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First reported UK case of sudden permanent hearing loss linked to COVID-19
Although uncommon, sudden permanent hearing loss seems to be linked to COVID-19 infection in some people, warn doctors, reporting the first UK case in the journal BMJ Case Reports. (2020-10-13)

Study finds remdesivir effective against a key enzyme of coronavirus that causes COVID-19
Scientists at the University of Alberta have shown that the drug remdesivir is highly effective in stopping the replication mechanism of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, according to new research published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry. The paper follows closely on research published by the same lab in late February that demonstrated how the drug worked against the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) virus, a related coronavirus. (2020-04-13)

Institut Pasteur isolates strains of coronavirus 2019-nCoV detected in France
As well as sequencing the whole genome of coronavirus 2019-nCoV, the Institut Pasteur continued to work on the samples taken from the first confirmed cases. The quality of these initial samples enabled rapid cell-culture isolation of the new virus. The Institut Pasteur's scientists now have access to the virus responsible for the infection. The isolation of the virus paves the way for new diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic approaches. (2020-01-31)

Potential new drug to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection consequences
Researchers at the University of Malaga study how '4-PBA' treatment modulates the inflammatory response in severe cases of COVID-19 (2020-09-18)

Signs of MERS coronavirus found in dromedary camels
Researchers searching for signs of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in livestock animals have found antibodies specific to the new virus in dromedary camels. The research, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, suggests that these animals have encountered MERS-CoV, or a closely related virus, and may be one reservoir of the virus that is causing MERS in humans. (2013-08-08)

Exercise hormone may modulate genes associated with replication of novel coronavirus
Brazilian researchers observed that in uninfected adipocytes, the hormone irisin altered the expression of genes that regulate ACE-2, which encodes a protein to which the virus binds in order to invade human cells. (2020-09-22)

Cell response to new coronavirus unveils possible paths to treatments
IH-supported scientists used lab-grown human lung cells to study the cells' response to infection by a novel human coronavirus (called nCoV) and compiled information about which genes are significantly disrupted in early and late stages of infection. The information about host response to nCoV allowed the researchers to predict drugs that might be used to inhibit either the virus itself or the deleterious responses that host cells make in reaction to infection. (2013-04-30)

Patients who had more severe covid-19 may be the best donors for convalescent plasma therapy
Sex, age, and severity of disease may be useful in identifying COVID-19 survivors who are likely to have high levels of antibodies that can protect against the disease. (2020-10-19)

COVID-19 may trigger new diabetes, experts warn
Emerging evidence suggests that COVID-19 may actually trigger the onset of diabetes in healthy people and also cause severe complications of pre-existing diabetes. (2020-06-12)

Cleveland Clinic researchers identify melatonin as possible COVID-19 treatment
CLEVELAND - Results from a new Cleveland Clinic-led study suggest that melatonin, a hormone that regulates the sleep-wake cycle and is commonly used as an over-the-counter sleep aid, may be a viable treatment option for COVID-19. (2020-11-09)

Lab-grown mini-lungs mimic the real thing - right down to covid infection
A team of Duke researchers has developed a lab-grown living lung model that mimics the tiny air sacs of the lungs where coronavirus infection and serious lung damage take place. This advance has enabled Duke and UNC virologists to watch the battle between the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and lung cells at the finest molecular scale. In experiments so far, the mini lungs respond just like the real thing. (2020-10-22)

Researchers explore link between 'Alzheimer's gene' and COVID-19
A City of Hope-led research team found that the same gene that increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease, ApoE4, can increase the susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19. ''Our study provides a causal link between the Alzheimer's disease risk factor ApoE4 and COVID-19 and explains why some (e.g., ApoE4 carriers) but not all COVID-19 patients exhibit neurological manifestations'' said City of Hope's Yanhong Shi, Ph.D., co-corresponding author of the Cell Stem Cell study. (2021-02-03)

The genetic quest to understand COVID-19
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19 is now likely to become the fifth endemic coronavirus in humans. Professor Edward Holmes at the University of Sydney and colleagues are working to decipher its genome to help us stop other coronaviruses entering the human population. (2020-03-26)

