Pathogen Current Events

Pathogen Current Events, Pathogen News Articles.
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Bird bacteria study reveals evolutionary arms race
A study of a songbird and a bacterium that infects it has revealed how species in conflict evolve in response to each other. (2018-09-06)

Salmonella survives better in stomach due to altered DNA
Since 1995 there has been a considerable increase in the number of infections with a specific type of Salmonella bacteria transmitted via food. This type, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104, is resistant to at least five different antibiotics. Dutch researcher Armand Hermans found new genetic information in DNA of DT104 that might be involved in its survival and infection mechanism. This genetic information might also be involved in the increase in the number of infections caused by this pathogen. (2007-01-30)

Pathogen strains competing for the same host plant change disease dynamics
The epidemics caused by co-infection of several pathogen strains in a plant population is more severe than epidemics caused by single strains. (2015-01-08)

Irish potato famine-causing pathogen even more virulent now
The plant pathogen that caused the Irish potato famine in the 1840s lives on today with a different genetic blueprint and an even larger arsenal of weaponry to harm and kill plants. (2013-07-18)

A new study examines how shared pathogens affect host populations
A study, to appear in the July 2005 issue of The American Naturalist, by Volker H. W. Rudolf and Janis Antonovics provides an important conceptual counterexample to the idea that sharing pathogens necessarily affects host populations negatively. They show that if there is frequency-dependent transmission, a host can be rescued from pathogen-mediated extinction by the presence of a second host with which it shares a pathogen. (2005-04-28)

What role do genome variations play in tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2016, this was the most common causative pathogen for death by infectious diseases. Therefore, investigating the biology of infection and disease development is important in the quest to end tuberculosis. In this study, the authors conducted an integrative analysis of human and pathogen genome variations in tuberculosis. The study is published in Springer Nature's Journal of Human Genetics. (2017-09-07)

Evolution favours new diseases of 'intermediate' severity
New epidemic diseases have an evolutionary advantage if they are of ''intermediate'' severity, research shows. (2020-11-11)

Researchers propose ecological route to plant disease control
New research involving a scientist at the University of York has revealed a potential natural defense against invasive pathogens which damage food crops across the world. (2015-09-24)

Protecting the rice bowl: Chromosomal mapping of the rice blast fungus
In the August issue of Genome Research, Heng Zhu, Ralph Dean, and colleagues report an important step towards defeating the depredations of rice disease: construction of the first complete physical map of a rice pathogen chromosome. (1999-08-16)

Marine pathogens spread much faster than their terrestrial counterparts
It has become increasingly clear that pathogen epidemics are as significant a component of marine systems as they are in terrestrial systems. At an NCEAS working group on Diseases in the Ocean, McCallum et al collated data on epidemic spread from both environments. Their analysis in Ecology Letters, December, shows marine epidemics spread about 100 times faster than comparable terrestrial epidemics, warning that emerging diseases may pose particularly severe threats to marine ecosystems. (2003-11-24)

Novel effector biology research provides insights into devastating citrus greening disease
Ma and her colleagues at the University of California and the University of Florida used molecular plant pathology approaches to dissect the mechanisms of the ongoing tug-of-war between the citrus host and the bacterial pathogen that causes citrus greening disease. (2021-01-21)

Virginia Bioinformatics Institute researcher receives USDA functional genomics grant
Brett Tyler, a research professor at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute (VBI) and a Virginia Tech professor of plant pathology, physiology, and weed science, has been awarded a three-year, $980,000 grant from the US Department of Agriculture to identify the ways in which the plant pathogen Phytopthora sojae overcomes the defenses of its host soybean. (2005-07-12)

Porin-like proteins sneak nutrients through Mycobacterium tuberculosis' waxy defensive walls
Explaining how slow-growing tuberculosis bacteria acquire nutrients across their membranes, without also becoming vulnerable to drugs that target them, researchers report a crucial role in this for a family of porin-like proteins in the bacteria's notoriously tough, waxy coating. (2020-03-05)

Study reveals how bacteria beat immune systems
The evolution of more severe infections is not necessarily driven by bacteria multiplying faster, new research shows. (2019-07-29)

