through its effects on the perception of smells. These results are due to appear in the journal Nature Neuroscience on February 9, 2014. (2014-02-10)

Biosensor sniffs out explosives
Temple University School of Medicine researchers have developed a new biosensor that sniffs out explosives and could one day be used to detect landmines and deadly agents, such as sarin gas, according to a paper in the June issue of Nature Chemical Biology. (2007-05-08)

Talented sniffer: A receptor known for guiding sperm to egg plays a role in the nose
Researchers have found that a human olfactory receptor protein previously shown to act in sperm, where it appears to help guide sperm to the egg during fertilization, is also expressed in human olfactory tissues in the nose and functions in our sense of smell. This remarkable dual capacity marks a functional range previously unknown for mammalian olfactory receptor proteins. (2004-10-04)

Sensory experience and rest control survival of newborn neurons in adults
Now, new research published by Cell Press in the September 8 issue of the journal Neuron reveals that both olfactory experience during feeding and a subsequent period of rest contribute to both the likelihood that a new olfactory neuron will escape elimination and be incorporated into existing circuitry. (2011-09-07)

Late, but not too late -- screening for olfactory dysfunction
In a large population-based study of randomly selected participants in Germany, researchers found that participants aged 65-74 years with olfactory dysfunction showed impaired cognitive performance. Interestingly, this strong association was not present in younger (55-64 years) or older (75-86 years) participants. Additionally, the effect was more present in women than men. (2018-04-20)

Olfactory system matures in different stages
Full development of the sense of smell in mammals is dependent on functional activity during critical periods in development. (2004-06-15)

Gene regulation behind the choice of the correct receptor for olfaction
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have uncovered the genetics behind two distinct types of olfactory sensory neurons; the so called 'class I olfactory neurons' that has persisted from aquatic to terrestrial animals and the 'class II olfactory neurons' that only terrestrial animals possess. (2019-08-16)

How a baby's nose knows Mom's scent
For newborn mammals, including humans, identifying Mom by her odor can be critical to maternal bonding and survival. However, researchers have not understood how this odor identification develops. Now, the researchers report that this process develops in basically the same way that newborns' developing visual systems learn to recognize the world. That is, during a critical early period, the infant's olfactory circuitry wires itself as a result of experiencing Mom's odor. (2005-07-06)

Olfactory receptors have more functions than merely smell perception
Numerous studies to date have shown that olfactory receptors are relevant not only for smell perception, but that they also play a significant physiological and pathophysiological role in all organs. An overview of receptors detected so far and of the functions they fulfil within the human body is provided by researchers from Ruhr-Universit├Ąt Bochum, published in the journal Physiological Reviews;. (2018-07-16)

It smells fishy: Copper prevents fish from avoiding danger
Fish fail to detect danger in copper-polluted water. A new study, to be presented at the meeting of the Society for Experimental Biology on July 5, shows that fish cannot smell a danger odor signal emitted by other fish in waters contaminated with copper. (2013-07-04)

Impaired sense of smell increases risk for certain hazards
Patients with an impaired or absent sense of smell are at risk for experiencing certain hazards that may have been avoided with an intact sense of smell, according to an article in the March issue of The Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. (2004-03-15)

Few genes control neuronal function
How are 100 billion cells created, each with specific duties? The human brain is evidence that nature can achieve this. Researchers at Linkoping University in Sweden have now taken a step closer to solving this mystery. (2012-03-14)

Nostrils alternate to process competing odors
When the nose encounters two different scents simultaneously, the brain processes them separately through each nostril in an alternating fashion. This finding by researchers at Rice University in Houston is the first demonstration of (2009-08-20)

Sandalwood scent facilitates wound healing and skin regeneration
Skin cells possess an olfactory receptor for sandalwood scent, as researchers at the Ruhr-Universit├Ąt Bochum have discovered. Their data indicate that the cell proliferation increases and wound healing improves if those receptors are activated. This mechanism constitutes a possible starting point for new drugs and cosmetics. (2014-07-08)

The female nose always knows: Do women have more olfactory neurons?
Using a new method called isotropic fractionator, a group of researchers has found biological evidence that may explain the superior olfactory abilities that women have over men. (2014-11-05)

Study of birds' sense of smell reveals important clues for behavior and adaptation
A large comparative genomic study of the olfactory genes tied to a bird's sense of smell has revealed important differences that correlate with their ecological niches and specific behaviors. (2015-07-29)

Gene therapy restores sense of smell in mice
Re-expressing a protein critical for the detection and perception of odors restores function of the olfactory system in a genetic mouse model of lost hair-like cellular structures known as cilia, according to research published in JNeurosci. This may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for a group of human diseases that can cause loss of smell. (2018-07-30)