Study results show COVID-19 virus triggers antibodies from previous coronavirus infections
The results of a study led by Northern Arizona University and the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), an affiliate of City of Hope, suggest the immune systems of people infected with COVID-19 may rely on antibodies created during infections from earlier coronaviruses to help fight the disease. (2021-01-21)

NSAIDs not associated with more severe coronavirus disease, study finds
The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen and diclofenac, is not associated with any adverse effects in people who have tested positive for COVID-19, according to a new study published September 8 in PLOS Medicine by Anton Pottegård of the University of Southern Denmark and colleagues from Aarhus University Hospital and the Danish Medicines Agency. (2020-09-08)

NIH study shows how MERS Coronavirus evolves to infect different species
New research published in Cell Reports from scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) shows how MERS-CoV can adapt to infect cells of a new species, which suggests that other coronaviruses might be able to do the same. (2018-08-14)

St. Jude develops vaccine against potential pandemic influenza virus H5N1 using reverse genetics
Scientists at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital announced today the development of a vaccine against H5N1, a new lethal influenza virus that triggered the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a pandemic alert in February 2003. The virus appeared in birds in Hong Kong late last year and subsequently killed one of two infected people with rapidly progressive pneumonia in the past month. (2003-04-02)

UTHSC researchers identify three drugs as possible therapeutics for COVID-19
Researchers at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center working with colleagues at the University of New Mexico have identified three drugs, already approved for other uses in humans, as possible therapeutics for COVID-19, the illness caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (2020-11-18)

SARS-CoV-2: New insights on antibody testing and RNA testing
Two types of tests are used to track SARS-CoV-2. Reverse transcriptase PCR (rt-PCR) tests for current infection. Antibody tests reveal that an infection has taken place, even long after the fact. Each of 2 papers published in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (JCM) addresses one of these testing modalities. (2020-06-22)

Freeze-framing the shape-shifting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein
The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the one our antibodies target, has two forms. New work provides a snapshot of both forms, with implications for COVID vaccines. (2020-07-21)

Experts call for Europe-wide COVID-19 targets
A group of more than 300 leading scientists across the globe are calling for European governments to work together in managing the pandemic and make a clear commitment to COVID-19 case number targets. (2020-12-18)

Kids mount a COVID-19 immune response without detection of the SARSCoV- 2 virus
Children in an Australian family developed a COVID-19 immune response after chronic exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus from their parents, a new case report has found. (2020-11-17)

Investigational COVID-19 vaccine well-tolerated, generates immune response in older adults
A Phase 1 trial of an investigational mRNA vaccine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection has shown that the vaccine is well-tolerated and generates a strong immune response in older adults. A report published today in the New England Journal of Medicine describes the findings from the study, which was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes COVID-19 disease. (2020-09-30)

A sulfur molecule to block the coronavirus
The cell membrane is impermeable to viruses: to get inside a cell, they have to exploit the biochemical properties of the membranes. The thiol-mediated uptake is one of the entry mechanisms. A research group from the University of Geneva has identified inhibitors of thhis cellular entry that block viruses expressing the SARS-CoV-2 proteins. The study paves the way for research into new antivirals. (2020-11-20)

Vaccine additives can enhance immune flexibility -- Implications for flu and SARS-CoV-2
A vaccine additive known as an adjuvant can enhance responses to a vaccine containing the exotic avian flu virus H5N1, so that both rookie and veteran elements of the immune response are strengthened, according to results from an Emory Vaccine Center study. (2020-07-16)

As businesses reopen, it's crucial we wear masks, safely distance
In a perspective piece published today in the journal Science, UC San Diego experts describe in detail the growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19, can be spread by asymptomatic people via aerosols -- a reality that deeply underscores the ongoing importance of regular widespread testing, wearing masks and physical distancing to reduce the spread of the virus. (2020-05-27)

New study suggests crucial role for lymphocytes in asymptomatic COVID-19 infection
A retrospective study of 52 COVID-19 patients, published this week in mSphere, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, may help researchers better understand why not everyone show symptoms of the disease. The study's authors found that asymptomatic patients hosted viral loads comparable to those of symptomatic patients, but asymptomatic patients showed higher levels of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell responsible for immune responses), cleared the viral particles faster, and had lower risks of long-term complications. (2020-10-14)