The South American origins and spread of the Irish potato famine pathogen
Using some ancient DNA detective work, a new study led by University of California Berkeley postdoctoral researcher Mike D. Martin and University of Copenhagen professor Tom Gilbert has linked the culprit behind the 19th-century Irish potato famine, which was transported to Europe in the 1840s, to a fungus-like organism that originated in South America. (2015-11-17)

A new method is designed to stop the growth of a fungus that affects over a hundred crops
The study, published in Nature, was able to 'trick' the pathogen by artificially applying a pheromone involved in its reproduction (2019-09-30)

Short-term moisture removal can eliminate downy mildew of spinach
Scientists at the University of Arkansas explored the relationship between available moisture and disease establishment and in a recent article they demonstrated that removing moisture decreased both spore survival and disease. Even a 30-minute dry period reduced spore germination to almost zero. Spores were unable to recover and cause disease on spinach. (2020-11-02)

Opened up new channels for antibacterial therapies to combat respiratory infections
A piece of research led by the Agrobiotechnology Institute (IdAB) used a pioneering methodology to identify bacterial components involved in the infection caused by a pathogen that colonises the respiratory tracts of people with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). This discovery, which is the outcome of work in collaboration with three North American universities, will enable new channels to be opened up to develop antibacterial therapies that can be applied in respiratory infections. (2016-07-20)

Researcher discovers pathway plants use to fight back against pathogens
Plants are not only smart, but they also wage a good fight, according to a University of Missouri biochemist. Previous studies have shown that plants can sense attacks by pathogens and activate their defenses. However, it has not been known what happens between the pathogen attacks and the defense activation, until now. A new MU study revealed a very complex process that explains how plants counter attack pathogens. This discovery could potentially lead to crops with enhanced disease resistance. (2008-03-31)

To grow or to defend: How plants decide
Plant hormones called brassinosteroids help plants choose the best survival strategy depending on their stage of growth and environmental pressures. (2014-01-01)

Gene regulation: Can we stomach it?
A breakthrough in decoding gene regulation of Helicobacter pylori has been made by an international research team led by Jorg Vogel of the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin. Using a newly developed sequencing technique, the researchers discovered 60 small ribonucleic acids -- tiny RNA-particles which can regulate genes -- in the genome of this human pathogen. These findings could facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies against this widespread pathogen. (2010-02-23)

Gene hunters tackle crop diseases
Scientists are on the trail of some of the most economically damaging organisms that infect crops worldwide. Their latest targets are the parasitic water fungus that causes powdery mildew and the water molds that cause late blight in potatoes and tomatoes and downy mildew in cruciferous vegetables and other crops. (2010-12-09)

Discovery of a new protein gives insight into a long-standing plant immunity mystery
''Our research suggests that Mai1 has a central role in immunity that likely can not be substituted by other proteins,'' according to first author Robyn Roberts. ''Not only does this work give us better insight into how plants defend themselves on the molecular level, but this work reveals a key protein that is broadly involved in immunity. It is possible that Mai1 could serve as a target for crop improvement in the future.'' (2019-12-06)

Link between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis
Rates of both periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease are elevated in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. New research published in Arthritis & Rheumatology suggests that immune responses to certain bacteria that cause periodontal disease may play a role in patients' higher cardiovascular disease risk. (2020-11-18)

"Winter is coming": The influence of seasonality on pathogen emergence
Seasonal fluctuations drive the dynamics of many infectious diseases. For instance, the flu spreads more readily in winter. Two scientists from the University of Nantes and the CNRS in Montpellier have developed a mathematical model to predict the risk of the emergence of an epidemic, depending on the time of the year at which the pathogen is introduced. (2020-07-21)

How the cholera bacterium survives water predators
EPFL scientists have deciphered mechanisms that help the cholera bacterium to survive grazing predators in aquatic environments. (2018-08-27)

Using population genetics, scientists confirm origins of root rot in Michigan ornamentals
Floriculture is an economically important industry in Michigan. The health of these crops is threatened by Pythium ultimum (root rot), a water mold that infects the roots of popular plants. Despite efforts to control of pathogen, root rot occurs annually for many growers. This study confirmed for the first time that the root rot pathogen is likely moved unnoticed within the state via infected plant material as early symptoms of root rot are easily overlooked. (2019-06-03)