A new defender for your sense of smell
New research from the Monell Center increases understanding of a mysterious sensory cell located in the olfactory epithelium, the patch of nasal tissue that contains odor-detecting olfactory receptor cells. The findings suggest that the so-called microvillous cells (MVCs) may protect the vulnerable olfactory epithelium by detecting and initiating defenses against viruses, bacteria, and other potentially harmful invaders. (2018-09-18)

This myth smells fishy
When listing animals with a keen sense of smell, people are not likely to place their own species, humans, at the top, perhaps picking rabbits or dogs instead. But in this Review, John McGann points to evidence, from a variety of research efforts, that the belief that humans have an inferior sense of smell may be more a remnant of an old myth than a hypothesis based on fact. (2017-05-11)

Odorants enhance survival of olfactory neurons
Research reveals olfactory sensory neurons exhibit activity-dependent survival, which may be critical for animals to retain responsiveness to odorants. The research found a signaling pathway linked to neuronal survival in the CNS plays a role in odor-enhanced survival of olfactory neurons. (2004-03-24)

'Perfume' lures flies into trap
A Groningen research team has investigated how flies react to the odours of such things as old pork, bread and chicken manure. The findings will be used to develop more effective flytraps, for example for use in stables. (2001-05-29)

Study offers clue to memory formation in the brain
In a new study published on July 5 in Neuron, a research group led by Professor CAO Peng of the Institute of Biophysics (IBP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences provides some clues as to memory formation in the brain. (2017-07-06)

Fish courtship pheromone uses the brain's smell pathway
Research at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Japan has revealed that a molecule involved in fish reproduction activates the brain via the nose. The pheromone is released by female zebrafish and sensed by smell receptors in the noses of the males. The neural pathway and brain areas involved in transforming this molecular messenger into courtship behavior in fish were also identified and reported in Nature Neuroscience on May 30. (2016-05-30)

Hunting microbes or smelling poison: A matter of evolution
Mammals possess several lines of defense against microbes. One of them is activated when receptors called Fprs bind to specific molecules that are linked to pathogens. The same receptors are also present in the nose of mice, probably to detect contaminated food or sick conspecifics. Researchers from the University of Geneva describe in the journal PNAS how Fprs have acquired this olfactory role during rodent evolution, moving from the immune system to a neuronal system. (2017-06-26)

Researchers find biological clock for smell in mice
Biologists at Washington University in St. Louis have discovered a large biological clock in the smelling center of mice brains and have revealed that the sense of smell for mice is stronger at night, peaking in evening hours and waning during day light hours. A team led by Erik Herzog, Ph.D., of Washington University, discovered the clock in the olfactory bulb, the brain center that aids the mouse in detecting odors. (2006-12-18)

Mice that 'smell' light could help us better understand olfaction
Harvard University neurobiologists have created mice that can (2010-10-17)

Odor coding in mammals is more complex than previously thought
A new study in the Journal of General Physiology shows that the contribution of odorant receptors to olfactory response in mammals is much more complex than previously thought, with important consequences for odorant encoding and information transfer about odorants to the brain. The study appears online on Oct. 25. (2010-10-25)

Parkinson's disease involves degeneration of the olfactory system
Scientists discover the anatomical link for the loss of smell in Parkinson's disease. (2017-09-28)

Smelling for first time results from knowing abnormalities in congenital loss of smell
New discoveries about the biochemical basis of the majority of cases of the congenital inability to smell any odor, no matter how strong, have enabled their discoverer, Dr. Robert I. Henkin, director of the Taste and Smell Clinic in Washington, D.C., to treat such patients, enabling them to smell something for the first time in their lives. (2007-04-30)

Lessons from the fly brain improve search algorithms
To develop better search algorithms for images and data, a group of researchers has turned to the fruit fly brain. (2017-11-09)

GW researcher awarded NIH grant to identify molecular mechanisms to predict neurological and psychiatric diseases
Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, Ph.D., professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Director of the GW Institute for Neuroscience in the School of Medicine and Health Sciences has been awarded a grant from the National Institutes of Health to identify molecular mechanisms that define embryonic olfactory epithelium stem cells. (2011-12-12)

The brain is more adept at using the nose than previously realized
Brains are able to adjust automatically to the demands of distinguishing between small differences in smell, new research at the University of Chicago shows. The research, which was conducted on rats, suggests that the human brain may be more adept at distinguishing smells than previously thought. (2007-04-27)

Loss of smell linked to increased risk of early death
In a study of adults aged 40 to 90 years who were followed for 10 years, poor smell was linked with an increased risk of dying. (2017-03-22)

Olfactory bulb stem cells and Lou Gehrig's disease
Johns Hopkins researchers have found that transplants of mouse stem cells taken from the adult brain's olfactory bulb can delay symptoms and death in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's disease. They are scheduled to present their findings Oct. 24 at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in San Diego. (2004-10-24)

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