New small antibodies show promising effects against COVID-19 infection
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have developed, in collaboration with researchers in Germany and the US, new small antibodies, also known as nanobodies, which prevent the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus from entering human cells. The research study, published in Science, shows that a combined nanobody had a particularly good effect - even if the virus mutated. According to the researchers, the nanobodies have the potential to be developed into a treatment for COVID-19. (2021-01-12)

World research leaders gather in Finland to accelerate the development of bioactive paper
Researchers working to develop inexpensive paper that can destroy, deactivate and detect deadly pathogens, such as salmonella and SARS, will share their expertise at the first ever international conference on bioactive paper in Espoo, Finland, from June 24-26, 2008. (2008-06-19)

Curing coronavirus with curiosity
Cell biologist Carolyn Machamer, Ph.D is the Pew Charitable Trusts' biomedical researcher of the month for her creative work on coronaviruses. (2013-09-12)

New pig virus found to be a potential threat to humans
A recently identified pig virus can readily find its way into laboratory-cultured cells of people and other species, a discovery that raises concerns about the potential for outbreaks that threaten human and animal health. (2018-05-14)

Common antioxidant enzyme may provide potential treatment for COVID-19
Catalase, a naturally occurring enzyme, holds potential as a low-cost therapeutic drug to treat COVID-19 symptoms and suppress the replication of coronavirus inside the body. (2020-09-29)

Online tool helps estimate COVID's true toll on sub-Saharan Africa
Although early reporting portrayed sub-Saharan Africa as being largely spared from the coronavirus pandemic, an international team led by Princeton researchers reported that determining the true impact of the novel coronavirus in sub-Saharan Africa may be complicated by a tremendous variability in risk factors and obscured by surveillance challenges. The researchers developed an interactive online tool for estimating severe coronavirus infections per country based on the impact of various risk factors, such as chronic diseases and access to healthcare. (2021-02-17)

UofA lab uncovers new mechanism of action against SARS-CoV-2 by antiviral drug remdesivir
Researchers at the University of Alberta have discovered a novel, second mechanism of action by the antiviral drug remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2, according to findings published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry. The research team previously demonstrated how remdesivir inhibits the COVID-19 virus's polymerase or replication machinery in a test tube. (2020-09-23)

How SARS-CoV-2 mutates to escape antibody binding
A scientific detective story starting with a single patient in Pittsburgh unearths how the SARS-CoV-2 virus mutates to create new variants, including the UK strain B.1.1.7, and escapes neutralizing antibodies. (2021-02-03)

Tactics of new Middle East virus suggest treating by altering lung cells' response to infection
The deadly Human Coronavirus-Erasmus Medical Center, which first appeared April 2012 in the Middle East, is revealing its stronghold tactics. The virus dysregulates 207 lung cell genes to turn RNA levels up and down. The dysregulation makes it harder for cells to recognize the virus and also creates an environment for the virus to multiply. Currently available drugs are predicted to treat the infection by altering the infected cells' response, rather than killing the virus directly. (2013-04-30)

Telemedicine needed to diagnose and treat dysphagia in COVID-19 patients, doctors say
COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2, the virus behind the disease, have caused health care providers to change how they treat patients. Clinicians are now frequently using telemedicine to see their patients for routine checkups, saving office visits for emergencies. The same goes for rehabilitation. (2020-12-15)

COVID-19 study shows that men have over double the death rate of women
COVID-19 has drastically different effects on the infected, with some people displaying no symptoms, while others can die. It is still not completely understood why some people are more severely affected than others. A new study is the first to examine gender differences in COVID-19 patients and finds that men are over twice as likely to die compared with women. (2020-04-29)

Synthetic aperture radar may soon be used for reconnaissance on small UAVs
Researchers at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Sandia National Laboratories flew what is probably the world's smallest fine-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in May, making real-time images from the 6-kilometer range with a resolution of four inches. It was a first for the 25-pound instrument that may soon be used for reconnaissance on near-model-airplane-sized unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). (2005-06-21)

COVID-19 infection may be part of a 'perfect storm' for Parkinson's disease
Can COVID-19 infection increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease? That's the question posed by a new commentary published in the journal Trends in Neurosciences, which explores three known case studies of people developing Parkinson's-like symptoms in the weeks following infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. While rare, these cases provide important insights into potential long-term implications of infections. (2020-10-22)

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