Why we get diarrhea
In a new study from Brigham and Women's Hospital, investigators explore the immune mechanism that drives diarrhea, concluding that it plays a critical role in pathogen clearance in the early stages of infection (2017-06-14)

Infectious ants become antisocial
IST Austria researchers published the cover story in the theme issue in this week's Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B with colleagues from the Helmholtz Center in Munich. Combining experiments and epidemiological modeling, scientists explore how cleaning behavior affects disease spread in societies. (2015-04-14)

National Science Foundation, USDA to fund mapping of plant-devouring mold gene
The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) have jointly awarded $2.3 million to the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech to sequence the genomes of two species of Phytophthora, a plant pathogen whose name means (2002-10-16)

Resist the resistance: fighting the good fight against bacteria
Drug-resistant bacteria could lead to more deaths than cancer by 2050, according to a report commissioned by the United Kingdom in 2014 and jointly supported by the U.K. government and the Wellcome Trust. In an effort to reduce the potential infection-caused 10 million deaths worldwide, Penn State researcher Scott Medina has developed a peptide, or small protein, that can target a specific pathogen without damaging the good bacteria that bolsters the immune system. (2021-01-06)

'Imperfect drug penetration' speeds pathogens' resistance, study finds
Prescribing patients two or more drugs that do not reach the same parts of the body could accelerate a pathogen's resistance to all of the drugs being used in treatment, according to new research published today. The research finds that in instances of 'imperfect drug penetration,' a pathogen can develop resistance one drug at a time. The results have implications for doctors and other health professionals considering which drug combinations to prescribe. (2015-05-18)

African swine fever: No risk to consumers
The African swine fever (ASF) that is currently rife in Europe does not pose a health hazard to humans. 'The ASF pathogen cannot be transferred to humans,' explains Professor Dr. Andreas Hensel, President of the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR). 'No risk to health is posed by direct contact with diseased animals or from eating food made from infected domestic pigs or wild boar.' (2018-09-26)

Sanitary care by social ants shapes disease outcome
Sanitary care in ants to fight disease is known to improve the wellbeing of the colony, yet it has been unclear how social disease defense interferes with pathogen competition inside the individual host body. In their recent study published in Ecology Letters, Sylvia Cremer and her research group at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) revealed that collective care-giving has the power to bias the outcome of coinfections in fungus-exposed colony members. (2020-01-17)

Evolution of the fungus that is devastating wheat crops
Wheat blast fungus is a pathogen that has been devastating wheat crops in South America since the mid-1980s and recently caused heavy yield losses in Asia. An international research team has clarified the evolutionary steps that led to the spread of this pathogen. (2017-07-18)

How cellular structure orchestrates immunologic memory
With every infection or vaccination, memory cells form that the body uses to remember the pathogen. This has been known for decades -- but the structure of this cellular immunologic memory has previously proven impossible to pin down. Researchers from the University of Basel and University Hospital Basel have now identified a microanatomical region in memory cells that enables them to work rapidly in the first few hours of an immune response, as they report in the journal Immunity. (2018-03-08)

Resistance to Fusarium head blight holding in Illinois, study says
Illinois wheat growers, take heart. A new University of Illinois study shows no evidence of a highly toxic Fusarium head blight (FHB) variant, known as NA2, in the wheat-growing region of the state. The study also reinforces the effectiveness of wheat resistance to the fungal disease. (2019-05-30)

A deadly fungus afflicting amphibians arose in Korea, spread via human trade
The origins of a deadly fungus, which for decades has contributed to a global decline of numerous amphibian populations, has been traced to the Korean peninsula, a new study reports. The data provide a more complete picture of how the fungus spread from region to region, and underscore how, over the past century, human trade of amphibian species has accelerated the spread of the disease. (2018-05-10)

Insect vector feeding recognized by machine learning
Scientists have used machine learning algorithms to teach computers to recognize the insect feeding patterns involved in pathogen transmission. The study, published in PLOS Computational Biology, also uncovers plant traits that might lead to the disruption of pathogen transmission and enable advances in agriculture, livestock and human health. (2016-11-10)

Karnal bunt struggles to spread without large numbers
Airborne spores from Karnal bunt fungus, which damages wheat crops, are limited in how well they can start new infections over long distances, according to the findings from a Kansas State University project. (2002-08-04)

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